Carthage was a Phoenician state that included, during the 7th–3rd centuries BC, its wider sphere of influence known as the Carthaginian Empire. The empire extended over much of the coast of Northwest Africa as well as encompassing substantial parts of coastal Iberia and the islands of the western Mediterranean Sea. Phoenicians founded Carthage in 814 BC. A dependency of the Phoenician state of Tyre, Carthage gained independence around 650 BC and established its political hegemony over other Phoenician settlements throughout the western Mediterranean, this lasting until the end of the 3rd century BC. At the height of the city's prominence, it served as a major hub of trade, with trading stations extending throughout the region. For much of its history, Carthage was on hostile terms with the Greeks in Sicily and with the Roman Republic; the city had to deal with hostile Berbers, the indigenous inhabitants of the area where Carthage was built. In 146 BC, after the third and final Punic War, Roman forces destroyed Carthage redesigned and occupied the site of the city.
Nearly all of the other Phoenician city-states and former Carthaginian dependencies subsequently fell into Roman hands. According to Roman sources, Phoenician colonists from modern-day Lebanon, led by Dido, founded Carthage circa 814 BC. Queen Elissa was an exiled princess of the ancient Phoenician city of Tyre. At its peak, the metropolis she founded, came to be called the "shining city", ruling 300 other cities around the western Mediterranean Sea and leading the Phoenician world. Elissa's brother, Pygmalion of Tyre, had murdered the high priest. Elissa escaped the tyranny of her own country, founding the "new city" of Carthage and subsequently its dominions. Details of her life are sketchy and confusing, but the following can be deduced from various sources. According to Justin, Princess Elissa was the daughter of King Belus II of Tyre; when he died, the throne was jointly bequeathed to her brother and her. She married her uncle Acerbas known as Sychaeus, the High Priest of Melqart, a man with both authority and wealth comparable to the king.
This led to increased rivalry between the monarchy. Pygmalion was a tyrant, lover of both gold and intrigue, who desired the authority and fortune enjoyed by Acerbas. Pygmalion assassinated Acerbas in the temple and kept the misdeed concealed from his sister for a long time, deceiving her with lies about her husband's death. At the same time, the people of Tyre called for a single sovereign. In the Roman epic of Virgil, the Aeneid, Queen Dido, the Greek name for Elissa, is first introduced as a esteemed character. In just seven years, since their exodus from Tyre, the Carthaginians have rebuilt a successful kingdom under her rule, her subjects present her with a festival of praise. Her character is perceived by Virgil as more noble when she offers asylum to Aeneas and his men, who had escaped from Troy. A spirit in the form of the messenger god, sent by Jupiter, reminds Aeneas that his mission is not to stay in Carthage with his new-found love, but to sail to Italy to found Rome. Virgil ends his legend of Dido with the story that, when Aeneas tells Dido, her heart broken, she orders a pyre to be built where she falls upon Aeneas' sword.
As she lay dying, she predicted eternal strife between Aeneas' people and her own: "rise up from my bones, avenging spirit" she says, an invocation of Hannibal. Aeneas goes on to found the Roman Kingdom; the details of Virgil's story do not, form part of the original legend and are significant as an indication of Rome's attitude towards the city she had founded, exemplified by Cato the Elder's much-repeated utterance, "Carthago delenda est", "Carthage must be destroyed". The Phoenicians established numerous colonial cities along the coasts of the Mediterranean to provide safe harbors for their merchant fleets, to maintain a Phoenician monopoly on an area's natural resources, to conduct trade free of outside interference, they were motivated to found these cities by a desire to satisfy the demand for trade goods or to escape the necessity of paying tribute to the succession of empires that ruled Tyre and Byblos, by fear of complete Greek colonization of that part of the Mediterranean suitable for commerce.
The Phoenicians lacked the population or necessity to establish large self-sustaining cities abroad, most of their colonial cities had fewer than 1,000 inhabitants, but Carthage and a few others developed larger populations. Although Strabo's claim that the Tyrians founded three hundred colonies along the west African coast is exaggerated, colonies were established in Tunisia, Algeria, to a much lesser extent, on the arid coast of Libya; the Phoenicians were active in Cyprus, Corsica, the Balearic Islands and Sicily, as well as on the European mainland at present-day Genoa in Italy and Marseille in present-day France. The settlements at Crete and Sicily were in perpetual conflict with the Greeks, but the Phoenicians managed to control all of Sicily for a limited time; the entire area came under the leadership and protection of Carthage, which in turn dispatched its own colonists to found new cities or to reinforce those that declined with the loss of primacy of Tyre and Sidon. The first colonies were settled on the two paths to Iberia's mineral wealth — along the Northwest African coast and on Sicily and the Ba
A pseudonym or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their first or true name. Pseudonyms include stage names and user names, ring names, pen names, aliases, superhero or villain identities and code names, gamer identifications, regnal names of emperors and other monarchs, they have taken the form of anagrams and Latinisations, although there are many other methods of choosing a pseudonym. Pseudonyms should not be confused with new names that replace old ones and become the individual's full-time name. Pseudonyms are "part-time" names, used only in certain contexts – to provide a more clear-cut separation between one's private and professional lives, to showcase or enhance a particular persona, or to hide an individual's real identity, as with writers' pen names, graffiti artists' tags, resistance fighters' or terrorists' noms de guerre, computer hackers' handles. Actors, voice-over artists and other performers sometimes use stage names, for example, to better channel a relevant energy, gain a greater sense of security and comfort via privacy, more avoid troublesome fans/"stalkers", or to mask their ethnic backgrounds.
In some cases, pseudonyms are adopted because they are part of a cultural or organisational tradition: for example devotional names used by members of some religious institutes, "cadre names" used by Communist party leaders such as Trotsky and Lenin. A pseudonym may be used for personal reasons: for example, an individual may prefer to be called or known by a name that differs from their given or legal name, but is not ready to take the numerous steps to get their name changed. A collective name or collective pseudonym is one shared by two or more persons, for example the co-authors of a work, such as Carolyn Keene, Ellery Queen, Nicolas Bourbaki. Or James S. A. Corey; the term is derived from the Greek ψευδώνυμον "false name", from ψεῦδος, "lie, falsehood" and ὄνομα, "name". A pseudonym is distinct from an allonym, the name of another person, assumed by the author of a work of art; this may occur when someone is ghostwriting a book or play, or in parody, or when using a "front" name, such as by screenwriters blacklisted in Hollywood in the 1950s and 1960s.
See pseudepigraph, for falsely attributed authorship. Sometimes people change their name in such a manner that the new name becomes permanent and is used by all who know the person; this is not an alias or pseudonym, but in fact a new name. In many countries, including common law countries, a name change can be ratified by a court and become a person's new legal name. For example, in the 1960s, black civil rights campaigner Malcolm Little changed his surname to "X", to represent his unknown African ancestral name, lost when his ancestors were brought to North America as slaves, he changed his name again to Malik El-Shabazz when he converted to Islam. Some Jews adopted Hebrew family names upon immigrating to Israel, dropping surnames, in their families for generations; the politician David Ben-Gurion, for example, was born David Grün in Poland. He adopted his Hebrew name in 1910, when he published his first article in a Zionist journal in Jerusalem. Many transgender people choose to adopt a new name around the time of their social transitioning, to resemble their desired gender better than their birth name.
Businesspersons of ethnic minorities in some parts of the world are sometimes advised by an employer to use a pseudonym, common or acceptable in that area when conducting business, to overcome racial or religious bias. Criminals may use aliases, fictitious business names, dummy corporations to hide their identity, or to impersonate other persons or entities in order to commit fraud. Aliases and fictitious business names used for dummy corporations may become so complex that, in the words of the Washington Post, "getting to the truth requires a walk down a bizarre labyrinth" and multiple government agencies may become involved to uncover the truth. A pen name, or "nom de plume", is a pseudonym adopted by an author; some female authors used male pen names, in particular in the 19th century, when writing was a male-dominated profession. The Brontë family used pen names for their early work, so as not to reveal their gender and so that local residents would not know that the books related to people of the neighbourhood.
The Brontës used their neighbours as inspiration for characters in many of their books. Anne Brontë published The Tenant of Wildfell Hall under the name Acton Bell. Charlotte Brontë published Jane Eyre under the name Currer Bell. Emily Brontë published Wuthering Heights as Ellis Bell. A well-known example of the former is Mary Ann Evans. Another example is Amandine Aurore Lucile Dupin, a 19th-century French writer who used the pen name George Sand. In contrast, some twentieth and twenty first century male romance novelists have used female pen names. A few examples of male authors using female pseudonyms include Brindle Chase, Peter O'Donnell and Christopher Wood. A pen name may be used if a writer's real name is to be confused with the name of another writer or notable individual, or if their real name is deemed to be unsuitable. Authors who write both fiction and non-fiction, or in different genres, may use
Amilcare Ponchielli was an Italian opera composer, best known for his opera La Gioconda. He was married to the soprano Teresina Brambilla. Born in Paderno Fasolaro near Cremona Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia, Ponchielli won a scholarship at the age of nine to study music at the Milan Conservatory, writing his first symphony by the time he was ten years old. Two years after leaving the conservatory he wrote his first opera—it was based on Alessandro Manzoni's great novel The Betrothed —and it was as an opera composer that he found fame, his early career was disappointing. Maneuvered out of a professorship at the Milan Conservatory that he had won in a competition, he took small-time jobs in small cities, composed several operas, none successful at first. In spite of his disappointment, he gained much experience as the bandmaster in Piacenza and Cremona and composing over 200 works for wind band. Notable among his "original" compositions for band are the first-ever concerto for euphonium, fifteen variations on the popular Parisian song "Carnevale di Venezia", a series of festive and funeral marches that resound with the pride of the newly unified Italy and the private grief of his fellow Cremonese.
The turning point was the big success of the revised version of I promessi sposi in 1872, which brought him a contract with the music publisher G. Ricordi & Co. and the musical establishment at the Conservatory and at La Scala. The role of Lina in the revised version was sung by Teresina Brambilla whom he married in 1874, their son Annibale became minor composer. The ballet Le due gemelle confirmed his success; the following opera, I Lituani of 1874, was well received, being performed at Saint Petersburg. His most well-known opera is La Gioconda, which his librettist Arrigo Boito adapted from the same play by Victor Hugo, set by Saverio Mercadante as Il giuramento in 1837 and Carlos Gomes as Fosca in 1873, it was first produced in revised several times. The version that has become popular today was first given in 1880. In 1876 he started working on I Mori di Valenza, although the project dates back to 1873, it was an opera that he never finished, although it was completed by Arturo Cadore and performed posthumously in 1914.
After La Gioconda, Ponchielli wrote the monumental biblical melodrama in four acts Il figliuol prodigo given in Milan at La Scala on 26 December 1880 and Marion Delorme, from another play by Victor Hugo, presented at La Scala on 17 March 1885. In spite of their rich musical invention, neither of these operas met with the same success but both exerted great influence on the composers of the rising generation, such as Giacomo Puccini, Pietro Mascagni and Umberto Giordano. In 1881, Ponchielli was appointed maestro di cappella of the Bergamo Cathedral, from the same year he was a professor of composition at the Milan Conservatory, where among his students were Puccini and Emilio Pizzi, he was interred in the city's Monumental Cemetery. Although in his lifetime Ponchielli was popular and influential, in introducing an enlarged orchestra and more complex orchestration, the only one of his operas performed today is La Gioconda, it contains the great tenor romanza "Cielo e mar", a well-known duet for tenor and baritone titled "Enzo Grimaldo", the soprano set-piece "Suicidio!", the ballet section known as "The Dance of the Hours", universally known thanks to its feature in Walt Disney's Fantasia in 1940, Allan Sherman's novelty song, "Hello Muddah, Hello Fadduh", numerous other popular works.
List of operas by Amilcare Ponchielli Kaufman: Annals of Italian Opera: Verdi and his Major Contemporaries. Budden, Julien,'Ponchielli, Amilcare' in The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, ed. Stanley Sadie ISBN 0-333-73432-7 Various authors: Amilcare Ponchielli. Cesare Bignami to Amilcare Ponchielli. November 20, 1875. Conservatorio Universitario de Musica, Uruguay. Adami, Giuseppe. Giulio ricordi e i suoi musicisti. Milano: Edizioni Fratelli Treves, 1933. Albarosa, comp. Amilcare Ponchielli, 1834-1886: Saggi e ricerche nel 150 anniversario della nascita. Casalmorano: cassa rurale ed artigiana di Casalmorano, 1987. Amilcare Ponchielli to Egregio Avvocato. January 3, 1877. Music Library, General Manuscript Collection, Northwestern University, Illinois. Cesari, Gaetano. Amilcare Ponchielli nell'arte del suo tempo. Cremona, 1934. Damerini, Adelmo. Amilcare Ponchielli. Torino: Arione, 1940. DeNapoli, G. Amilcare Ponchielli: La vita, le opere, l'epistolario, le onoranze. Cremona, 1936. Ferraris, Castelli Maria, Giampiero Tintori.
Amilcare Ponchielli. Cremona: Centro Culturale, 1984. Gordon, John. "Circe, La Gioconda, the Opera House of the Mind", in Bronze by Gold, pp. 277–93. Habla, Bernhard, ed. Kongressberichte Oberschützen/Burgenland 1988. Proceedings. Tutzing: Hans Schneider Tutzing, 1992. Hanslick, Eduard. "Gioconda." In Die Moderne Oper. Vol. iv. Musikalisches Skizzenbuch. Berlin: Hofmann, 1888. Ligasacchi, Giovanni. "Amilcare Ponchielli e
General Aircraft Hamilcar
The General Aircraft Limited GAL. 49 Hamilcar or Hamilcar Mark I was a large British military glider produced during the Second World War, designed to carry heavy cargo, such as the Tetrarch or M22 Locust light tank. When the British airborne establishment was formed in 1940 by the order of Prime Minister Winston Churchill it was decided to develop a large glider which would be able to transport heavy equipment in support of airborne troops. General Aircraft Limited were chosen in January 1941 to develop this glider, which they designated the GAL. 49'Hamilcar'. It was designed to transport two Universal Carriers. A number of problems, which included vacillation by the War Office on the number of gliders that it wanted and poor management by GAL, led to delays in the production of the Hamilcar, the first production glider was assembled only in mid-1943; these problems were only solved, production of the glider continued to be slow, hampered by difficulties in finding suitable locations to store and construct the Hamilcars once their parts were produced.
A total of 344 Hamilcars had been built when production ended in 1946. Hamilcars were only used on three occasions, only in support of British airborne forces, they first saw action in June 1944, when thirty were used to carry 17-pounder anti-tank guns, transport vehicles and Tetrarch light tanks into Normandy in support of British airborne forces during Operation Tonga. In September 1944 a similar number of Hamilcars were used to transport anti-tank guns, transport vehicles and supplies for airborne troops as part of Operation Market Garden, they were used a third and final time in March 1945 during Operation Varsity, when they transported M22 Locust light tanks and other supplies. The gliders proved to be successful in all three operations, although their slow speed and large size made them easy targets for anti-aircraft fire, which resulted in a number of gliders being damaged or destroyed. A powered variant of the Hamilcar was produced, the Hamilcar Mark X, in an attempt to extend the range of the Hamilcar so it could serve in the Pacific War.
The British airborne establishment was formed in June 1940 under the orders of the Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, in response to the German use of airborne forces during the Battle of France. When the equipment to be used by the airborne forces was being developed, it had been decided by officials at the War Office that gliders would be an integral component of such a force. By the beginning of 1941, the War Office had issued four specifications for military gliders to be used by the airborne forces; the first was Air Ministry specification X.10/40, which called for an eight-seater glider similar to the German DFS 230, which became the General Aircraft Hotspur I. The number of aeronautical firms able to design and produce gliders was limited since several were committed to producing other prop-driven aircraft for the government. Slingsby was chosen to develop X.25/40 because it was believed to be too small to build larger gliders, Airspeed would build the Horsa. Because it had developed the Hotspur, which first flew in November 1940, was considered to have a sufficiently developed production capacity capable of producing a larger glider, General Aircraft Limited were chosen to develop X.27/40.
Before being selected, the company had been in the process of developing designs for a glider which would carry a single Mk VII'Tetrarch' light tank. The design was a low-wing aircraft designed so that the tank driver functioned as the glider pilot, flew the glider from his seat in the tank through a series of internal modifications to the tank; the idea behind the design was to save on specially-trained glider pilots and allow the tank to be brought into action as soon as the glider landed. However, the design was considered to be impractical, both by the company and the War Office, a more conventional design was arrived at in a joint meeting between the two in January 1941, it called for a glider which would be constructed out of wood capable of carrying a Tetrarch light tank and two Universal Carriers with a combined maximum weight of 17,024 lb. By early February 1941 the basic design for the glider had been completed by the company's chief designer, had been designated the GAL. 49 with the service name'Hamilcar'.
Such a large glider had never been constructed before by the British military, to test the design, a half-scale prototype model was first designed. However, it only flew once.
Timoleon, son of Timodemus, of Corinth was a Greek statesman and general. As the champion of Greece against Carthage he is connected with the history of Sicily Syracuse. In the mid 360s BC, the brother of Timoleon, took possession of the acropolis of Corinth and made himself tyrant of the city. In response, who had earlier saved his brother's life in battle, became involved in the assassination of Timophanes. Public opinion approved his conduct as patriotic; because of the political problems facing Syracuse and the threat from Sparta, a group of Syracusans sent an appeal for help to Corinth which reached the city state in 344 BC. Corinth could not refuse help, though her chief citizens declined to accept responsibility for attempting to establish a stable government in fractious and turbulent Syracuse. Timoleon, being named by an unknown voice in the Corinthian popular assembly, was chosen by a unanimous vote to undertake the mission, set sail for Sicily with seven ships, a few of the leading citizens of Corinth and 700 Greek mercenaries.
He eluded a Carthaginian squadron and landed at Tauromenium in 344 BC, where he met with a friendly reception. At this time Hicetas, tyrant of Leontini, was master of Syracuse, with the exception of the island of Ortygia, occupied by Dionysius, still nominally tyrant. Hicetas was defeated by Timoleon at Adranum, an inland town, driven back to Syracuse. Timoleon was sent reinforcements from some north-western Greek states. During the siege of Syracuse, Dionysius surrendered Ortygia in 343 BC on the condition of his being granted a safe conduct to Corinth; this was agreed and Dionysius was sent to exile in Corinth. Hicetas now received help from Carthage. Timoleon was thus master of Syracuse, he at once began the work of restoration, bringing new settlers from the mother-city and from Greece and establishing a popular government on the basis of the democratic laws of Diocles. The citadel was razed to the ground, a court of justice erected on its site; the amphipolos, or priest of Olympian Zeus, chosen annually by lot out of three clans, was invested with the chief magistracy.
The impress of Timoleon's reforms seems to have lasted to the days of Augustus. Hicetas was able to persuade Carthage to send a great army. With a miscellaneous levy of about 12,000 men, most of them mercenaries, Timoleon marched westwards across the island to the neighbourhood of Selinus and won a great and decisive victory on the Crimissus. Timoleon led his infantry, the enemy's discomfiture was completed by a blinding storm of rain and hail. Carthage made one more effort and despatched some mercenaries to prolong the conflict between Timoleon and the tyrants, but it ended in the defeat of Hicetas, taken prisoner and put to death. Carthage agreed to a treaty in 338 BC by which Carthage was confined in Sicily to the west of the Halycus and undertook to give no further help to the Sicilian tyrants. Most of the remaining tyrants were expelled; this treaty gave the Greeks of Sicily many years of safety from Carthage. Timoleon established a new Syracusan constitution, it was described at the time as democratic.
However, he did have wide powers equivalent to a supreme commander. He invited settlers from mainland Greece to assist in the re-population of Syracuse and other Sicilian cities. During this period, Greek Sicily enjoyed a recovery in its culture. Timoleon retired into private life on becoming blind, but when important issues were under discussion he was carried to the assembly to give his opinion, accepted, he was buried at the cost of the citizens of Syracuse, who erected a monument to his memory in their market-place, afterwards surrounded with porticoes, a gymnasium called Timoleonteum. The ancient historian Timaeus gave Timoleon high accolades in his work. However, Polybius criticized Timaeus for bias in favour of Timoleon and many modern historians have sided with Polybius. Peter Green thinks it has gone too far. While he concedes that Timoleon tended to play the democrat while using the methods of a tyrant, he did make an effort to maintain the outward forms of democracy. Further, he reformed Syracuse in a democratic direction and demolished the stronghold of the island, so useful to tyrants in the past.
Plutarch, Life of Timoleon. Cornelius Nepos, Timoleon. Diod. Sic. Historical Library, xvi.65–90. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Timoleon". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26. Cambridge University Press. Westlake, H. D. Timoleon and His Relations With Tyrants. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1952. Bicknell, P. J. "The Date of Timoleon's Crossing to Italy and the Comet of 361 B. C.", The Classical Quarterly, New Series, Vol. 34, No. 1. Pp. 130–134. Talbert, R. J. A. Timoleon and the Revival of Greek Sicily, 344–317 B. C.. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1975.
This name uses Portuguese naming customs. The first or maternal family name is the second or maternal family name is Cabral. Amílcar Lopes da Costa Cabral was a Bissau-Guinean and Cape Verdean agricultural engineer, poet, revolutionary, political organizer and diplomat, he was one of Africa's foremost anti-colonial leaders. Known by the nom de guerre Abel Djassi, Cabral led the nationalist movement of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde Islands and the ensuing war of independence in Guinea-Bissau, he was assassinated on 20 January 1973, about eight months before Guinea-Bissau's unilateral declaration of independence. Although not a Marxist, he was influenced by Marxism, became an inspiration to revolutionary socialists and national independence movements worldwide. Cabral was born on 12 September 1924 in Bafatá, Guinea-Bissau, to Cape Verdean mother and Guinea-Bissau father, Juvenal Antònio Lopes da Costa Cabral and Iva Pinhel Évora, both from Santiago, Cape Verde, his father came from a wealthy land-owning family.
His mother was a shop owner and hotel worker in order to support her family after she separated from Amílcar's father by 1929. Her family was not well off, so she was unable to pursue higher education. Amílcar Cabral was educated at Liceu Gil Eanes in the town of Mindelo, Cape Verde, at the Instituto Superior de Agronomia, in Lisbon. While an agronomy student in Lisbon, he founded student movements dedicated to opposing the ruling dictatorship of Portugal and promoting the cause of independence for the Portuguese colonies in Africa, he returned to Africa in the 1950s, was instrumental in promoting the independence causes of the Portuguese colonies. He was the founder of the PAIGC or Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde and one of the founders of Movimento Popular Libertação de Angola, together with Agostinho Neto, whom he met in Portugal, other Angolan nationalists. Cabral was an asset of the Czechoslovak State Security, under the codename "Secretary" provided intelligence information to the StB.
From 1963 to his assassination in 1973, Cabral led the PAIGC's guerrilla movement against the Portuguese government, which evolved into one of the most successful wars of independence in modern African history. The goal of the conflict was to attain independence for both Portuguese Cape Verde. Over the course of the conflict, as the movement captured territory from the Portuguese, Cabral became the de facto leader of a large portion of what became Guinea-Bissau. In preparation for the independence war, Cabral set up training camps in Ghana with the permission of Kwame Nkrumah. Cabral trained his lieutenants through various techniques, including mock conversations to provide them with effective communication skills that would aid their efforts to mobilize Guinean tribal chiefs to support the PAIGC. Cabral realized the war effort could be sustained only if his troops could be fed and taught to live off the land alongside the larger populace. Being an agronomist, he taught his troops to teach local crop growers better farming techniques, so that they could increase productivity and be able to feed their own family and tribe, as well as the soldiers enlisted in the PAIGC's military wing.
When not fighting, PAIGC soldiers would plow the fields alongside the local population. Cabral and the PAIGC set up a trade-and-barter bazaar system that moved around the country and made staple goods available to the countryside at prices lower than that of colonial store owners. During the war, Cabral set up a roving hospital and triage station to give medical care to wounded PAIGC soldiers and quality-of-life care to the larger populace, relying on medical supplies garnered from the USSR and Sweden; the bazaars and triage stations were at first stationary, until they came under frequent attack from Portuguese regime forces. In 1972, Cabral began to form a People's Assembly in preparation for the independence of Guinea-Bissau, but disgruntled former PAIGC rival Inocêncio Kani, together with another member of PAIGC, shot and killed him on 20 January 1973 in Conakry; the possible plan was to arrest Cabral, but facing the peaceful resistance of Cabral, they killed him. According to some theories, Portuguese PIDE agents, whose alleged plan went awry, wanted to influence Cabral`s rivals through agents operating within the PAIGC, in hope of arresting Cabral and placing him under the custody of Portuguese authorities.
Another theory claims that Ahmed Sékou Touré, jealous of Cabral's greater international prestige, among other motives, orchestrated the conspiracy. After the assassination,about one hundred officers and guerrilla soldiers of the PAIGC, accused of involvement in the conspiracy that resulted in the murder of Amílcar Cabral and the attempt to seize power in the movement, were summarily executed, his half-brother, Luís Cabral, became the leader of the Guinea-Bissau branch of the party and would become President of Guinea-Bissau. A declassified United States Department of State brief notes that the motives of his assassination are unclear but may have linked to "a feud between mulattos from the Cape Verde islands and mainland Africans." Cabral was assassinated prior to the independence of the Portuguese colonies in Africa, therefore died before he could see
Alexander the Great
Alexander III of Macedon known as Alexander the Great, was a king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. He was born in Pella in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of 20, he spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, by the age of thirty he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to northwestern India. He was undefeated in battle and is considered one of history's most successful military commanders. During his youth, Alexander was tutored by Aristotle until age 16. After Philip's assassination in 336 BC, he succeeded his father to the throne and inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army. Alexander was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his father's pan-Hellenic project to lead the Greeks in the conquest of Persia. In 334 BC, he began a series of campaigns that lasted 10 years. Following the conquest of Anatolia, Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles, most notably the battles of Issus and Gaugamela.
He subsequently overthrew Persian King Darius III and conquered the Achaemenid Empire in its entirety. At that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River, he endeavored to reach the "ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea" and invaded India in 326 BC, winning an important victory over the Pauravas at the Battle of the Hydaspes. He turned back at the demand of his homesick troops. Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC, the city that he planned to establish as his capital, without executing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia. In the years following his death, a series of civil wars tore his empire apart, resulting in the establishment of several states ruled by the Diadochi, Alexander's surviving generals and heirs. Alexander's legacy includes the cultural diffusion and syncretism which his conquests engendered, such as Greco-Buddhism, he founded some twenty cities. Alexander's settlement of Greek colonists and the resulting spread of Greek culture in the east resulted in a new Hellenistic civilization, aspects of which were still evident in the traditions of the Byzantine Empire in the mid-15th century AD and the presence of Greek speakers in central and far eastern Anatolia until the 1920s.
Alexander became legendary as a classical hero in the mold of Achilles, he features prominently in the history and mythic traditions of both Greek and non-Greek cultures. He became the measure against which military leaders compared themselves, military academies throughout the world still teach his tactics, he is ranked among the most influential people in history. Alexander was born on the sixth day of the ancient Greek month of Hekatombaion, which corresponds to 20 July 356 BC, although the exact date is disputed, in Pella, the capital of the Kingdom of Macedon, he was the son of the king of Macedon, Philip II, his fourth wife, the daughter of Neoptolemus I, king of Epirus. Although Philip had seven or eight wives, Olympias was his principal wife for some time because she gave birth to Alexander. Several legends surround Alexander's childhood. According to the ancient Greek biographer Plutarch, on the eve of the consummation of her marriage to Philip, Olympias dreamed that her womb was struck by a thunder bolt that caused a flame to spread "far and wide" before dying away.
Sometime after the wedding, Philip is said to have seen himself, in a dream, securing his wife's womb with a seal engraved with a lion's image. Plutarch offered a variety of interpretations of these dreams: that Olympias was pregnant before her marriage, indicated by the sealing of her womb. Ancient commentators were divided about whether the ambitious Olympias promulgated the story of Alexander's divine parentage, variously claiming that she had told Alexander, or that she dismissed the suggestion as impious. On the day Alexander was born, Philip was preparing a siege on the city of Potidea on the peninsula of Chalcidice; that same day, Philip received news that his general Parmenion had defeated the combined Illyrian and Paeonian armies, that his horses had won at the Olympic Games. It was said that on this day, the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, burnt down; this led Hegesias of Magnesia to say that it had burnt down because Artemis was away, attending the birth of Alexander.
Such legends may have emerged when Alexander was king, at his own instigation, to show that he was superhuman and destined for greatness from conception. In his early years, Alexander was raised by a nurse, sister of Alexander's future general Cleitus the Black. In his childhood, Alexander was tutored by the strict Leonidas, a relative of his mother, by Lysimachus of Acarnania. Alexander was raised in the manner of noble Macedonian youths, learning to read, play the lyre, ride and hunt; when Alexander was ten years old, a trader from Thessaly brought Philip a horse, which he offered to sell for thirteen talents. The horse refused to be mounted, Philip ordered it away. Alexander however, detecting the horse's fear of its own shadow, asked to tame the horse, which he managed. Plutarch stated that Philip, overjoyed at this display of courage and ambition, kissed his son tearfully, declaring: "My boy, you must find a kingdom big enough for your ambitions. Macedon is too small for you", an