400 metres hurdles
The 400 metres hurdles is a track and field hurdling event. The event has been on the Olympic athletics programme since 1900 for men, on a standard outdoor track,400 metres is the length of the inside lane, once around the stadium. Runners stay in their lanes the entire way after starting out of the blocks, the hurdles are positioned and weighted so that they fall forward if bumped into with sufficient force, to prevent injury to the runners. Although there is no longer any penalty for knocking hurdles over, runners prefer to clear them cleanly, the best male athletes can run the 400 m hurdles in a time of around 47 seconds, while the best female athletes achieve a time of around 53 seconds. The current mens and womens world record holders are Kevin Young with 46.78 seconds, compared to the 400 metres run, the hurdles race takes the men about three seconds longer and the women four seconds longer. The 400 m hurdles was held for both sexes at the inaugural IAAF World Championships in Athletics, the first championship for women came at the 1980 World Championships in Athletics – being held as a one-off due to the lack of a race at the 1980 Summer Olympics.
The first awards in a 400 m hurdles race were given in 1860 when a race was held in Oxford, while running the course, participants had to clear twelve wooden hurdles, over 100 centimetres tall, that had been spaced in even intervals. To reduce the risk of injury, somewhat more lightweight constructions were introduced in 1895 that runners could push over, the 400 m hurdles became an Olympic event at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, France. At the same time, the race was standardized so that virtually identical races could be held, as a result, the official distance was fixed to 400 metres, or one lap of the stadium, and the number of hurdles was reduced to ten. The official height of the hurdles was set to 91.4 cm for men and 76.20 cm for women, the first documented 400 m hurdles race for women took place in 1971. Many athletic commentators and officials have often brought up the idea of lifting the height of the womens 400 m hurdles to incorporate a greater requirement of hurdling skill.
This was the case at the World Championships in Seville and the problem can often be seen at international and national meetings. The 400m hurdle race one of the most demanding of all events in the sprint-hurdle group and it requires speed and hurdling technique all along with unique awareness and special concentration throughout the race. When preparing to hurdle, the blocks should be set so that the athlete arrives at the first hurdle leading on the desired leg without inserting a stutter step. A stutter step is when the runner has to chop his or her stride down to arrive on the leg for take off. At the beginning of the take-off, the knee must be driven toward the hurdle, the knee should be slightly bent when crossing the hurdle. Unless an athlete’s body has great flexibility, the knee must be bent to allow a forward body lean. Unlike the 110m hurdles, a significant forward body lean is not that necessary due to the hurdles being lower, the trail leg must be kept bent and short to provide a quick lever action allowing a fast hurdle clearance
International Association of Athletics Federations
The International Association of Athletics Federations is the international governing body for the sport of athletics. It was founded on 17 July 1912 as the International Amateur Athletic Federation by representatives from 17 national athletics federations at the organizations first congress in Stockholm, since October 1993, it has been headquartered in Monaco. Beginning in 1982, the IAAF passed several amendments to its rules to allow athletes to receive compensation for participating in international competitions. However, the organization retained the word amateur in its name until its 2001 congress, the IAAFs president is Sebastian Coe of the United Kingdom. He was elected at the 2015 congress before the 2015 World Championships in Athletics in Beijing, the process to found the IAAF was started at a meeting in Stockholm, Sweden on July 17,1912 soon after the completion of the 1912 Summer Olympics in that city. The congress that started on August 20,1913 in Berlin is when the foundation of the IAAF was formally completed, in 2015, a whistleblower leaked IAAFs blood test records from major competitions.
After reviewing the results, Robin Parisotto, a scientist and leading anti-doping expert, said, so many athletes appear to have doped with impunity, and it is damning that the IAAF appears to have idly sat by and let this happen. Craig Reedie, president of the World Anti-Doping Agency, said his organisation was very disturbed by these new allegations, which will, once again, shake the foundation of clean athletes worldwide, and that its independent commission will investigate the claims. On 1 November 2015, former IAAF president Lamine Diack was arrested in France and is under investigation on suspicion of corruption, Diack allegedly accepted $1.2 million from the Russian athletics federation to cover up the positive doping tests of at least six Russian athletes in 2011. The report continued that the IAAF allowed the conduct to occur and must accept its responsibility and that corruption was embedded in the organization. In January 2016, as a result of the scandal and WADAs report. The BBC reported that as a result the IAAF would lose $33 million worth of revenue, the 11-year sponsorship deal with Adidas was due to run until 2019.
World-record holding sprinter, Michael Johnson, described the scandal as more serious than that faced by FIFA, in February,2016, Nestle announced that it was ending its IAAF sponsorship. In June 2016, following a meeting of the IAAFs ruling council, in Ferbuary 2017, All-Russia Athletic Federation disqualified by decision of the IAAF Council for 8 years for the creation of a doping system. Since the establishment of the IAAF, it has had six presidents, The IAAF has a total of 215 member federations divided into 6 area associations
110 metres hurdles
The 110 metres hurdles, or 110-meter hurdles, is a hurdling track and field event for men. It is included in the programme at the Summer Olympic Games. The female counterpart is the 100 metres hurdles, as part of a racing event, ten hurdles of 1.067 metres in height are evenly spaced along a straight course of 110 metres. They are positioned so that they fall over if bumped into by the runner. Fallen hurdles do not carry a time penalty for the runners. Like the 100 metres sprint, the 110 metres hurdles begins in the starting blocks and it is occasionally referred to as the 110 meter high hurdles, to distinguish it from events at other distances that use lower hurdles. For the 110 m hurdles, the first hurdle is placed after a run-up of 13.72 metres from the starting line. The next nine hurdles are set at a distance of 9.14 metres from each other, the Olympic Games have included the 110 metre hurdles in their program since 1896. The equivalent hurdles race for women was run over a course of 80 metres from 1932 to 1968, starting with the 1972 Summer Olympics, the womens race was set at 100 metres.
In the early 20th century, the race was contested as 120 yard hurdles. The fastest 110 metre hurdlers run the distance in around 13 seconds, Aries Merritt of the United States holds the current world record of 12.80 seconds, set at the Memorial Van Damme meet on 7 September 2012 in Belgium. For the first hurdles races in England around 1830, wooden barriers were placed along a stretch of 100 yards. The first standards were attempted in 1864 in Oxford and Cambridge, The length of the course was set to 120 yards and over its course, the height and spacing of the hurdles have been related to Imperial units ever since. After the length of the course was rounded up to 110 metres in France in 1888, the massively constructed hurdles of the early days were first replaced in 1895 with somewhat lighter T-shaped hurdles that runners were able to knock over. However, until 1935 runners were disqualified if they knocked down more than three hurdles, and records were only recognized if the runner had left all hurdles standing.
In 1935 the T-shaped hurdles were replaced by L-shaped ones that easily fall forward if bumped into, however those hurdles are weighted so it is disadvantageous to hit them. The 110 metre hurdles have been an Olympic discipline since 1896, women ran it occasionally in the 1920s but it never became generally accepted. From 1926 on, women have only run the 80 metre hurdles which was increased to 100 metres starting in 1961 on a trial basis and in 1969 in official competition
Qatar, officially the State of Qatar, is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Its sole land border is with Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its surrounded by the Persian Gulf. A strait in the Persian Gulf separates Qatar from the island country of Bahrain, as well as sharing maritime borders with the United Arab Emirates. Following Ottoman rule, Qatar became a British protectorate in the early 20th century until gaining independence in 1971, Qatar has been ruled by the House of Thani since the early 19th century. Sheikh Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani was the founder of the State of Qatar, Qatar is a hereditary monarchy and its head of state is Emir Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani. Whether it should be regarded as a constitutional or a monarchy is a matter of opinion. In 2003, the constitution was approved in a referendum. In early 2017, Qatars total population was 2.3 million,313,000 Qatari citizens and 2.6 million expatriates, Qatar is a high income economy and is a developed country, backed by the worlds third largest natural gas reserves and oil reserves.
The country has the highest per capita income in the world, Qatar is classified by the UN as a country of very high human development and is the most advanced Arab state for human development. Qatar is a significant power in the Arab world, supporting several rebel groups during the Arab Spring both financially and through its globally expanding media group, Al Jazeera Media Network. For its size, Qatar wields disproportionate influence in the world, Qatar will host the 2022 FIFA World Cup, becoming the first Arab country to do so. A century later, Ptolemy produced the first known map to depict the peninsula, the map referenced a town named Cadara to the east of the peninsula. The term Catara was exclusively used until the 18th century, after which Katara emerged as the most commonly recognised spelling, the modern derivative Qatar was adopted as the countrys name. In Standard Arabic, the name is pronounced, while in the local dialect it is, Human habitation of Qatar dates back to 50,000 years ago.
Settlements and tools dating back to the Stone Age have been unearthed in the peninsula, Mesopotamian artefacts originating from the Ubaid period have been discovered in abandoned coastal settlements. Al Daasa, a settlement located on the western coast of Qatar, is the most important Ubaid site in the country and is believed to have accommodated a small seasonal encampment. Kassite Babylonian material dating back to the second millennium BC found in Al Khor Islands attests to trade relations between the inhabitants of Qatar and the Kassites in modern-day Bahrain, among the findings were 3,000,000 crushed snail shells and Kassite potsherds. It has been suggested that Qatar is the earliest known site of shellfish dye production, in 224 AD, the Sasanian Empire gained control over the territories surrounding the Persian Gulf
Fukuoka is the capital city of Fukuoka Prefecture, situated on the northern shore of the Japanese island of Kyushu. It is the most populous city on the island, followed by Kitakyushu and it is the largest city and metropolitan area west of Keihanshin. The city was designated on April 1,1972, by government ordinance, Greater Fukuoka, with 2.5 million people, is part of the heavily industrialized Fukuoka–Kitakyushu zone as well as Northern Kyushu. As of 2015, Fukuoka is Japan’s fifth largest city, having passed the population of Kobe, as of July 2011, Fukuoka passed the population of Kyoto. Since the founding of Kyoto in 794, this marks the first time that a city west of the Kinki region has a population than Kyoto. In ancient times, the area near Fukuoka, the Chikushi region, was thought by historians to have possibly been even more influential than the Yamato region. Exchanges from the continent and the Northern Kyushu area date as far back as Old Stone Age and it has been thought that waves of immigrants arrived in Northern Kyushu from mainland Asia.
Fukuoka was sometimes called the Port of Dazaifu, Dazaifu was an administrative capital in 663 A. D. but a historian proposed that a prehistoric capital was in the area. Ancient texts, such as the Kojiki and archaeology confirm this was a critical place in the founding of Japan. Some scholars claim that it was the first place outsiders and the Imperial Family set foot, Fukuoka is sometimes still referred to as Hakata, the central ward of the city. In 923, the Hakozaki-gū in Fukuoka was transferred from Daibu-gū in Daibu the origin of Usa Shrine, in Ooho, there are remains of a big ward office with a temple, because in ancient East Asia, an emperor must have three great ministries. In fact, there is a record in Chinese literature that a king of Japan sent a letter in 478 to ask the Chinese emperors approval for employing three ministries, in addition, remains of the Korokan were found in Fukuoka underneath a part of the ruins of Fukuoka Castle. Kublai Khan of the Mongol Empire turned his attention towards Japan starting in 1268, Kublai Khan first sent an envoy to Japan to make the Shogunate acknowledge Khans suzerainty.
Mongolia repeatedly sent envoys thereafter, each time urging the Shogunate to accept their proposal, in 1274, Kublai Khan mounted an invasion of the northern part of Kyushu with a fleet of 900 ships and 33,000 troops, including troops from Goryeo on the Korean Peninsula. This initial invasion was compromised by a combination of incompetence and severe storms, after the invasion attempt of 1274, Japanese samurai built a stone barrier 20 km in length bordering the coast of Hakata Bay in what is now the city of Fukuoka. The wall, 2–3 metres in height and having a width of 3 metres, was constructed between 1276 and 1277, and was excavated in the 1930s. Kublai sent another envoy to Japan in 1279, at that time, Hōjō Tokimune of the Hōjō clan was the Eighth Regent. Not only did he decline the offer, but he beheaded the five Mongolian emissaries after summoning them to Kamakura, Kublai organized another attack on Fukuoka Prefecture in 1281, mobilizing 140,000 soldiers and 4,000 ships