Adnan Kapau Gani
Adnan Kapau Gani abbreviated as A. K. Gani, was an Indonesian politician. Born in West Sumatra, he spent much of his youth in Java, where he studied medicine and became involved with the nascent nationalist movement before going to South Sumatra to work as a doctor. During the Indonesian National Revolution he served three terms as Minister of Welfare. Afterwards Gani went to Palembang, South Sumatra, where he remained active in politics until his death. In November 2007 Gani was made a National Hero of Indonesia. Gani was born in Palembajan, West Sumatra, west of Bukittinggi, on 16 September 1905; the son of a teacher, he finished his early studies in Bukittinggi in 1923 before going to Batavia, first for his secondary studies and to study medicine. He graduated from STOVIA, a school for prospective doctors, in 1926. From his teens Gani was active in social organisations, he was a member of several groups for native youth, including Jong Sumatera. By the late 1920s he had several enterprises running, including book reseller.
This revenue enabled him to donate funds to the Youth Congress of 1928, where the Youth Pledge was first read and "Indonesia Raya" was first played. In 1931 he joined Partindo, which had split off from the Indonesian National Party shortly after Sukarno's arrest by the colonial government. Gani became acquainted with Sukarno after the latter's release from prison the following year and joined the Indonesian Political Federation with him. Long interested in theatre, in 1941 Gani starred in Union Film's Asmara Moerni after being invited by the film's director, Rd. Ariffien. At the time the country's film industry was beginning to cater to well-educated audiences. Although some of the audience considered Gani's involvement in Asmara Moerni as besmirching the independence movement, Gani considered it necessary to improve how the people viewed local productions; the film, the only one Gani made, was a commercial success. That year Gani received his medical degree. After the Japanese occupied the Indies in 1942, Gani refused to collaborate.
As such, he was held until October of the following year. He spent the rest of the occupation as a private practitioner. After the country's independence and during the ensuing revolution, Gani gained greater political power while serving with the military. From 1945 to 1947 he was the commissioner for the PNI in South Sumatra serving on that party's board, he coordinated military efforts in the province. He considered Palembang a viable economic powerhouse for the newly independent nation, arguing that with oil they could gather international support, he negotiated sales with international interests, including the Dutch-owned Shell while smuggling weapons and military supplies past the Dutch blockade. He had numerous connections in the Chinese community in Singapore, which assisted him in these tasks. From 2 October 1946 until 27 June 1947 Gani served as Minister of Welfare under Sutan Sjahrir in the prime minister's third cabinet. While serving as minister of welfare Gani, with Sjahrir and Mohammad Roem, served as the Indonesian delegation to the third plenary session for the Linggadjati Agreement, becoming a signatory on 25 March 1947.
He worked to establish a national banking network, the BTC, as well as several trade organisations. With Amir Sjarifuddin and Setijadji, Gani was a formateur for the new cabinet, which received its mandate on 3 July, he stayed on as Minister of Welfare while serving as a deputy prime minister under Sjarifuddin. Gani was the first cabinet member arrested during Operation Product, a Dutch assault on Indonesian-held territory in mid-July, but was released, he attended a trade conference in Havana, Cuba. In Sjarifuddin's second cabinet, Gani continued to serve as a deputy prime minister and minister of welfare until the cabinet collapsed on 29 January 1948 owing to dissatisfaction with the Renville Agreement. After the revolution ended in 1949, Gani became the Military Governor of South Sumatra. In 1954, while still involved in politics as minister of transportation in the First Ali Sastroamidjojo Cabinet, he became the rector of Sriwijaya University in Palembang, he was buried in Siguntang Heroes' Cemetery in Palembang.
Gani was survived by Masturah. On 9 November 2007, President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono gave Gani the title National Hero of Indonesia. Footnotes Bibliography
Imogiri is a royal graveyard complex in Yogyakarta, in south-central Java, Indonesia, as well as a modern village located near the graveyard in Bantul Regency. Imogiri is a traditional resting place for the royalty of central Java, including many rulers of the Sultanate of Mataram and of the current houses of Surakarta and Yogyakarta Sultanate; the name Imagiri is derived from Sanskrit Himagiri, which means'mountain of snow'. The latter is another name for Himalaya; the Royal Graveyard that preceded was Kota Gede. The graveyard was constructed by Sultan Agung of Mataram in the years of his reign in the 1640s; the graveyard is a significant pilgrimage ziarah site on significant dates in the Javanese calendar, the Islamic calendar. It belongs to a larger network of significant locations in Javanese pilgrimage traditions, it is the only major location remaining in Java where the Palaces of Surakarta and Yogyakarta have personnel manning a jointly administered royal graveyard. Among the site's most prominent graves are that of early Mataram ruler Sultan Agung, Sultan of Yogyakarta Hamengkubuwono IX, a leader during Indonesia's war for independence.
The most recent is that of Pakubuwana XII of Surakarta, buried in 2004. Folklore collected by Pranata in the 1970s, suggest that unusual stones in the steps preceding Sultan Agung's section of the graveyard cover the remains of Jan Pieterszoon Coen, which were stolen from the grave of 1629 in Batavia during the Siege of Batavia; the Imogiri complex is separated into three parts, named Giriloyo and Imogiri. Traditionally it is accepted. In some local folklore, Sultan Agung had commenced work on his own graveyard at Giriloyo - but because his uncle Juminah died at the graveyard, Agung was guided by various portents to choose his graveyard on a hill some three kilometres to the southwest, at Imogiri. A ruler, needing to bury outcasts in a graveyard separate from Giriloyo and Imogiri, chose Banyusumurup as an appropriate site; however it is possible to find rivals and enemies within Javanese royal families buried within metres of each other inside the walls of Imogiri. The Imogiri complex has had ongoing renovations since initial construction, due to exposure to tropical rain and weather, most materials at the graveyard have requires continual upkeep.
Pakubuwono X during his reign spent a large amount of money on upgrading the Juru Kunci administration buildings in Imogiri village, the Mosque at the foot of the stairs, the stairs and the Graveyard in general. He constructed the Girimulya section as well. Hamengkubuwana VIII in the process of constructing Saptorenggo in the 1920s conducted repairs on the earlier structures that required repairs. Various Suharto-era bureaucrats and army personnel with connections with branches of earlier rulers contributed to a number of roof renewals and other renovations; the Indonesian Government contributed to a project that rehabilitated the yard known by its split gate - the Supit Urang - under the auspices of the archaeology service and appropriate agencies in the 1980s. In the 1990s the main gate into Sultan Agungan required repairs; the 2006 earthquake in the region saw considerable damage to the complex. It is not known yet to what extent repairs and renovations are possible again, from where the funds will emanate.
Many travel accounts, tourist guides and references to Imogiri imply a simple single whole. On closer examination the graveyard has more complexity within its structure; the complex is divided in two ways. First, there are separate Surakartan sections. Second, the whole graveyard is divided into eight sections which constitute three generations of ruler in each section; some are jointly governed by custodians from Surakarta and Yogyakarta, while some are governed by representatives of one of these palaces only. The original area within the Imogiri graveyard is that area with Sultan Agung's grave - it is jointly governed; the western wing of the graveyard is the Surakartan section, while the eastern wing is the Yogyakartan section. Not all rulers of the Sultanate of Mataram are buried in the Imogiri complex; some immediate families of rulers were buried in Imogiri, but not all. Printed lists of the burial plots within the royal graveyard complex are maintained for Imogiri to provide guidance for researchers looking for a specific grave site.
This process is sometimes complicated by the multiple names some individuals were known by during their lives. Each section is a walled compound with three internal sections - variation may occur in transcription for these terms; the Top section is named'Prabayasa.' Middle section is named'Kemangdhungan.' Entrance yard is called'Srimanganti.'Note that dates after rulers name are supposed dates of interment, variant dates are possible in some sources. They are given in Gregorian calendar years. Dates after construction may vary up to 10 years. In most cases the new walled compounds have been built prior to the death of the first ruler interred; however it is possible that the grave precedes the walls, as is the case in Sultan Agungan, those that follow. Most names listed have abbreviated forms, for Javanese royalty there are extra titles when written, any abbreviation here is for purposes of the list and not out of disrespect for the deceased or their status; the following list is in the assumed order of construction of the walled areas at Imogiri.
The first two are in the shared parts.
Lambertus Nicodemus Palar
Lambertus Nicodemus Palar known as Babe Palar, represented the Republic of Indonesia in various diplomatic positions most notably as the first Indonesian Representative to the United Nations. He held ambassadorships in India, East Germany, Soviet Union and the United States, he was the son of Jacoba Lumanauw. Palar attended middle school in Tondano, he moved to Java to attend high school in Yogyakarta. In 1922, Palar started his studies at the Technical University in Bandung, now known as the Bandung Institute of Technology. At this school, Palar became acquainted with Indonesian nationalists such as Sukarno. A severe illness forced Palar to return to Minahasa. Palar restarted his studies at faculty of law in Batavia where he joined the youth organization called Young Minahasa. In 1928, Palar moved to the Netherlands. In 1930, Palar became a member of the Social-Democratic Workers' Party shortly after the SDAP convened a Colonial Congress and voted on propositions that included unconditionally recognizing the right of national independence for the Dutch Indies.
Palar held the position of secretary of the Colonial Commission of the SDAP and the Netherlands' Trade Union Federation starting in October 1933. He was the director of Persbureau Indonesia, given the task of sending articles related to Dutch social democracy to the Dutch Indies. In 1938, Palar returned to his homeland with his wife, Johanna Petronella Volmers, whom he married in 1935, he gathered information on the current developments. He discovered that the Indonesian nationalist movement was much alive and returned to the Netherlands writing about his experience. During the German occupation of Holland, Palar couldn't work for the SDAP and instead was employed in the Van der Waals Laboratorium, he taught Malay language classes and was a guitarist in a Kroncong ensemble. During the war and his wife joined the anti-Nazi underground movement. After the war, Palar was voted into the Lower House representing the newly established Labor Party, which originated from the SDAP. After the Indonesian Declaration of Independence on August 17, 1945, Palar being sympathetic to the proclamation promoted contacts with the Indonesian nationalists.
This was not received well by the PvdA resulting in the party distancing itself from the original position of unconditionally recognizing the right of national independence for Indonesia, opposed by Palar. Being assigned by his party on a fact finding mission to Indonesia, Palar again met with the leaders of the Indonesian National Revolution including President Sukarno. Palar continued to urge non-violent resolution of the dispute between the Netherlands and the new Republic of Indonesia. However, on July 20, 1947, the parliament voted to commence Police Action in Indonesia. Palar resigned from the Labor Party the following day. Palar joined the effort for international recognition of Indonesian independence by becoming the Indonesian Representative to the United Nations in 1947, he remained in this position until 1953. This time period included such important events as the continued Dutch-Indonesian conflict, the transfer of sovereignty from the Dutch, the inclusion of Indonesia as a member of the United Nations.
During the Dutch-Indonesian conflict, Palar argued the case of Indonesian independence at the UN and the Security Council though his status was only as an "observer" because Indonesia was not a member of the UN at that time. After a second Police Action was unpopular and subsequently condemned by the Security Council, the Roem-van Roijen Agreement was signed, which led to the Dutch-Indonesian Round Table Conference and the recognition of Indonesian sovereignty by the Dutch on December 27, 1949. Indonesia was admitted as the 60th Member State of the United Nations on September 28, 1950. Addressing the General Assembly as the first Indonesian Ambassador to the United Nations, Palar thanked those that supported the Indonesian cause and pledged that Indonesia would assume the responsibilities of being a member state. Palar continued his work at the UN until being assigned the Indonesian ambassadorship for India. In 1955, Palar was called back to Indonesia and was instrumental in planning the Asia-Africa Conference, which gathered Asian and African states, most of which were newly independent.
After the conference, Palar resumed his ambassadorial responsibilities by representing Indonesia in East Germany and the Soviet Union. From 1957 to 1962, he became the Ambassador to Canada and afterwards returned to the UN as Ambassador until 1965. Sukarno withdrew Indonesia's membership in the UN because of the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation and upon the election of Malaysia to the Security Council. Palar became the Ambassador to the United States. Under new leadership of Suharto in 1966, Indonesia requested the resumption of membership in the UN with a message to the Secretary General, delivered by Palar. Palar retired from foreign service in 1968 having served his country during its early struggles and conflicts and battled for its freedom in the diplomatic arena. Palar returned to Jakarta, but remained active through lectures
Bagindo Azizchan, is the Mayor of Padang second after independence, inaugurated on August 15, 1946 replacing Mr. Abubakar Jaar, he died at the age of 36 years after being involved in a battle against the Netherlands. His body was interred at Bukittinggi. On 9 November 2005 Azizchan was declared a National Hero of Indonesia
Arie Frederik Lasut
Arie Frederik Lasut is regarded as a national hero in Indonesia, because of his involvement in the struggle for independence and his efforts to advance Indonesia’s mining and geological infrastructure during the nation’s beginnings. Arie Lasut was born in Kapataran, a village in the regency of Minahasa in the province of North Sulawesi, he was the eldest son of eight children born to Ingkan Supit. His brother, Willy Lasut, went on to become governor of North Sulawesi. Lasut attended elementary school in Tondano. Having been ranked first in his class, Lasut was given the opportunity to continue his studies at a teacher's education school in Ambon, he finished his studies at HIK Ambon in 1933 and was one of the top students who were selected to attend HIK Bandung for the next level of teacher education. After only a year in Bandung, Lasut decided not to become a teacher and instead moved to Jakarta to attend a school equivalent to high school. After graduating from AMS in 1937, Arie started medical school.
This school is now the Department of Medicine at the University of Indonesia. His lack of sufficient funds forced him to drop out after just one year of studying. In 1938, Lasut started working at the Department of Economic Affairs. A year Lasut attended Bandung Technical School, present day Bandung Institute of Technology, his studies were discontinued again due to monetary reasons. He applied for and was given a scholarship to become a geological assistant at the Mining Service; the start of World War II was imminent with Japanese forces pushing toward Indonesia. While at the technical school in Bandung, Lasut was trained as a Corps Rerserve Officer by the Dutch to aid in the defense against the attacking Japanese forces, he fought against the Japanese at Ciater in West Java. During the Japanese occupation of Indonesia, Lasut worked at the Geological Service in Bandung as an assistant in the field of geology. Along with R. Sunu Sumosusastro, Lasut was among a few Indonesians who were given such positions in the service by the Japanese.
Indonesia declared its independence on August 1945 after the surrender of Japan to the Allies. The president of the newly formed Republic of Indonesia ordered that all governmental services be taken over from the Japanese. Lasut and a few other Indonesians were able to take control of the Geological Service peacefully in September 1945 and renamed it the Mining and Geological Service; as the Dutch returned to Indonesia to regain its control of Indonesia, the offices of the Mining and Geological Service had to be moved several times. From its original headquarters in Bandung, the offices moved Tasikmalaya and Yogyakarta. In addition to managing the mining and geological activities of the new nation during this unstable period, the service established schools for training new geologists; this was all done under the leadership of Lasut as head of the service. In addition to his work at the Mining and Geological Service, Lasut was active in an organization consisting of Indonesians from Sulawesi aimed at defending the independence of Indonesia.
Lasut was a member of the Central Indonesian National Committee, an early manifestation of the legislative branch of the Indonesian government. The Dutch had continually sought after Lasut, because of his knowledge of mining and geology in Indonesia. On the morning of May 7, 1949, Lasut was taken from his home by the Dutch to Pakem, 7 kilometers north of Yogyakarta and was shot to death. Several months his body was exhumed and buried at the Kintelan Christian cemetery in Yogyakarta beside his wife who had died in December 1947; the ceremony was attended by the acting president of Indonesia at Assaat. To honor his firm stance to preserve the republic, Arie Frederik Lasut was posthumously named a national hero by the government of Indonesia on May 20, 1969. Arie Lasut married Nieke Maramis on December 31, 1941, they had one child, Winny Lasut, who married Lukman Arifin and had three grandsons: Iskandar Zulkarnaen Arifin, Arie Arifin, Sandy Arifin. Winny died on 14 July 1976
Taman Sari (Yogyakarta)
Taman Sari Water Castle known as Taman Sari, is the site of a former royal garden of the Sultanate of Yogyakarta. It is located about 2 km south within the grounds of the Kraton, Indonesia. Built in the mid-18th century, the Taman Sari had multiple functions, such as a resting area, a workshop, a meditation area, a defense area, a hiding place. Taman Sari consisted of four distinct areas: a large artificial lake with islands and pavilions located in the west, a bathing complex in the centre, a complex of pavilions and pools in the south, a smaller lake in the east. Today only the central bathing complex is well preserved, while the other areas have been occupied by the Kampung Taman settlement. Since 1995, the Yogyakarta Palace Complex including Taman Sari has been listed as a tentative World Heritage Site; the name Taman Sari comes from the Javanese words taman, meaning a "garden" or "park" and sari, which means "beautiful" or "flowers". Hence, the name Taman Sari means an area of a beautiful garden adorned with flowers.
An old article described it as a "water castle". The building of Taman Sari commenced during the reign of Sultan Hamengkubuwono I, the first sultan of the Yogyakarta Sultanate, was completed by the time of Sultan Hamengkubuwono II; the building site, had been known as a bathing place called Pacethokan Spring since Sunan Amangkurat IV’s reign. According to Kitab Mamana in Yogyakarta Kraton, the project leader for the construction of Taman Sari was Tumenggung Mangundipura, he had travelled twice to Batavia to learn about European architecture, the reason why the architecture of Taman Sari has marks of European style. The Regent of Madiun, Raden Rangga Prawirasentika, participated in funding the construction of Taman Sari. Prawirasentika beseeched the Sultan to be relieved of Madiun's tax obligation, he offered other alternative ways of payment. The Sultan accepted his proposal. In 1758, the Sultan commanded the Regent to supervise the making of bricks and various complements, which would be used to build a beautiful garden.
The sultan wanted a place where he could spend some time to relax after many years of wars that he had just experienced. Raden Tumenggung Mangundipura, under supervision of Raden Arya Natakusuma, was responsible for the construction; the building was started in 1684 Javanese year. After finding out how large the complex was, Raden Rangga Prawirasentika realized that the cost would have been greater than the taxes, he resigned from the project and was replaced by Prince Natakusuma who continued the project to completion. Taman Sari was built three years after the Giyanti Agreement as a resting place for Sultan Hamengkubuwono I; the complex consists of about 59 buildings including a mosque, meditation chambers, swimming pools, a series of 18 water gardens and pavilions surrounded by artificial lakes. The complex was used between 1765–1812; the British invasion of the Yogyakarta Kraton saw considerable parts of the complex destroyed in 1812. The building of Taman Sari ended upon the completion of the walls.
A sengkalan memet on the western gate marks the year with the Javanese words Lajering Kembang Sinesep Peksi, denoting the Javanese year of 1691 or about 1765: lajering, "core" for 1. The relief around this sengkalan memet shows birds siphoning honey from flowery trees; the maintenance of Taman Sari was abandoned shortly after Hamengkubuwono I died because the elaborate hydraulic works were so difficult to maintain. The gardens were neglected and the buildings suffered some damage during the Java War of 1825–1830; the palace complex fell out of use following an earthquake in 1867, which destroyed several buildings and drained the water features. Over time, squatters began to inhabit the site, surrounding the ruins of the deserted pavilions and filling the empty lakebeds. In early 1970s, effort at restoration was made. Only the bathing complex has been restored; the manuscript of Serat Rerenggan mentions the story of Demang Tegis, a Portuguese man said to be one of the architect of Taman Sari. According to the manuscript, a strange man appeared in Mancingan Village.
With long nose, white complexion, a foreign language, the villagers suspected that the person was some kind of spirit or forest fairy. They presented him to the current sultan, Hamengkubuwono II; the sultan found interest in the person and took the strange man as his servant. Some years had passed and the man had learned to talk in Javanese. According to him, he was a Portuguese, stranded from a shipwreck, he claimed to have been a housebuilder, so the sultan ordered him to erect a fortress. Satisfied by the man’s work, the sultan gave him the title "demang." From on that person was known as Demang Portegis or Demang Tegis. There is a controversy whether Demang Tegis was the architect of Taman Sari, as the design resembles a hybrid of Javanese and Dutch styles, rather than Portuguese. P. J. Veth, in Java – Book III, page 631 wrote, "Local research says, designed by either a Spanish or Portuguese engineer, stranded off his sunken ship at the southern beach. However, that shows Javanese character contradicts this."
The evidence about Demang Tegis re
National Hero of Indonesia
National Hero of Indonesia is the highest-level title awarded in Indonesia. It is posthumously given by the Government of Indonesia for actions which are deemed to be heroic, defined as "actual deeds which can be remembered and exemplified for all time by other citizens" or "extraordinary service furthering the interests of the state and people"; the Ministry of Social Affairs gives seven criteria which an individual must fulfill, as follows: Have been an Indonesian citizen, deceased and, during his or her lifetime, led an armed struggle or produced a concept or product useful to the state. Nominations must be approved at each level. A proposal is made by the general populace in a city or regency to the mayor or regent, who must make a request to the province's governor; the governor makes a recommendation to the Ministry of Social Affairs, which forwards it to the president, represented by the Board of Titles. Those selected by the president, as represented by the Board, are awarded the title at a ceremony in the Indonesian capital of Jakarta.
Since 2000, the ceremony has occurred in early November. The legal framework for the title styled National Independence Hero, was established with the release of Presidential Decree No. 241 of 1958. The title was first awarded on 30 August 1959 to the politician turned writer Abdul Muis, who had died the previous month; this title was used for the rest of Sukarno's rule. When Suharto rose to power in the mid-1960s, the title was given its current name. Special titles at the level of National Hero have been awarded. Hero of the Revolution was given in 1965 to ten victims of the 30 September Movement that resulted in end of Sukarno reign, while Sukarno and former vice-president Mohammad Hatta were given the title Proclamation Heroes in 1988 for their role in reading the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence. A total of 165 men and 14 women have been deemed national heroes, most Abdurrahman Baswedan, Prince Mohammad Noor, Andi Depu, Depati Amir, Kasman Singodimedjo and Syam'un on 2018; these heroes have come from all parts of the Indonesian archipelago, from Aceh in the west to Papua in the east.
They represent numerous ethnicities, including native Indonesians, ethnic Chinese, Eurasians. They include prime ministers, government ministers, royalty, a bishop; the following list is presented in alphabetical order. The list is further sortable by year of birth and recognition. Names are standardised using the Perfected Spelling System and thus may not reflect the original spelling