Kamarina was an ancient city on the southern coast of Sicily in southern Italy. The ruins of the site and an archaeological museum are located south of the modern town Scoglitti, a frazione of the comune Vittoria in the province of Ragusa, it was founded by Syracuse in 599 BC, but destroyed by the mother city in 552 BC. Its remains are today in the municipality of Ragusa; the Geloans, founded it anew in 461 BC, under the Olympic charioteer Psaumis of Camarina. It seems to have been in general hostile to Syracuse, though an ally of Athens in 427 BC, it gave some slight help to Syracuse in 415–413 BC, it was destroyed by the Carthaginians in 405 BC, restored by Timoleon in 339 BC after its abandonment by Dionysius' order, but in 258 BC fell into the hands of the Romans. Its complete destruction dates from AD 853; the site of the ancient city is among shifting sandhills, the lack of stone in the neighborhood has led to its buildings being used as a quarry by the inhabitants of Gela, so that nothing is now visible above ground but a small part of the wall of the temple of Athena and a few foundations of houses.
When the Geloans re-founded the city in 461, they appear to have done so with a democratic constitution. In 415 Thucydides describes a public meeting. A series of more than 140 lead plates, discovered around the Temple of Athena, with information about citizens written on them, has suggested to some that Kamarina used allotment to select jurors and city officials; these may, have had some other use, for example, as a register of citizens for military purposes. Just before the Carthaginians razed Kamarina in the 5th century BC, the Kamarinians were plagued with a mysterious disease; the marsh of Kamarina had protected the city from its hostile neighbors to the north. It was suspected that the marsh was the source of the strange illness and the idea of draining the marsh to end the epidemic became popular; the town oracle was consulted. The oracle advised the leaders not to drain the marsh, but the discontent was widespread and the leaders opted to drain the marsh against the oracle's advice. Once it was dry, there was nothing stopping the Carthaginian army from advancing.
They razed the city, killing every last inhabitant. The story of the marsh is told by the Roman geographer Strabo and repeated by Carl Sagan in Pale Blue Dot; the story of the city is recounted by the latter author as a lesson: that action guided by fear and ignorance intensifies the problems it seeks to ameliorate. Modern remains are scanty, they include archaic ruins of a temple of Athena. Nearby are tombs of a necropolis from the fifth-fourth century BC. Part of the remains are now in the archaeological museum of Syracuse; the archaeological park includes the remains of a "Hamman qbel Jamaa" - public baths used before entering the mosque, one of only two known on the island. Official website
For the Renaissance painter Sofonisba Anguissola, see Sofonisba Anguissola. For the American activist Sophonisba Breckinridge, see Sophonisba Breckinridge. Sophonisba was a Carthaginian noblewoman who lived during the Second Punic War, the daughter of Hasdrubal Gisco Gisgonis. In an act that became legendary, Sophonisba poisoned herself rather than be humiliated in a Roman triumph; the form of the name Sophonisba is not known until the fifteenth century, in a few late manuscripts of Livy, but it is the better known form because of literature. Dio Cassius tells us that Sophoniba was a great beauty, betrothed to King Masinissa until 206. Masinissa was the leader of the Massylii Numidians. However, in 206, Masinissa allied himself to Rome. Dio Cassius suggests that this was because Hasdrubal found a better ally in Syphax, king of the Masaesyli, as was normal in those days, Hasdrubal used his daughter to conclude the diplomatic alliances with Syphax, who had himself been allied to Rome; because Masinissa meets Sophonisba for the first time after the defeat of Syphax, this account is criticized as being "most improbable" by H. E. Butler and H. H. Scullard.
Syphax was defeated and captured in 203 BC by Masinissa and Scipio Africanus in the Battle of the Great Plains on the Bagradas. Masinissa married her. Scipio, refused to agree to this arrangement, insisting on the immediate surrender of the princess so that she could be taken to Rome and appear in the triumphal parade. Masinissa, upbraided by Scipio for his weakness, was urged to leave her. Masinissa feared the Romans more. Thus, he swore his love to her, he told her that he could not free her from captivity or shield her from Roman wrath, so he asked her to die like a true Carthaginian princess. With great composure, she drank a cup of poison, her story much embellished, is told indirectly in Polybius. Polybius, never refers to Sophonisba by name in his allusions to her marriage to Syphax, in his extensive account of Laelius' maneuvers against Syphax; the historian had met Masinissa. It has been proposed that Polybius' account provides the basis for the Sophonisba story; when Polybius does refer to her, he uses the diminutive in a tone.
In one passage, Polybius ridicules Syphax for being less courageous than his own "child bride". Petrarch elaborated her story in his epic poem Africa, published posthumously in 1396; the playwright John Marston wrote The Wonder of Women a Roman tragedy based on the story of Sophonisba, in 1606 for the Children of the Queen's Revels. There are a number of paintings of Sophonisba drinking her poison, but the subject is very similar to that of Artemisia II of Caria drinking her husband's ashes, the Rembrandt in the Prado and a Donato Creti in the National Gallery are examples of works where the intended subject remains uncertain between the two. Sophonisba became the subject of tragedies from the 16th to the 19th centuries, along with the story of Cleopatra, furnished more dramas than any other; the first tragedy is credited to the Italian Galeotto Del Carretto, written in 1502, but issued posthumously in 1546. The first to appear, was Gian Giorgio Trissino's play of 1515 which, "in codifying the forms of Italian classical tragedy, helped consign Del Carretto's Sofonisba to oblivion."
In France, Trissino's version was adapted by Mellin de Saint-Gelais, may have served as the primary model for versions by Antoine de Montchrestien and Nicolas de Montreux. The tragedy by Jean Mairet is one of the first monuments of French "classicism", was followed by a version from Pierre Corneille; the story of Sophonisba served as subject for works by John Marston, David Murray, Nathaniel Lee, Daniel Caspar von Lohenstein, Henry Purcell, Antonio Caldara, Leonardo Leo, Luca Antonio Predieri, James Thomson, Niccolò Jommelli, Baldassare Galuppi, Tommaso Traetta, Antonio Boroni, Christopher Gluck, Maria Teresa Agnesi, Mattia Vento, François Joseph Lagrange-Chancel, revised by Voltaire, Christian Gottlob Neefe, António Leal Moreira, Joseph Joaquín Mazuelo, Vittorio Alfieri, Pietro Alessandro Guglielmi, Marcos Portugal, Ferdinando Paer, Vincenzo Federici, Luigi Petrali, Emanuel Geibel, Jeronim de Rada, Giuseppe Brunati, Dimitrie Cuclin, Vasco Graça Moura, others. Sophonisba appears in film, first in Giovanni Pastrone's 1914 silent film Cabiria and again in Carmine Gallone's 1937 epic movie Scipio Africanus: The Defeat of Hannibal.
Livy, Ab urbe condita libri xxix.23, xxx.8, 12-15.8 Livius.org: Sophoniba
Dido was, according to ancient Greek and Roman sources, the founder and first queen of Carthage. She is known from the account given by the Roman poet Virgil in his epic, Aeneid. In some sources she is known as Elissa. Many names in the legend of Dido are of Punic origin, which suggests that the first Greek authors who mention this story have taken up Phoenician accounts. One suggestion is that Dido is an epithet from the same Semitic root as David, which means "Beloved". Others state Didô means "the wanderer". According to Marie-Pierre Noël, "Elishat/Elisha" is a name attested on Punic votives, it is composed of the Punic reflex of *ʾil- "god", the remote Phoenician creator god El a name for God in Judaism, "‐issa", which could be either "ʾiš" means "fire", or another word for "woman". Other works state. In Greek it appears as Theiossô; this understanding of the chronology related to Dido and her company resulted in the following dates for Dido and her immediate relations, as derived from F. M. Cross and Wm. H. Barnes: Baal-Eser II 846–841 BC Mattan I 840–832 BC 839 BC: Dido was born in Tyre 831 BC: Pygmalion begins to reign 825 BC: Dido flees Tyre in 7th year of Pygmalion, after the death of Acerbas 825 BC and some time thereafter: Dido and companions on Cyprus Between 825 BC and 814 BC: Tyrians build settlement on island of Cothon 814 BC: Dido founds Carthage on mainland 785 BC: Death of Pygmalion 759 BC: Dido died in Carthage The person of Dido can be traced to references by Roman historians to lost writings of Timaeus of Tauromenium in Sicily.
Historians gave both for the foundation of Carthage and the foundation of Rome. Appian in the beginning of his Punic Wars claims that Carthage was founded by a certain Zorus and Carchedon, but Zorus looks like an alternative transliteration of the city name Tyre and Carchedon is just the Greek form of Carthage. Timaeus made Carchedon's wife Elissa the sister of King Pygmalion of Tyre. Archaeological evidence of settlement on the site of Carthage before the last quarter of the 8th century BC has yet to be found. Paucity of material for this period may be explained by rejection of the Greek Dark Age theory; that the city is named at least indicates it was a colony. The only surviving full account before Virgil's treatment is that of Virgil's contemporary Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus in his Philippic histories as rendered in a digest or epitome made by Junianus Justinus in the 3rd century AD. Justin quoting or paraphrasing Trogus states, a king of Tyre whom Justin does not name, made his beautiful daughter Dido and son Pygmalion his joint heirs.
But on his death the people took Pygmalion alone as their ruler though Pygmalion was yet still a boy. Dido married Acerbas her uncle who as priest of Heracles—that is, Melqart—was second in power to King Pygmalion. Acerbas can be equated with the Zikarbaal king of Byblos mentioned in the Egyptian Tale of Wenamon. Rumor told that Acerbas had much wealth secretly buried and King Pygmalion had Acerbas murdered in hopes of gaining this wealth. Dido, desiring to escape Tyre, expressed a wish to move into Pygmalion's palace, but ordered the attendants whom Pygmalion sent to aid in the move, to throw all Acerbas' bags of gold into the sea as an offering to his spirit. In fact these bags contained only sand. Dido persuaded the attendants to join her in flight to another land rather than face Pygmalion's anger when he discovered what had become of Acerbas' wealth; some senators joined her in her flight. The party arrived at Cyprus. There the exiles seized about eighty young women who were prostituting themselves on the shore in order to provide wives for the men in the party.
Dido and her followers arrived on the coast of North Africa where Dido asked the Berber king Iarbas for a small bit of land for a temporary refuge until she could continue her journeying, only as much land as could be encompassed by an oxhide. They agreed. Dido cut the oxhide into fine strips so that she had enough to encircle an entire nearby hill, therefore afterwards named Byrsa "hide"; that would become their new home. Many of the local Berbers joined the settlement and both Berbers and envoys from the nearby Phoenician city of Utica urged the building of a city. In digging the foundations an ox's head was found, indicating a city that would be wealthy but subject to others. Accordingly, another area of the hill was dug instead where a horse's head was found, indicating that the city would be powerful in war, but when the new city of Carthage had been established and become prosperous, Iarbas, a native king of the Maxitani or Mauritani, demanded Dido for his wife or he would make war on Carthage.
Dido's envoys, fearing Iarbas, told Dido only that Iarbas' terms for peace were that someone from Carthage must dwell permanently with him to teach Phoenician ways and they added that of course no Carthaginian would agree to dwell with such savages. Dido condemned any who would feel that way when they should indeed give their lives for the city if necessary. Dido's envoys explained that Iarbas had requested Dido as wife. Dido was trapped by her words. Still, she preferred to stay faithful to her first husband and after creating a ceremonial funeral pyre and sacrificing many victi
Nikolas Boris Rankov is a British professor of Roman history at Royal Holloway, University of London. He is current umpire. Rankov was born in the only son of Radoslav and Helga Rankov, he was educated at Bradford Grammar School subsequently Corpus Christi College, Oxford. He is best known for his participation in the Oxford-Cambridge Boat Race, which Oxford won six times between 1978 and 1983, three times with Rankov in the 4 seat and three times in the 5 seat; this led to establishment of the so-called "Rankov Rule", which states that oarsmen will compete in the race no more than four times as an undergraduate and no more than four times as a graduate. Rankov was the Race umpire in 2003, 2005, 2009 and 2015. Rankov's research interests include Roman history Roman Britain, the Roman army and archaeology of the Roman empire, ancient shipping. Rankov was rowing master for the Trireme Trust's reconstructed trireme Olympias; as of 2004, Rankov was chairman of the Trust. Rankov has taught at the Classics and Ancient History Department of The University of Western Australia from 1986–1989, at the Classics Department at Royal Holloway University of London since 1990, was Head of Department from 1999–2002.
He married Kati Granger in 1981. He has two daughters. Boris Rankov, official homepage with bibliography
Enna is a city and comune located at the center of Sicily, southern Italy, in the province of Enna, towering above the surrounding countryside. It has earned the nicknames ombelico of Sicily. At 931 m above sea level, Enna is the highest Italian provincial capital; until 1926 the town was known as Castrogiovanni. Enna is situated near the center of the island; the peculiar situation of Enna is described by several ancient authors, is one of the most remarkable in Sicily. The ancient city was placed on the level summit of a gigantic hill, surrounded on all sides with precipitous cliffs wholly inaccessible; the few paths were defended, the city was abundantly supplied with water which gushes from the face of the rocks on all sides. With a plain or table land of about 5 km in circumference on the summit, it formed one of the strongest natural fortresses in the world. Archaeological excavations have revealed artifacts dating from the 14th century BC, proving human presence in the area since Neolithic times.
A settlement from before the 11th century BC, assigned by some to the Sicanians, has been identified at the top of the hill. In historical times, Enna became renowned in Italy for the cult of the goddess Demeter, her grove was known as the umbilicus Siciliae. Ceres' temple in Henna was a famed site of worship; the origin of the toponym Henna remains obscure. Dionysius I of Syracuse attempted to take over Enna. At first he encouraged a citizen of Enna, to seize the sovereign power. Afterward Dionysius I assisted the Ennaeans to get rid of their despot, but it was not till a period that, after repeated expeditions against the neighbouring Sicilian cities, Dionysius took control of by betrayal. Agathocles controlled Enna; when the Agrigentines under Xenodicus began to proclaim the restoration of the other cities of Sicily to freedom, the Ennaeans were the first to join their standard, opened their gates to Xenodicus, 309 BC. Accounts of the First Punic War refer to Enna. In the Second Punic War, while Marcellus was engaged in the siege of Syracuse, Enna became the scene of a fearful massacre.
The defection of several Sicilian towns from Rome had alarmed Pinarius the governor of Enna. In order to forestall any treachery, he used the Roman garrison to kill the citizens, whom he had gathered in the theater, killed them all; the soldiers were allowed to plunder the city. Eighty years Enna was the center of the First Servile War in Sicily, which erupted under the lead of Eunus, a former slave, his forces took over Enna. It was the last place that held out against the proconsul Rupilius, was at length betrayed into his hands. According to Strabo, the city suffered much damage, he believed. Cicero referred to it in a way to suggest that it was still a flourishing municipal town: it had a fertile territory, well-adapted for the growth of cereal grains, was diligently cultivated till it was rendered desolate by the exactions of Verres. From this time little is known about Enna: Strabo speaks of it as still inhabited, though by a small population, in his time: and the name appears in Pliny among the municipal towns of Sicily, as well as in Ptolemy and the Itineraries.
When the Roman Empire was divided in 395AD, Sicily became part of the Western Roman Empire. The noted senatorial family of the Nicomachi had estates in Sicily. Around 408 the politician and grammarian Nicomachus Flavianus worked on an edition of the first 10 books of Livy during a stay on his estate in Enna; this was recorded in the subscriptions of the manuscripts of Livy. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Enna flourished throughout the Middle Ages as an important Byzantine stronghold. In 859, in the course of the Islamic conquest of Sicily, after several attempts and a long siege, the town was taken by Muslim troops, who entered one by one through a sewer to breach the town's defenses. Afterwards, 8,000 residents of the city were massacred by Muslim forces; the Arabic name for the city, Qas'r Ianni, was a combination of "qas'r", "Ianni", a corruption of "Henna". The city retained its name in the native dialect of Sicily as Castro Janni until Benito Mussolini ordered renaming in 1927.
The Normans captured Enna in 1087. Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Sicily, established a summer residence here, now called the "Torre di Federico". Troops of North Italian soldiers, from regions such as Lombardy, Piedmont and Emilia-Romagna, came to settle in the city and neighbouring towns such as Nicosia and Piazza Armerina. Gallo-Italic dialects are still spoken in these areas. Enna had a prominent role in the Sicilian Vespers that led to the Aragonese conquest of Sicily, thenceforth enjoyed a short communal autonomy. King Frederick III of Sicily embellished the city, it was restored as provincial capital in the 1920s. In 2002 it became a university city; the citizens of the city have a high incidence of multiple
Hasdrubal the Boetharch
Hasdrubal the Boetharch was a Carthaginian general during the Third Punic War. Little is known about him. "Boetharch" was a Carthaginian office, the exact function of, unclear but, not to be confused with the Greek boeotarch. Hasdrubal led the Carthaginian forces at the Siege of Carthage in 146 BC, their defeat by Scipio Aemilianus, proconsul of the Roman Republic, brought the war to a close. Hasdrubal's military skill was not to be doubted, as his army had been equipped, his work at defending Carthage cost the Romans a difficult campaign to suppress the defenders. His tactical skills, were dwarfed by his contemporaries Massinissa and Scipio. Hasdrubal had a wife and two sons, according to Polybius, threw themselves into a burning temple when they witnessed their army's defeat. Hasdrubal had surrendered himself to the Romans prior to his family's deaths, an act provoking their suicide, he was taken to Rome and displayed during Scipio's triumph, but allowed to live in peace in Italy. This may be the same general Hasdrubal, defeated near the town of Tunes by the Numidian king, just after war was declared.
Other Hasdrubals in Carthaginian history Havell, H. L. Republican Rome... BiblioBazaar, p. 321, ISBN 1-115-39574-2. Huss, Geschichte der Karthager, Munich: C. H. Beck. Mommsen, William Purdie Dickson, ed; the History of Rome, Vol. 3, New York: C. Scribner & Co, pp. 42–54. Book XXXVIII of Polybius's Histories, English trans. 7-8,20 Smith, William, ed. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Vol. II, C. C. Little & J. Brown, pp. 359–360. Media related to Hasdrubal at Wikimedia Commons Polybius, Fragments of Book XXXVIII, 7 Livius.org: Hasdrubal William Smith, "Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, Volume 2", C. C. Little and J. Brown, 1849
Military intelligence is a military discipline that uses information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to assist commanders in their decisions. This aim is achieved by providing an assessment of data from a range of sources, directed towards the commanders' mission requirements or responding to questions as part of operational or campaign planning. To provide an analysis, the commander's information requirements are first identified, which are incorporated into intelligence collection and dissemination. Areas of study may include the operational environment, hostile and neutral forces, the civilian population in an area of combat operations, other broader areas of interest. Intelligence activities are conducted at all levels, from tactical to strategic, in peacetime, the period of transition to war, during a war itself. Most governments maintain a military intelligence capability to provide analytical and information collection personnel in both specialist units and from other arms and services.
The military and civilian intelligence capabilities collaborate to inform the spectrum of political and military activities. Personnel performing intelligence duties may be selected for their analytical abilities and personal intelligence before receiving formal training. Intelligence operations are carried out throughout the hierarchy of military activity. Strategic intelligence is concerned with broad issues such as economics, political assessments, military capabilities and intentions of foreign nations; such intelligence may be scientific, tactical, diplomatic or sociological, but these changes are analyzed in combination with known facts about the area in question, such as geography and industrial capacities. Operational intelligence is focused on denial of intelligence at operational tiers; the operational tier is below the strategic level of leadership and refers to the design of practical manifestation. The term operation intelligence is sometimes used to refer to intelligence that supports long-term investigations into multiple, similar targets.
Operational intelligence is concerned with identifying, targeting and intervening in criminal activity. Tactical intelligence is focused on support to operations at the tactical level and would be attached to the battlegroup. At the tactical level, briefings are delivered to patrols on current threats and collection priorities; these patrols are debriefed to elicit information for analysis and communication through the reporting chain. Intelligence should respond to the needs of leadership, based on the military objective and operational plans; the military objective provides a focus for the estimate process, from which a number of information requirements are derived. Information requirements may be related to terrain and impact on vehicle or personnel movement, disposition of hostile forces, sentiments of the local population and capabilities of the hostile order of battle. In response to the information requirements, analysts examine existing information, identifying gaps in the available knowledge.
Where gaps in knowledge exist, the staff may be able to task collection assets to target the requirement. Analysis reports draw on all available sources of information, whether drawn from existing material or collected in response to the requirement; the analysis reports are used to inform the remaining planning staff, influencing planning and seeking to predict adversary intent. This process is described as Intelligence Requirement Management; the process of intelligence has four phases: collection, analysis and dissemination. In the United Kingdom these are known as direction, collection and dissemination. In the U. S. military, Joint Publication 2-0 states: "The six categories of intelligence operations are: planning and direction. Many of the most important facts may be gathered from public sources; this form of information collection is known as open-source intelligence. For example, the population, ethnic make-up and main industries of a region are important to military commanders, this information is public.
It is however imperative that the collector of information understands that what is collected is "information", does not become intelligence until after an analyst has evaluated and verified this information. Collection of read materials, composition of units or elements, disposition of strength, tactics, personalities of these units and elements contribute to the overall intelligence value after careful analysis; the tonnage and basic weaponry of most capital ships and aircraft are public, their speeds and ranges can be reasonably estimated by experts just from photographs. Ordinary facts like the lunar phase on particular days or the ballistic range of common military weapons are very valuable to planning, are habitually collected in an intelligence library. A great deal of useful intelligence can be gathered from photointerpretation of detailed high-altitude pictures of a country. Photointerpreters maintain catalogs of munitions factories, military bases and crate designs in order to interpret munition shipments and inventories.
Most intelligence services support groups whose only purpose is to keep maps. Since maps have valuable civilian uses, these agencies are publicly associated or identified as other parts of the government; some historic counterintelligence services in Russia and China, have intentionally banned or p