Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, culture of everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order and change or social evolution. While some sociologists conduct research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, others focus on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro-sociology level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure; the different traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, secularization, sexuality and deviance. As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has expanded its focus to other subjects, such as health, economy and penal institutions, the Internet, social capital, the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge.
The range of social scientific methods has expanded. Social researchers draw upon a variety of quantitative techniques; the linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-20th century led to interpretative and philosophic approaches towards the analysis of society. Conversely, the end of the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s have seen the rise of new analytically and computationally rigorous techniques, such as agent-based modelling and social network analysis. Social research informs politicians and policy makers, planners, administrators, business magnates, social workers, non-governmental organizations, non-profit organizations, people interested in resolving social issues in general. There is a great deal of crossover between social research, market research, other statistical fields. Sociological reasoning predates the foundation of the discipline. Social analysis has origins in the common stock of Western knowledge and philosophy, has been carried out from as far back as the time of ancient Greek philosopher Plato, if not before.
The origin of the survey, i.e. the collection of information from a sample of individuals, can be traced back to at least the Domesday Book in 1086, while ancient philosophers such as Confucius wrote about the importance of social roles. There is evidence of early sociology in medieval Arab writings; some sources consider Ibn Khaldun, a 14th-century Arab Islamic scholar from North Africa, to have been the first sociologist and father of sociology. The word sociology is derived from both Greek origins; the Latin word: socius, "companion". It was first coined in 1780 by the French essayist Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès in an unpublished manuscript. Sociology was defined independently by the French philosopher of science, Auguste Comte in 1838 as a new way of looking at society. Comte had earlier used the term social physics, but that had subsequently been appropriated by others, most notably the Belgian statistician Adolphe Quetelet. Comte endeavoured to unify history and economics through the scientific understanding of the social realm.
Writing shortly after the malaise of the French Revolution, he proposed that social ills could be remedied through sociological positivism, an epistemological approach outlined in The Course in Positive Philosophy and A General View of Positivism. Comte believed a positivist stage would mark the final era, after conjectural theological and metaphysical phases, in the progression of human understanding. In observing the circular dependence of theory and observation in science, having classified the sciences, Comte may be regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. Comte gave a powerful impetus to the development of sociology, an impetus which bore fruit in the decades of the nineteenth century. To say this is not to claim that French sociologists such as Durkheim were devoted disciples of the high priest of positivism, but by insisting on the irreducibility of each of his basic sciences to the particular science of sciences which it presupposed in the hierarchy and by emphasizing the nature of sociology as the scientific study of social phenomena Comte put sociology on the map.
To be sure, beginnings can be traced back well beyond Montesquieu, for example, to Condorcet, not to speak of Saint-Simon, Comte's immediate predecessor. But Comte's clear recognition of sociology as a particular science, with a character of its own, justified Durkheim in regarding him as the father or founder of this science, in spite of the fact that Durkheim did not accept the idea of the three states and criticized Comte's approach to sociology. Both Auguste Comte and Karl Marx set out to develop scientifically justified systems in the wake of European industrialization and secularization, informed by various key movements in the philosophies of history and science. Marx rejected Comtean positivism but in attempting to develop a science of society came to be recognized as a founder of sociology as the word gained wider meaning. For Isaiah Berlin, Marx may be regarded as the "true father" of modern sociology, "in so far as anyone can claim the title."To have given clear and unified answers in familiar empirical terms to those theor
Grunge is a rock music genre and subculture that emerged during the mid-1980s in the Pacific Northwest U. S. state of Washington in Seattle and nearby towns. The early grunge movement revolved around Seattle's independent record label Sub Pop and the region's underground music scene. By the early 1990s its popularity had spread, with grunge bands appearing in California emerging in other parts of the United States and in Australia, building strong followings and signing major record deals. Grunge was commercially successful in the early to mid-1990s, due to releases such as Nirvana's Nevermind, Pearl Jam's Ten, Soundgarden's Badmotorfinger and Alice in Chains' Dirt; the success of these bands boosted the popularity of alternative rock and made grunge the most popular form of rock music at the time Although most grunge bands had disbanded or faded from view by the late 1990s, they influenced modern rock music, as their lyrics brought conscious issues into pop culture and added introspection and an exploration of what it means to be true to oneself.
Grunge was an influence on genres such as post-grunge and nu metal. Grunge fuses elements of punk rock and heavy metal, featuring the distorted electric guitar sound used in both genres, although some bands performed with more emphasis on one or the other. Like these genres, grunge uses electric guitar, bass guitar, a drummer and a singer. Grunge incorporates influences from indie rock bands such as Sonic Youth. Lyrics are angst-filled and introspective addressing themes such as social alienation, self-doubt, neglect, betrayal and emotional isolation, psychological trauma and a desire for freedom. A number of factors contributed to grunge's decline in prominence. During the mid-to-late 1990s, many grunge bands became less visible. Nirvana's Kurt Cobain, labeled by Time as "the John Lennon of the swinging Northwest", appeared unusually tortured by success and struggled with an addiction to heroin before he died by suicide at the age of 27 in 1994; the term "grunge" was first recorded as being applied to Seattle musicians in July 1987 when Bruce Pavitt described Green River's Dry as a Bone EP in a Sub Pop record company catalogue as "gritty vocals, roaring Marshall amps, ultra-loose GRUNGE that destroyed the morals of a generation".
Although the word "grunge" has been used to describe bands since the 1960s, this was the first association of grunge with the grinding, sludgy sound of Seattle. It is expensive and time consuming to get a recording to sound clean, so for those northwestern bands just starting out it was cheaper for them to leave the sound dirty and just turn up their volume; this dirty sound, due to low budgets, unfamiliarity with recording, a lack of professionalism may be the origin of the term "grunge". The "Seattle scene" refers to that city's alternative music movement, linked to the University of Washington and the Evergreen State College. Evergreen State was a progressive college which did not use grading and which had its own alternative music radio station. Seattle's remoteness from Los Angeles led to a perceived purity of its music; the music of these bands, many of which had recorded with Seattle's independent record label Sub Pop, became labeled as "grunge". The term "Seattle sound" became a marketing ploy for the music industry.
In September 1991, the Nirvana album Nevermind was released, bringing mainstream attention to the music of Seattle. Nirvana's frontman Kurt Cobain loathed the word "grunge" and despised the new scene, developing, feeling that record companies were signing old "cock-rock" bands who were pretending to be grunge and claiming to be from Seattle; some bands associated with the genre, such as Soundgarden, Pearl Jam and Alice in Chains, have not been receptive to the label, preferring instead to be referred to as "rock and roll" bands. Ben Shepherd from Soundgarden stated that he "hates the word" grunge and hates "being associated with it." Seattle musician Jeff Stetson states that when he visited Seattle in the late 1980s and early 1990s as a touring musician, the local musicians did not refer to themselves as "grunge" performers or their style as "grunge" and they were not flattered that their music was being called "grunge". Rolling Stone noted the genre's lack of a clear definition. Robert Loss acknowledges the challenges of defining "grunge".
Roy Shuker states that the term "obscured a variety of styles." Stetson states that grunge was not a movement, "monolithic musical genre", or a way to react to 1980s-era metal pop. Stetson states. Mark Yarm, author of Everybody Loves Our Town: An Oral History of Grunge, pointed out vast differences between grunge bands, with some being punk and others being metal-based. In 1984 the punk rock band Black Flag went visiting small towns across the US to bring punk to the more remote parts of the country. By this time their music had become slow and sludgy, less like the Sex Pistols and more like Black Sabbath. Krist Novoselic recalls going along with the Melvins to see one of these shows, after which the Melvins front man Buzz Osborne began writing'slow and heavy riffs to form a dirge-like music, the beginning of northwest grunge; the Melvins were the most influential of the early grunge bands. Sub Pop producer Jack Endino described grunge as "seventies-influenced, slowed-down p
Westphalia is a region in northwestern Germany and one of the three historic parts of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It has an area of 7.9 million inhabitants. The region is identical to the Province of Westphalia, a part of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1815 to 1918 and the Free State of Prussia from 1918 to 1946. In 1946, Westphalia merged with the Northern Rhineland, another former part of Prussia, to form the newly created state of North Rhine-Westphalia. In 1947, the state with its two historic parts was joined by a third one: Lippe, a former principality and free state. All of the seventeen districts and nine independent cities of Westphalia and Lippe's only district are members of the Westphalia-Lippe Regional Association. Previous to the formation of Westphalia as a province of Prussia and state part of North Rhine-Westphalia, the term "Westphalia" was applied to different territories of different sizes such as a part of the ancient Duchy of Saxony, the Duchy of Westphalia or the Kingdom of Westphalia.
The Westphalian language, a variant of the German language, spreads beyond Westphalia's borders into southwestern Lower Saxony and northwestern Hesse. Being a part of the North German Plain, most of Westphalia's north is flat. In the south the German Central Uplands emerge. Westphalia is divided into the following landscapes. Flat to hilly: East Westphalia, Münsterland, eastern Ruhr Metropolitan Area, Tecklenburg Land, Westphalian Hellweg Hilly to mountainous: Westphalian part of the Sauerland, Wittgenstein Westphalia is the region in between the rivers Rhine and Weser, located both north and south of the Ruhr River. Other important rivers are the Lippe; the Langenberg and the Kahler Asten in the Sauerland part of the Rothaar Mountains are Westphalia's and North Rhine-Westphalia's highest mountains. The term "Westphalia" contrasts with the much less used term "Eastphalia", which covers the southeastern part of the present-day state of Lower Saxony, western Saxony-Anhalt and northern Thuringia.
Westphalia is divided into three governmental districts. These are subdivided into independent cities. All districts and independent cities of the governmental districts of Arnsberg and Münster are considered to be a part of Westphalia as a historic region; the District of Lippe as successor of the Free State of Lippe in the Governmental District of Detmold is rather considered to be a separate historic region. The traditional symbol of Westphalia is the Westphalian Steed: a white horse on a red field, it is derived from the Saxon Steed in the coat of arms of the medieval Duchy of Saxony which most of today's Westphalia was part of. In official contexts the coat of arms of Westphalia is being used by the Westphalia-Lippe Regional Association, which represents these two historic parts of North Rhine-Westphalia; the coat of arms of North Rhine-Westphalia uses the Westphalian Steed to represent Westphalia as one of its parts alongside the Lippish Rose representing Lippe and the Rhine River representing the Northern Rhineland.
Prussia used the Westphalian Steed in the coat of arms of its Province of Westphalia. The coat of arms of Lower Saxony uses a different version of the Saxon Steed since the state covers large parts of the Old Saxons' duchy; the colors of Westphalia are red. The flag of the Westphalia-Lippe Regional Association uses these colors with the Westphalian coat of arms in its center; the flag of North Rhine-Westphalia is a combination of the Northern Rhineland's colors green/white and the Westphalian white/red. The flag of the Prussian Province of Westphalia displayed the colors white and red; the flag of Lower Saxony shows the colors of the Saxon Steed. Composed in Iserlohn in 1886 by Emil Rittershaus, the Westfalenlied is an unofficial anthem of Westphalia. While the Northern Rhineland and Lippe are different historic territories of today's North Rhine-Westphalia, the old border between the former Rhine Province and the Province of Westphalia is a language border. While in Westphalia and Lippe, people tend to speak West Low German dialects and the Westphalian variant of the Low German language, Central German and Low Franconian dialects are being spoken in the Northern Rhineland.
These different regional identities are being emphasized by different majorities of denomination between Roman Catholics and Lutheran Protestants. The different majorities date back to the days of the territorial fragmentation of the Holy Roman Empire which existed until 1806; the Münsterland and the region around Paderborn for instance are still Catholic regions because of the former existence of the prince-bishoprics of Münster and Paderborn. The Lutheran Lippe was able to retain its independence as a small state within Germany in the form of a principality until 1918 and as a free state until 1946; this continues to influence the identity of its people who distinguish themselves from neighboring regions such as East Westphalia. In addition to these historic and religious aspects, there are some regional differences in culture and mentality; that is why many of the citizens of North Rhine-Westphalia rather see themselves either as "Rhinelanders", "Westphalians" or "Lippers" rather than as "North Rhine-Westphalians".
Westphalia is known for the 1648 Peace of Westphalia which ended the Thirty Years' War, as the two treaties were signed in Münster and Osnabrück. It is one of the regions that were part of all incarnations of the German state since the Early M
Bernd Begemann is a contemporary German alt/pop singer-songwriter linked to the Hamburger Schule. Begemann's biological parents were a man from Turkey and a woman from Germany, although Begemann admits he does not know. In 1963, he was adopted by Bernhard Begemann at the age of six months. By the end of the 1970s, in his hometown of Bad Salzuflen he had become a 15-year-oldmath? punk. His first band, founded in 1979, was a punk rock band with the "real rebel name", "Vatikan"; the members of this band were Frank Jacobs and Martin Stammeier. From the middle to the end of the 1980s he was part of the Pop-music label "Fast Weltweit", it was found by Achim Knorr, Andreas Henning, Frank Spilker and Frank Werner. They released singles and cassette tape samplers, such as Jochen Distelmeyer's "Bienenjäger" with Thomas Wenzel and the first Die Sterne single. With his connection to "Fast Weltweit", Bernd never released any records with them; when he was 20, Begemann moved to Hamburg to create the band known as Die Antwort.
With Die Antwort, Begemann would be able to do the music he's always desired. This made the "Hamburg-Ostwestfalen-Verbindung". 1988 was the year that it happened: Die Antwort released its first CD. Produced for 150,000 german marks, the CD flopped because, according to some people, the band's "image was too hard for their soft sound". Die Antwort broke up as a band. With respect to his musical attitude, Begemann said: "I only make music because nobody can speak for me. I'm the only one. That's why being punk doesn't just mean drinking cheap beer and puking on the sidewalk." Albums Unsere Liebe ist ein Aufstand Glanz Ich erkläre diese Krise für beendet Singles Ich habe nichts erreicht außer dir Albums This Road Doesn't Lead to My House Anymore So geht das jede Nacht Albums Rezession, Baby! Solange die Rasenmäher singen Sexy Sadie Jetzt bist du in Talkshows Sag Hallo zur Hölle Live Endlich Ich werde sie finden Ich erkläre diese Krise für beendet Wilde Brombeeren Eine kurze Liste mit Forderungen Singles Rezession, Baby!
Viel zu glücklich Zweimal zweite Wahl Bis Du den richtigen triffst – nimm mich Albums Die Antwort # 1 Hier Eine einfache Lösung Die Antwort Singles Unten wann wann Sie haben alles verkauft Morgen tut es Dir leid Meine Jahre mit Elisabeth Taylor Oh ja / Oh Nein Was macht Miss Juni im Dezember Ich habe mich rasiert Ein Abschied zuviel ^ BB: "Ich mache nur Musik, weil niemand für mich sprechen kann. Das kann nur ich selbst tun! Punk heißt nämlich gar nicht Dosenbier trinken und in die Fußgängerzone kotzen." Bernd Begemann Website Literature by and about Bernd Begemann in the German National Library catalogue