Hamilton: An American Musical is a sung-and-rapped through musical about the life of American Founding Father Alexander Hamilton, with music and book by Lin-Manuel Miranda, inspired by the 2004 biography Alexander Hamilton by historian Ron Chernow. Incorporating hip hop, R&B, soul, traditional-style show tunes, color-conscious casting of non-white actors as the Founding Fathers and other historical figures, the musical achieved both critical acclaim and box office success; the musical made its Off-Broadway debut at The Public Theater in February 2015, where its engagement was sold out. The show transferred to Broadway in August 2015 at the Richard Rodgers Theatre. On Broadway, it received unprecedented advance box office sales. In 2016, Hamilton received a record-setting 16 Tony nominations, winning 11, including Best Musical, was the recipient of the 2016 Grammy Award for Best Musical Theater Album and the 2016 Pulitzer Prize for Drama; the prior Off-Broadway production of Hamilton won the 2015 Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Musical as well as seven other Drama Desk Awards out of 14 total nominated categories.
The Chicago production of Hamilton began preview performances at the CIBC Theatre in September 2016 and opened the following month. The West End production of Hamilton opened at the Victoria Palace Theatre in London in December 2017, winning seven Olivier Awards in 2018, including Best New Musical; the first U. S. national tour of the show began performances in March 2017. A second U. S. tour opened in February 2018. Hamilton's third U. S. tour began January 11, 2019, with a 3-week engagement in Puerto Rico featuring Miranda in the lead role. The play has two acts, telling Hamilton's story through major events in his life and American history, it tells Hamilton's life from beginning to end along with various other characters such as Marquis De Lafayette, Aaron Burr, John Laurens, Hercules Mulligan, Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton, Angelica Schuyler, Phillip Hamilton and former presidents George Washington, James Madison and Thomas Jefferson. The musical begins with the company summarizing Alexander Hamilton's early life as an orphan on the island of Nevis.
After arriving in New York in 1776, Hamilton meets Aaron Burr, John Laurens, Marquis de Lafayette, Hercules Mulligan, impresses them with his rhetorical skills. They affirm their revolutionary goals to each other. Angelica and Peggy are introduced. King George insists on his authority. During the New York and New Jersey campaign, Hamilton accepts a position as George Washington's aide-de-camp, instead of field command. Hamilton meets, falls in love with, marries Eliza Schuyler, as her sister Angelica suppresses her feelings for the sake of their happiness. After the wedding, Laurens and Mulligan drink together, while the three poke fun at Hamilton for getting married. Burr walks in on the group. Burr congratulates Hamilton on his position as aide to camp of Washington. Burr reflects on Hamilton's swift rise. Conditions are worsening for the continental army, Hamilton's constant pleading to Washington for a command continue to be shot down. Washington grants a command to General Charles Lee, unfit to be leading one.
After being fired by Washington, Lee goes on a tirade against Washington, claiming him to be unfit to lead. Though Hamilton wishes to challenge Lee, he is commanded not to by Washington. Since Hamilton is unable to challenge Lee, Laurens does and thus duels Lee, with Hamilton and Burr as their seconds. Laurens injures Lee. Hamilton is temporarily suspended by Washington over the duel, is sent home. There, Eliza reveals that she is pregnant with her first child, asks Hamilton to slow down to take in what has happened in their lives. After Lafayette convinces France to get involved on the colonists' side, he urges Washington to call Hamilton back to help plan the final Siege of Yorktown. Washington agrees, but explains to Hamilton -, convinced he should die a martyr and a hero in war - that he should be careful with his actions, because whatever he does will be known for ages to come. Hamilton agrees to join, reflects that he now has something to live for, will give up on his efforts to die in war.
At the Siege of Yorktown, Hamilton meets up with Lafayette to take down the British, revealing that Mulligan was recruited as a spy, helping them figure out what to do to trap the British and win the war. Soon after the victory at Yorktown, Hamilton's son, Philip is born, while Burr has a daughter, Theodosia. Hamilton receives word that his friend Laurens has been killed in a pointless battle, throws himself into his work, he co-authors The Federalist Papers and is selected as Secretary of the Treasury by newly elected President Washington. Angelica moves to London with her new husband. At the beginning, Thomas Jefferson returns to America from being the U. S. ambassador to France. In 1789, Jefferson and Hamilton debate the latter's financial proposals at a Cabinet meeting. Washington pulls Hamilton aside, tells him to figure out a compromise
William Lewis Safir, better known as William Safire, was an American author, columnist and presidential speechwriter. He was a long-time syndicated political columnist for The New York Times and wrote the "On Language" column in The New York Times Magazine about popular etymology, new or unusual usages, other language-related topics. Safire was born William Lewis Safir in New York City, New York the son of Ida and Oliver Craus Safir, his family was Jewish, originated in Romania on his father's side. Safire added the "e" to his surname for pronunciation reasons, though some of his relatives continue to use the original spelling. Safire graduated from the Bronx High School of Science, a specialized public high school in New York City, he dropped out after two years. He delivered the commencement address at Syracuse in 1978 and 1990, became a trustee of the university, he was a public relations executive from 1955 to 1960. He had been a radio and television producer and an Army correspondent, he worked as a publicist for a homebuilder who exhibited a model home at an American trade fair at Sokolniki Park in Moscow in 1959—the one in which Richard Nixon and Nikita Khrushchev had their famous Kitchen Debate.
A circulated black-and-white photograph of the event was taken by Safire. Safire joined Nixon's campaign for the 1960 Presidential race, again in 1968. After Nixon's 1968 victory, Safire served as a speechwriter for Spiro Agnew. Safire prepared a speech called In Event of Moon Disaster for President Nixon to read on television if the Apollo 11 astronauts were stranded on the Moon. According to the plans, Mission Control would "close down communications" with the LEM and a clergyman would have commended their souls to "the deepest of the deep" in a public ritual likened to burial at sea. Presidential telephone calls to the astronauts' wives were planned; the speech originated in a memo from Safire to Nixon's chief of staff H. R. Haldeman in which Safire suggested a protocol the administration might follow in reaction to such a disaster; the last line of the prepared text contained an allusion to Rupert Brooke's First World War poem "The Soldier". In a 2013 piece for Foreign Policy magazine, Joshua Keating included the speech as one of six entries in a list of "The Greatest Doomsday Speeches Never Made."He joined The New York Times as a political columnist in 1973.
Soon after joining the Times, Safire learned that he had been the target of "national security" wiretaps authorized by Nixon, after noting that he had worked only on domestic matters, wrote with what he characterized as "restrained fury" that he had not worked for Nixon through a difficult decade "to have him—or some lizard-lidded paranoid acting without his approval—eavesdropping on my conversations."In 1978, Safire won the Pulitzer Prize for Commentary on Bert Lance's alleged budgetary irregularities. Safire's column on October 27, 1980, entitled "The Ayatollah Votes", was quoted in a campaign ad for Ronald Reagan in that year's presidential election. Safire frequently appeared on the NBC's Meet the Press. Upon announcing the retirement of Safire's political column in 2005, Arthur Sulzberger Jr. publisher of The New York Times, said:The New York Times without Bill Safire is all but unimaginable, Bill's provocative and insightful commentary has held our readers captive since he first graced our Op-Ed Page in 1973.
Reaching for his column became a critical and enjoyable part of the day for our readers across the country and around the world. Whether you agreed with him or not was never the point, his writing is delightful and engaging. Safire served as a member of the Pulitzer Prize Board from 1995 to 2004. After ending his op-ed column, he became the full-time chief executive of the Dana Foundation, where he was chairman from 2000. In 2006, Safire was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President George W. Bush. Portions of Safire's FBI file were released in 2010; the documents "detail wiretapping ordered by the Nixon administration, including the tapping of Safire's phone." In addition to his political columns, Safire wrote a column, "On Language", in the weekly The New York Times Magazine from 1979 until the month of his death. Many of the columns were collected in books. According to the linguist Geoffrey Pullum, over the years Safire became less of a "grammar-nitpicker," and Benjamin Zimmer cited Safire's willingness to learn from descriptive linguists.
Another book on language was The New Language of Politics, which developed into what Zimmer called Safire's "magnum opus," Safire's Political Dictionary. Safire described himself as a "libertarian conservative." A Washington Post story on the ending of his op-ed column quotes him on the subject:I'm willing to zap conservatives when they do things that are not libertarian. I was the first to go after George W. on his treatment of prisoners. After voting for Bill Clinton in 1992, Safire became one of the leading critics of Clinton's administration. Hillary Clinton in particular was the target of his ire, he caused controversy in a January 8, 1996, essay when, after reviewing her record, he concluded she was a "congenital liar". She did not respond to the specific instances cited, but said that she didn't feel offended for herself, but for her mother's sake. According to the president's press secretary at the time, Mike McCurry, "the President, if he were not the President, would have delivered a more forceful response to that on the bridge of Mr. Safire's nose".
Safire was one of severa
David Liss is an American writer of novels and short fiction. He grew up in South Florida. Liss received his B. A. degree from Syracuse University, an M. A. from Georgia State University and his M. Phil from Columbia University, he left his post-graduate studies of 18th Century British literature and unfinished dissertation to write full-time. "If things had not worked out with fiction, I would have kept to my graduate school career track and sought a job as a literature professor," he said. Now a full-time writer, Liss lives in Texas with his wife and children. Most of Liss' novels to date are historical-mystery novels. Settings include 18th century London and America, 17th century Amsterdam. One novel, The Ethical Assassin, is a modern mystery-thriller, his first book, A Conspiracy of Paper, won the 2001 Edgar Award for Best First Novel. A member of the International Thriller Writers, he is a regular attendee at Bouchercon and Thrillerfest. A Conspiracy of Paper The Coffee Trader A Spectacle of Corruption The Ethical Assassin The Whiskey Rebels The Devil's Company The Twelfth Enchantment The Day of Atonement Randoms Rebels Renegades Spider-Man: Hostile Takeover "The Double Dealer", in the anthology Thriller.
"What Maisie Knew", in the anthology The New Dead, edited by Christopher Golden. ISBN 978-0-312-55971-7 "Watchlist: A Serial Thriller". ISBN 978-1-59315-559-9 "A Bad Season for Necromancy", in the anthology Four Summoner’s Tales. ISBN 978-1-4516-9668-4 The Daring Mystery Comics 70th Anniversary Special, featuring The Phantom Reporter, published by Marvel Comics Black Panther: The Man Without Fear #513-529, ongoing series, published by Marvel Comics Mystery Men, 5-issue limited series with Patrick Zircher, published by Marvel Comics tpb: hardcover ISBN 978-0785162933, soft cover ISBN 978-0785147459 The Spider, comic book series, with Colton Worley, published by Dynamite Entertainment The Shadow Now, 6-issue limited series, with Colton Worley, Dynamite Entertainment Sherlock Holmes: Moriarty Lives, 5-issue limited series, with Daniel Indro, published by Dynamite Entertainment Art at Our Doorstep: San Antonio Writers and Artists featuring David Liss. Edited by Nan Cuba and Riley Robinson. Official website
The Residence Act of 1790 titled An Act for establishing the temporary and permanent seat of the Government of the United States, was a United States federal statute adopted during the second session of the First United States Congress, signed into law by President George Washington on July 16, 1790. The Act provided for a national capital and permanent seat of government to be established at a site along the Potomac River and empowered President Washington to appoint commissioners to oversee the project, it set a deadline of December 1800 for the capital to be ready, designated Philadelphia as the nation's temporary capital while the new seat of government was being built. At the time, the federal government was operating out of New York City. Congress passed the Residence Act as part of a compromise brokered among James Madison, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton. Madison and Jefferson favored a southerly site for the capital on the Potomac River, but they lacked a majority to pass the measure through Congress.
Meanwhile, Hamilton was pushing for Congress to pass the Assumption Bill, to allow the Federal government to assume debts accumulated by the states during the American Revolutionary War. With the compromise, Hamilton was able to muster support from the New York State congressional delegation for the Potomac site, while four delegates switched from opposition to support for the Assumption Bill. At the outset of the Revolutionary War, the Second Continental Congress was meeting in Philadelphia at the Pennsylvania State House. On account of British military actions, the Congress was forced to relocate to Baltimore, Lancaster and York, Pennsylvania for a time before returning to Philadelphia. Upon gaining independence, the Congress of the Confederation was formed, Philadelphia became the new nation's first seat of government. Congress did not remain in the city long however, for in June 1783, a mob of angry soldiers converged upon Independence Hall demanding payment for their service during the war.
Congress requested that John Dickinson, the governor of Pennsylvania, call up the militia to defend Congress from attacks by the protesters. In what became known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, Dickinson sympathized with the protesters and refused to remove them from Philadelphia; as a result, Congress was forced to flee to Princeton, New Jersey on June 21, 1783, met in Annapolis and Trenton, before ending up in New York. During the mid-1780s, numerous locations were offered by the states to serve as the nation's capital, but the Continental Congress could never agree on a site due to regional loyalties and tensions. Proposed sites included: Kingston, New York; the Southern states refused to accept a capital in the North, vice versa. Another suggestion was for there to be one in the North and one in the South; the United States Congress was established in 1789, after ratification of the United States Constitution, New York City remained the temporary capital. The new Constitution—through Article I, Section 8, Clause 17—authorized Congress to create a federal district outside of the state structure as the nation's permanent seat of government, granted Congress exclusive governing jurisdiction over it.
The choice of a site was left for the new Congress to decide. During the debate, two sites became serious contenders: one site on the Potomac River near Georgetown; the Susquehanna River site was approved by the House in September 1789, while the Senate bill specified a site on the Delaware River near Germantown, Pennsylvania. The House and Senate were not able to reconcile their two bills; the selection of a location for the capital resurfaced in the summer of 1790. At the same time, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton was pushing for Congress to pass a financial plan. A key provision of Hamilton's plan involved the Federal government assuming states' debts incurred during the American Revolutionary War. Northern states had accumulated a huge amount of debt during the war, amounting to 21.5 million dollars, wanted the federal government to assume their burden. The Southern states, whose citizens would be forced to pay a portion of this debt if the Federal Government assumed it, balked at this proposal.
Some states, including Virginia, had paid half of their debts, felt that their taxpayers should not be assessed again to bail out the less provident. Further, they argued. James Madison a representative from Virginia, led a group of legislators from the south in blocking the provision and preventing the plan from gaining approval; when Jefferson ran into Hamilton at President Washington's residence in New York City in late June 1790, Jefferson offered to host a dinner to bring Madison and Hamilton together. Subsequently, a compromise was reached, in which the northern delegates would agree to the southerly Potomac River site, in return, the federal government would assume debts accumulated by the states during the American Revolutionary War. Jefferson wrote a letter to James Monroe explaining the compromise. Congress agreed to the compromise. Jefferson was able to get the Virginia delegates to support the bill, with the debt provisions, while Hamilton convinced the New York delegates to agree to the Potomac site for the capital.
The bill was approved by the Senate by a vote of 14 t
James Monroe was an American statesman, lawyer and Founding Father who served as the fifth president of the United States from 1817 to 1825. A member of the Democratic-Republican Party, Monroe was the last president of the Virginia dynasty, his presidency coincided with the Era of Good Feelings, he is best known for issuing the Monroe Doctrine, a policy of opposing European colonialism in the Americas. He served as the governor of Virginia, a member of the United States Senate, the U. S. ambassador to France and Britain, the seventh Secretary of State, the eighth Secretary of War. Born into a planter family in Westmoreland County, Monroe served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. After studying law under Thomas Jefferson from 1780 to 1783, he served as a delegate in the Continental Congress; as a delegate to the Virginia Ratifying Convention, Monroe opposed the ratification of the United States Constitution. In 1790, he won election to the Senate, he left the Senate in 1794 to serve as President George Washington's ambassador to France, but was recalled by Washington in 1796.
Monroe won election as Governor of Virginia in 1799 and supported Jefferson's candidacy in the 1800 presidential election. As President Jefferson's special envoy, Monroe helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase, through which the United States nearly doubled in size. Monroe fell out with his long-time friend, James Madison, after the latter rejected the Monroe–Pinkney Treaty that Monroe negotiated with Britain, he unsuccessfully challenged Madison in the 1808 presidential election, but in April 1811 he joined Madison's administration as Secretary of State. During the stages of the War of 1812, Monroe served as Madison's Secretary of State and Secretary of War, his war-time leadership established him as Madison's heir apparent, he defeated Federalist Party candidate Rufus King in the 1816 presidential election. Monroe's presidency was coterminous with the Era of Good Feelings, as the Federalist Party collapsed as a national political force; as president, Monroe signed the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Missouri as a slave state and banned slavery from territories north of the parallel 36°30′ north.
In foreign affairs and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams favored a policy of conciliation with Britain and a policy of expansionism against the Spanish Empire. In the 1819 Adams–Onís Treaty with Spain, the United States secured Florida and established its western border with New Spain. In 1823, Monroe announced the United States' opposition to any European intervention in the independent countries of the Americas with the Monroe Doctrine, which became a landmark in American foreign policy. Monroe was a member of the American Colonization Society, which supported the colonization of Africa by freed slaves, Liberia's capital of Monrovia is named in his honor. Following his retirement in 1825, Monroe was plagued by financial difficulties, he died in New York City on July 4, 1831. He has been ranked as an above-average president. James Monroe was born on April 28, 1758, in his parents' house located in a wooded area of Westmoreland County, Virginia; the marked site is one mile from the unincorporated community known today as Virginia.
The James Monroe Family Home Site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979. His father Spence Monroe was a moderately prosperous planter who practiced carpentry, his mother Elizabeth Jones married Spence Monroe in 1752 and they had five children: Elizabeth, Spence and Joseph Jones. His paternal 2nd great grandfather Patrick Andrew Monroe emigrated to America from Scotland in the mid-17th century, was part of an ancient Scottish clan known as Clan Munro. In 1650 he patented a large tract of land in Westmoreland County, Virginia. Monroe's mother was the daughter of a wealthy immigrant by the name of James Jones, who immigrated from Wales and had settled in nearby King George County, Virginia. Jones was an architect. Among James Monroe's ancestors were French Huguenot immigrants, who came to Virginia in 1700. At age eleven, Monroe was enrolled in the lone school in the county. Monroe attended this school for only eleven weeks a year. During this time, Monroe formed a lifelong friendship with John Marshall.
Monroe's mother died in 1772, his father died two years later. Though he inherited property from both of his parents, the sixteen-year-old Monroe was forced to withdraw from school to support his younger brothers, his childless maternal uncle, Joseph Jones, became a surrogate father to his siblings. A member of the Virginia House of Burgesses, Jones took Monroe to the capital of Williamsburg and enrolled him in the College of William and Mary. Jones introduced Monroe to important Virginians such as Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, George Washington. In 1774, opposition to the British government grew in the Thirteen Colonies in reaction to the "Intolerable Acts," and Virginia sent a delegation to the First Continental Congress. Monroe became involved in the opposition to Lord Dunmore, the colonial governor of Virginia, he took part in the storming of the Governor's Palace. In early 1776, about a year and a half after his enrollment, Monroe dropped out of college and joined the 3rd Virginia Regiment in the Continental Army.
As the fledgling army valued literacy in its officers, Monroe was commissioned with the rank of lieutenant, serving under Captain William Washington. After months of training and seven hundred Virginia infantrymen were called north to
Aaron Burr Jr. was an American politician and lawyer. He was the third vice president of the United States, serving during President Thomas Jefferson's first term. Burr served as a Continental Army officer in the American Revolutionary War, after which he became a successful lawyer and politician, he was elected twice to the New York State Assembly, was appointed New York State Attorney General, was chosen as a U. S. senator from the State of New York, reached the apex of his career as vice president. In the waning months of his tenure as president of the Senate, he oversaw the 1805 impeachment trial of Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase. Burr shot his political rival Alexander Hamilton in a famous duel in 1804, the last full year of his single term as vice president, he was never tried for the illegal duel and all charges against him were dropped, but Hamilton's death ended Burr's political career. Burr left Washington, D. C. and traveled west seeking new opportunities, both political. His activities led to his arrest on charges of treason in 1807.
The subsequent trial resulted in acquittal, but Burr's western schemes left him with large debts and few influential friends. In a final quest for grand opportunities, he left the United States for Europe, he remained overseas until 1812, when he returned to the United States to practice law in New York City, where he spent the rest of his life in relative obscurity. Aaron Burr Jr. was born in Newark, New Jersey, in 1756 as the second child of the Reverend Aaron Burr Sr. a Presbyterian minister and second president of the College of New Jersey, which became Princeton University. His mother Esther Edwards Burr was the daughter of noted theologian Jonathan Edwards and his wife Sarah. Burr had an older sister Sarah, named for her maternal grandmother, she married founder of the Litchfield Law School in Litchfield, Connecticut. Burr's father died in 1757, his mother died the following year, leaving him and his sister orphans when he was two years old, he and his sister first lived with their maternal grandparents, but his grandmother died in 1757, his grandfather Jonathan Edwards died in 1758.
Young Aaron and Sally were placed with the William Shippen family in Philadelphia. In 1759, the children's guardianship was assumed by their 21-year-old maternal uncle Timothy Edwards; the next year, Edwards married Rhoda Ogden and moved with the children to Elizabeth, New Jersey near her family. Burr had a strained relationship with his uncle, who employed physical punishment; as a child, he made several attempts to run away from home. Burr was admitted to Princeton as a sophomore at age 13 where he joined the American Whig Society and the Cliosophic Society, the college's literary and debating societies, he received his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1772 at age 16 but continued studying theology at Princeton for an additional year. He undertook rigorous theological training with Joseph Bellamy, a Presbyterian, but changed his career path after two years. At age 19, he moved to Connecticut to study law with his brother-in-law Tapping Reeve, who had married Burr's sister in 1771. News reached Litchfield in 1775 of the clashes with British troops at Lexington and Concord, Burr put his studies on hold to enlist in the Continental Army.
During the American Revolutionary War, Burr took part in Colonel Benedict Arnold's expedition to Quebec, an arduous trek of more than 300 miles through the frontier of Maine. Arnold was impressed by Burr's "great spirit and resolution" during the long march, he sent Burr up the Saint Lawrence River when they reached Quebec City to contact General Richard Montgomery, who had taken Montreal, escort him to Quebec. Montgomery promoted Burr to captain and made him an aide-de-camp. Burr distinguished himself during the Battle of Quebec on December 31, 1775, where he attempted to recover Montgomery's corpse after the General had been shot. In the spring of 1776, Burr's stepbrother Matthias Ogden helped him to secure a place on George Washington's staff in Manhattan, but he quit within two weeks on June 26 to be on the battlefield. General Israel Putnam took Burr under his wing, Burr saved an entire brigade from capture after the British landing on Manhattan by his vigilance in the retreat from lower Manhattan to Harlem.
Washington failed to commend his actions in the next day's General Orders, the fastest way to obtain a promotion. Burr was a nationally known hero, but he never received a commendation. According to Ogden, he was infuriated by the incident, which may have led to the eventual estrangement between him and Washington. Burr defended Washington's decision to evacuate New York as "a necessary consequence." It was not until the 1790s. Burr was promoted to lieutenant colonel in July 1777 and assumed virtual leadership of Malcolm's Additional Continental Regiment. There were 300 men under Colonel William Malcolm's nominal command, but Malcolm was called upon to perform other duties, leaving Burr in charge; the regiment fought off many nighttime raids into central New Jersey by Manhattan-based British troops who arrived by water. That year, Burr commanded a small contingent during the harsh winter encampment at Valley Forge, guarding "the Gulph," an isolated pass that controlled one approach to the camp.
He defeated an attempted mutiny by some of the troops. Burr's regiment was devastated by Brit
A duel is an arranged engagement in combat between two people, with matched weapons, in accordance with agreed-upon rules. Duels in this form were chiefly practiced in early modern Europe with precedents in the medieval code of chivalry, continued into the modern period among military officers. During the 17th and 18th centuries, duels were fought with swords, but beginning in the late 18th century in England, duels were more fought using pistols. Fencing and pistol duels continued to co-exist throughout the 19th century; the duel was based on a code of honor. Duels were fought not so much to kill the opponent as to gain "satisfaction", that is, to restore one's honor by demonstrating a willingness to risk one's life for it, as such the tradition of dueling was reserved for the male members of nobility. On occasion, duels with pistols or swords were fought between women. Legislation against dueling goes back to the medieval period; the Fourth Council of the Lateran outlawed duels, civil legislation in the Holy Roman Empire against dueling was passed in the wake of the Thirty Years' War.
From the early 17th century, duels became illegal in the countries. Dueling fell out of favor in England by the mid-19th century and in Continental Europe by the turn of the 20th century. Dueling declined in the Eastern United States in the 19th century and by the time the American Civil War broke out, dueling had begun to wane in the South. Public opinion, not legislation, caused the change. In Western society, the formal concept of a duel developed out of the medieval judicial duel and older pre-Christian practices such as the Viking Age holmgang. In Medieval society, judicial duels were fought by squires to end various disputes. Countries like Germany, United Kingdom, Ireland practiced this tradition. Judicial combat took two forms in the feat of arms and chivalric combat; the feat of arms was supervised by a judge. The battle was fought as a result of a slight or challenge to one party's honor which could not be resolved by a court. Weapons were standardized and typical of a knight's armoury, for example longswords, polearms etc. however, weapon quality and augmentations were at the discretion of the knight, for example, a spiked hand guard or an extra grip for half-swording.
The parties involved would wear their own armour. The duel lasted. In early cases, the defeated party was executed; this type of duel soon evolved into the more chivalric pas d'armes, or "passage of arms", a chivalric hastilude that evolved in the late 14th century and remained popular through the 15th century. A knight or group of knights would stake out a travelled spot, such as a bridge or city gate, let it be known that any other knight who wished to pass must first fight, or be disgraced. If a traveling venans did not have weapons or horse to meet the challenge, one might be provided, if the venans chose not to fight, he would leave his spurs behind as a sign of humiliation. If a lady passed unescorted, she would leave behind a glove or scarf, to be rescued and returned to her by a future knight who passed that way; the Roman Catholic Church was critical of dueling throughout medieval history, frowning both on the traditions of judicial combat and on the duel on points of honor among the nobility.
Judicial duels were deprecated by the Lateran Council of 1215, but the judicial duel persisted in the Holy Roman Empire into the 15th century. The word duel comes from the Latin'duellum', cognate with'bellum', meaning'war'. During the early Renaissance, dueling established the status of a respectable gentleman and was an accepted manner to resolve disputes; the first published code duello, or "code of dueling", appeared in Renaissance Italy. The first formalized national code was France's, during the Renaissance. In 1777, a code of practice was drawn up for the regulation of duels, at the Summer assizes in the town of Clonmel, County Tipperary, Ireland. A copy of the code, known as'The twenty-six commandments', was to be kept in a gentleman's pistol case for reference should a dispute arise regarding procedure. However, the tradition had become rooted in European culture as a prerogative of the aristocracy, these attempts failed. For example, King Louis XIII of France outlawed dueling in 1626, a law which remained in force for afterwards, his successor Louis XIV intensified efforts to wipe out the duel.
Despite these efforts, dueling continued unabated, it is estimated that between 1685 and 1716, French officers fought 10,000 duels, leading to over 400 deaths. By the late 18th century, Enlightenment era values began to influence society with new self-conscious ideas about politeness, civil behaviour and new attitudes towards violence; the cultivated art of politeness demanded that there should be no outward displays of anger or violence, the concept of honor became more personalized. By the 1770s the practice of dueling was coming under attack from many sections of enlightened society, as a violent relic of Europe's medieval past unsuited for modern life; as England began to industrialize and benefit from urban planning and more effective police forces, the culture of street violence in general began to wane. The growing middle class maintained their reputation with recourse to either bringing charges of libel, or to the fast-growing print media of t