The Scottish Parliament is the devolved unicameral legislature of Scotland. Located in the Holyrood area of the capital city, Edinburgh, it is referred to by the metonym Holyrood; the Parliament is a democratically elected body comprising 129 members known as Members of the Scottish Parliament, elected for four-year terms under the additional member system: 73 MSPs represent individual geographical constituencies elected by the plurality system, while a further 56 are returned from eight additional member regions, each electing seven MSPs. The most recent general election to the Parliament was held on 5 May 2016, with the Scottish National Party winning a plurality; the original Parliament of Scotland was the national legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland, existed from the early 13th century until the Kingdom of Scotland merged with the Kingdom of England under the Acts of Union 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. As a consequence, both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England ceased to exist, the Parliament of Great Britain, which sat at Westminster in London was formed.
Following a referendum in 1997, in which the Scottish electorate voted for devolution, the powers of the devolved legislature were specified by the Scotland Act 1998. The Act delineates the legislative competence of the Parliament – the areas in which it can make laws – by explicitly specifying powers that are "reserved" to the Parliament of the United Kingdom; the Scottish Parliament has the power to legislate in all areas that are not explicitly reserved to Westminster. The British Parliament retains the ability to amend the terms of reference of the Scottish Parliament, can extend or reduce the areas in which it can make laws; the first meeting of the new Parliament took place on 12 May 1999. The competence of the Scottish Parliament has been amended numerous times since most notably by the Scotland Act 2012 and Scotland Act 2016, with some of the most significant changes being the expansion of the Parliament's powers over taxation and welfare. Before the Treaty of Union 1707 united the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England into a new state called "Great Britain", Scotland had an independent parliament known as the Parliament of Scotland.
Initial Scottish proposals in the negotiation over the Union suggested a devolved Parliament be retained in Scotland, but this was not accepted by the English negotiators. For the next three hundred years, Scotland was directly governed by the Parliament of Great Britain and the subsequent Parliament of the United Kingdom, both seated at Westminster, the lack of a Parliament of Scotland remained an important element in Scottish national identity. Suggestions for a'devolved' Parliament were made before 1914, but were shelved due to the outbreak of the First World War. A sharp rise in nationalism in Scotland during the late 1960s fuelled demands for some form of home rule or complete independence, in 1969 prompted the incumbent Labour government of Harold Wilson to set up the Kilbrandon Commission to consider the British constitution. One of the principal objectives of the commission was to examine ways of enabling more self-government for Scotland, within the unitary state of the United Kingdom.
Kilbrandon published his report in 1973 recommending the establishment of a directly elected Scottish Assembly to legislate for the majority of domestic Scottish affairs. During this time, the discovery of oil in the North Sea and the following "It's Scotland's oil" campaign of the Scottish National Party resulted in rising support for Scottish independence, as well as the SNP; the party argued that the revenues from the oil were not benefitting Scotland as much as they should. The combined effect of these events led to Prime Minister Wilson committing his government to some form of devolved legislature in 1974. However, it was not until 1978 that final legislative proposals for a Scottish Assembly were passed by the United Kingdom Parliament. Under the terms of the Scotland Act 1978, an elected assembly would be set up in Edinburgh provided that a referendum be held on 1 March 1979, with at least 40% of the total electorate voting in favour of the proposal; the 1979 Scottish devolution referendum failed: although the vote was 51.6% in favour of a Scottish Assembly, with a turnout of 63.6%, the majority represented only 32.9% of the eligible voting population.
Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, demand for a Scottish Parliament grew, in part because the government of the United Kingdom was controlled by the Conservative Party, while Scotland itself elected few Conservative MPs. In the aftermath of the 1979 referendum defeat, the Campaign for a Scottish Assembly was initiated as a pressure group, leading to the 1989 Scottish Constitutional Convention with various organisations such as Scottish churches, political parties and representatives of industry taking part. Publishing its blueprint for devolution in 1995, the Convention provided much of the basis for the structure of the Parliament. Devolution continued to be part of the platform of the Labour Party which, in May 1997, took power under Tony Blair. In September 1997, the Scottish devolution referendum was put to the Scottish electorate and secured a majority in favour of the establishment of a new devolved Scottish Parliament, with tax-varying powers, in Edinburgh. An election was held on 6 May 1999, on 1 July of that year power was transferred from Westminster to the new Parliament.
Since September 2004, the official home of the Scottish Parliament has been a new Scottish Parliament Building, in the Holyrood area of Edinburgh. The Scottish Parliament building was designed by Spanish architect Enric Miralles in partnership with local Ed
Margaret Munnerlyn Mitchell was an American novelist and journalist. Mitchell wrote only one novel, published during her lifetime, the American Civil War-era novel Gone with the Wind, for which she won the National Book Award for Most Distinguished Novel of 1936 and the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1937. In more recent years, a collection of Mitchell's girlhood writings and a novella she wrote as a teenager, Lost Laysen, have been published. A collection of articles written by Mitchell for The Atlanta Journal was republished in book form. Margaret Mitchell was native of Atlanta, Georgia, she was born in 1900 into a politically prominent family. Her father, Eugene Muse Mitchell, was an attorney, her mother, Mary Isabel "May Belle" Stephens, was a suffragist, she had two brothers, Russell Stephens Mitchell, who died in infancy in 1894, Alexander Stephens Mitchell, born in 1896. Mitchell's family on her father's side were descendants of Thomas Mitchell of Aberdeenshire, who settled in Wilkes County, Georgia in 1777, served in the American Revolutionary War.
Her grandfather, Russell Crawford Mitchell, of Atlanta, enlisted in the Confederate States Army on June 24, 1861, served in Hood's Texas Brigade. He was wounded at the Battle of Sharpsburg, demoted for "inefficiency," and detailed as a nurse in Atlanta. After the Civil War, he made a large fortune supplying lumber for the rapid rebuilding of Atlanta. Russell Mitchell had thirteen children from two wives. Mitchell's maternal great-grandfather, Philip Fitzgerald, emigrated from Ireland and settled on a slaveholding plantation near Jonesboro, where he had one son and seven daughters with his wife, Elenor. Mitchell's grandparents, married in 1863, were John Stephens. John Stephens was a prosperous real estate developer after the Civil War and one of the founders of the Gate City Street Railroad, a mule-drawn Atlanta trolley system. John and Annie Stephens had twelve children together. May Belle Stephens had studied at the Bellevue Convent in Quebec and completed her education at the Atlanta Female Institute.
The Atlanta Constitution reported that May Belle Stephens and Eugene Mitchell were married at the Jackson Street mansion of the bride's parents on November 8, 1892:...the maid of honor, Miss Annie Stephens, was as pretty as a French pastel, in a directoire costume of yellow satin with a long coat of green velvet sleeves, a vest of gold brocade... The bride was a fair vision of youthful loveliness in her robe of exquisite ivory white and satin...her slippers were white satin wrought with pearls...an elegant supper was served. The dining room was decked in white and green, illuminated with numberless candles in silver candlelabras... The bride's gift from her father was an elegant house and lot... At 11 o'clock Mrs. Mitchell donned a pretty going-away gown of green English cloth with its jaunty velvet hat to match and bid goodbye to her friends. Margaret Mitchell spent her early childhood on Jackson Hill, east of downtown Atlanta, her family lived near her maternal grandmother, Annie Stephens, in a Victorian house painted bright red with yellow trim.
Mrs. Stephens had been a widow for several years prior to Margaret's birth. After his death, she inherited property on Jackson Street. Grandmother Annie Stephens was both vulgar and a tyrant. After gaining control of her father Philip Fitzgerald's money after he died, she splurged on her younger daughters, including Margaret's mother, sent them to finishing school in the north. There they learned that Irish Americans were not treated as equal to other immigrants, that it was shameful to be a daughter of an Irishman. Margaret's relationship with her grandmother would become quarrelsome in years as she entered adulthood. However, for Margaret, her grandmother was a great source of "eye-witness information" about the Civil War and Reconstruction in Atlanta prior to her death in 1934. In an accident, traumatic for her mother although she was unharmed, when little Margaret was about three years old, her dress caught fire on an iron grate. Fearing it would happen again, her mother began dressing her in boys' pants, she was nicknamed "Jimmy", the name of a character in the comic strip, Little Jimmy.
Her brother insisted. Having no sisters to play with, Margaret said. Stephens Mitchell said his sister was a tomboy who would play with dolls and she liked to ride her Texas plains pony; as a little girl, Margaret went riding every afternoon with a Confederate veteran and a young lady of "beau-age". Margaret was raised in an era when children were "seen and not heard", she was not allowed to express her personality by running and screaming on Sunday afternoons while her family was visiting relatives. Margaret learned the gritty details of specific battles from these visits with aging Confederate soldiers, but she didn't learn that the South had lost the war until she was 10 years of age: "I heard everything in the world except that the Confederates lost the war. When I was ten years old, it was a violent shock to learn. I didn't believe it when I first heard I was indignant. I still find it hard to believe, so strong are childhood impressions." Her mother would swat her with a hairbru
Scottish Parliament Building
The Scottish Parliament Building is the home of the Scottish Parliament at Holyrood, within the UNESCO World Heritage Site in central Edinburgh. Construction of the building commenced in June 1999 and the Members of the Scottish Parliament held their first debate in the new building on 7 September 2004; the formal opening by Queen Elizabeth II took place on 9 October 2004. Enric Miralles, the Spanish architect who designed the building, died before its completion. From 1999 until the opening of the new building in 2004, committee rooms and the debating chamber of the Scottish Parliament were housed in the General Assembly Hall of the Church of Scotland located on The Mound in Edinburgh. Office and administrative accommodation in support of the Parliament were provided in buildings leased from the City of Edinburgh Council; the new Scottish Parliament Building brought together these different elements into one purpose-built parliamentary complex, housing 129 MSPs and more than 1,000 staff and civil servants.
From the outset, the building and its construction have been controversial. The choices of location, architect and construction company were all criticised by politicians, the media and the Scottish public. Scheduled to open in 2001, it did so in 2004, more than three years late with an estimated final cost of £414 million, many times higher than initial estimates of between £10m and £40m. A major public inquiry into the handling of the construction, chaired by the former Lord Advocate, Lord Fraser of Carmyllie, was established in 2003; the inquiry concluded in September 2004 and criticised the management of the whole project from the realisation of cost increases down to the way in which major design changes were implemented. Despite these criticisms and a mixed public reaction, the building was welcomed by architectural academics and critics; the building aimed to achieve a poetic union between the Scottish landscape, its people, its culture, the city of Edinburgh. The Parliament Building won numerous awards including the 2005 Stirling Prize and has been described by landscape architect Charles Jencks as "a tour de force of arts and crafts and quality without parallel in the last 100 years of British architecture".
Comprising an area of 1.6 ha, with a perimeter of 480 m, the Scottish Parliament Building is located 1 km east of Edinburgh city centre on the edge of the Old Town. The large site housed the headquarters of the Scottish and Newcastle brewery which were demolished to make way for the building; the boundary of the site is marked by the Canongate stretch of the Royal Mile on its northern side, Horse Wynd on its eastern side, where the public entrance to the building is, Reid's Close on its western side. Reid's Close connects the Holyrood Road on the southwestern side of the complex; the south eastern side of the complex is bounded by the Our Dynamic Earth visitor attraction which opened in July 1999, Queen's Drive which fringes the slopes of Salisbury Crags. In the immediate vicinity of the building is the Palace of Holyroodhouse, bordered by the broad expanse of Holyrood Park. To the south of the parliamentary complex are the steep slopes of Salisbury Crags and Arthur's Seat; the Holyrood and Dumbiedykes areas, to the west of the site, have been extensively redeveloped since 1998, with new retail and office developments, including Barclay House, the new offices of The Scotsman Publications Ltd.
Before 1707, the Kingdom of Scotland was a sovereign independent state which had its own legislature—the Parliament of Scotland—which met, latterly, at Parliament House on the Royal Mile in Edinburgh. The Treaty of Union, signed in 1707, created an incorporating political union between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England; this created the Kingdom of Great Britain. The two previous Acts of Union had dissolved the previous parliaments; the Treaty of Union created the Parliament of Great Britain, housed in the Palace of Westminster in London. As a consequence, Scotland was directly governed from London for the next 292 years without a legislature or a Parliament building of its own. Pressure for a devolved legislature of some sort grew in the 1970s with the growth of the Scottish National Party, monies were invested into the conversion of the former Royal High School on Calton Hill into an official parliament building. Whilst much of this conversion was completed and the building was renamed New Parliament House it was determined that the facility was too small for its stated purpose.
Following the April 1992 election, when a weakened John Major was re-elected, a campaign group set up adjacent to the Royal High School at the foot of the access road to Calton Hill. Starting informally this became a permanently manned "vigil" to keep the concept in the public mind; this led to the Royal High School being the "popular" choice of site in the public mindset. A referendum of the Scottish electorate, held on 11 September 1997, approved the establishment of a directly elected Scottish Parliament to legislate on most domestic affairs. Following this, the Scottish Office, led by the Secretary of State for Scotland, Donald Dewar, decided that a new purpose-built facility would be constructed in Edinburgh, to house the Scottish Parliament. Three sites in and around Edinburgh were considered as possible locations for the building, including St Andrew's House/New Parliament House St Andrews House being the home of the Scottish Office—later th
Strathaven is a historic market town in South Lanarkshire, Scotland and is the largest settlement in Avondale. The town was granted a Royal Charter in 1450; the current estimated population is 7,500. The town is located on the edge of the strath of the Avon Water, around 6 miles from Hamilton, 18.2 miles from Glasgow. The A71, which connects Edinburgh and Kilmarnock passes through the town. In the 2001 census the town had a population of 7,700. Strathaven has one secondary school and three primary schools - Kirklandpark Primary, Wester Overton Primary, St Patrick's Primary, it has a grass airfield about two miles to the north west, on Lethame Road. A Roman road passes close by, on the south side of the Avon Water, which led to the Roman fort at Loudoun Hill near Darvel; the origins of Strathaven Castle are obscure, but it is believed to have been built around 1350 by the Bairds, on a bend of the Powmillon Burn. Today it is a ruin, with a single tower and sections of wall remaining beside the A71.
The Barony of Strathaven was acquired in 1362 by Archibald the Grim, Lord of Galloway, by his marriage to Joanna, daughter to Maurice de Moravia, 1st Earl of Strathearn, great Moray heiress. The settlement within the lands of Strathaven became a Burgh of barony in 1450, it still retains its traditional character despite the growth of more modern housing. The centre of the town is occupied by the market square a grassed common, still known as Common Green, or just'The Green'. Linking the town and the castle is the old'Boo Backit Brig', a small arched bridge; the Old Parish Church, with its landmark spire, was built in 1772, was the place of worship of the Duke of Hamilton who maintained a shooting lodge at nearby Dungavel House. The town prospered in the 18th and 19th centuries as a weaving town, although there were many merchants living here too; the town played a significant part in the Radical War of 1820, when James Wilson led a band of radicals on a march to Glasgow, to join a rumoured general uprising, which never happened.
Wilson was hanged for treason, in 1846 a memorial was built in his honour in the town cemetery. The history of Strathaven was documented in the John Hastie Museum, but this was closed in 2011 and sold to a private individual, its most famous'modern' resident was Sir Harry Lauder whose mansion, Lauder Ha', or Hall, was just above the town on the road to Kilmarnock. Sir Harry spent the Second World War years there, died in February 1950; the family retained the property. It remains a private residence. Dungavel House on the outskirts of Strathaven was the location where German Deputy Führer Rudolf Hess intended to land on the evening of 10 May 1941 in a misguided attempt to seek peace talks with the Duke of Hamilton; however bad weather and poor navigation resulted in Hess having to land at Floors Farm in Eaglesham. In 2002, Strathaven was granted the title of Scotland's First Fairtrade Town under the leadership of Paulo Quadros - chair of the first Fairtrade group in Scotland. Despite competition from the nearby large towns of East Kilbride and Hamilton, Strathaven still has a number of craft and gift shops, alongside well known town centre names.
There is one bank, Halifax Bank of Scotland, Royal Bank of Scotland closed in 2018. The town's longest established business is Gebbie & Wilson, Solicitors in the Common Green, founded in 1816 followed by Alexander Taylor, Bakers in Waterside Street, established in 1820 and now run by the 5th generation of the Taylor family. There are a number of businesses providing extra attraction to the town on its periphery such as Brian Young's Garden and Lawn Mower Centre on Newton Road and the Strathaven Hotel and new Rural Centre, both on the Hamilton Road; the town has long been Sunday Run territory with several town centre eating establishments as well as four public houses. Strathaven Academy is the town's only secondary school and in 2012 was voted the 33rd best school in Scotland and top in South Lanarkshire. Following a major refurbishment the new building was completed in 2009 on the original site. See Strathaven Academy Strathaven had, at various times, three railway stations. Strathaven, the first station, was the terminus of the Strathaven Railway.
The railway was taken over by the Caledonian Railway. Strathaven North, a terminal station on the Hamilton and Strathaven Branch of the Caledonian Railway, opened in October 1904, closed temporarily during World War I. Strathaven Central, on the Darvel and Strathaven Railway closed in June 1964 to services from the east, although the line to Darvel closed in 1939. Strathaven Airfield is home to a microlight flying school, which operates both the traditional-style weightshift microlights and the light aircraft-style ones, the new airfield manager's house was featured on Channel 4's Grand Designs in October 2013. There are 35 aircraft - both light aircraft and microlights - hangared at Strathaven in two modern purpose-built hangars; the airfield is home to an annual local music festival, HangarFest. The airfield was set up on the old Couplaw Farm, which The Scottish Flying Club Ltd bought in May 1964; the club had begun flying in 1927 at the old Renfrew Airport but was left homeless after Renfrew was nationalised in 1946.
Strathaven Airfield was given to the RAF Benevolent Fund in 1974 and sold in 2005. It has three grass runways, the main runway is oriented 09/27 and is 530m long (with a 100m st
Margaret McCulloch is a Scottish politician, a Scottish Labour Party Member of the Scottish Parliament for the Central Scotland region 2011−2016. Born in the Gorbals, Margaret was raised and educated in Glasgow. Prior to her election, she was an independent training consultant with her own business based in East Kilbride, she was an External Verifier with the Scottish Qualifications Authority. She worked at the University of Strathclyde for 17 years, where she was a training executive, responsible for recruiting all staff under the age of 21, Modern Apprenticeships and ensuring the viability of the University's Centre for Skills Enhancement, she lives in Stewartfield in East Kilbride with her husband Ian. She was elected to the Scottish Parliament as a Labour member in May 2011. Following this, she was a member of the Finance Committee and Capital Investment Committee, Standards and Public Appointments Committee and a substitute member of the Subordinate Legislation Committee. McCulloch was the Convenor of the Equal Opportunities Committee and a member of Delegate Power and Legal Reform Committee McCulloch was a member of the Cross Party Group on Construction and Convener of the Cross Party Group on Skills and the Cross Party Group on Towns and Town Centres, Convenor of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Condition.
2012 - 2014 Convener of the Scottish Parliament Business Exchange, an independent educational charity which fosters understanding between Members of the Scottish Parliament and the business community. The economy and training, youth unemployment and hospitality and tourism are listed among her political interests. McCulloch is a former Conservative Party member and candidate, standing for the Conservatives in the Scottish Parliamentary constituency of Cumbernauld and Kilsyth in 2003 and in the East Kilbride constituency at the 2001 Westminster General Election. In 2007, she contested the East Kilbride West ward on South Lanarkshire Council as a Scottish Labour candidate. Since her election she has campaigned to raise the standard of hospital food at Hairmyres Hospital in NHS Lanarkshire, represented staff and residents affected by the collapse of Southern Cross and supported the STV Appeal. In 2012, Parliamentary Question submitted by McCulloch revealed that the number of NHS patients in Scotland waiting for over twelve hours in Accident and Emergency units had doubled.
Working with First ScotRail she helped local communities participate in the Adopt a Station programme. South Lanarkshire College have since adopted East Kilbride rail station, Crosshouse Primary School have adopted Hairmyres rail station, Hamilton Grammar School have adopted Hamilton Central rail station and patients and staff from NHS Lanarkshire’s Beckford Lodge have adopted Hamilton West rail station
Voter turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election. Eligibility varies by country, the voting-eligible population should not be confused with the total adult population. Age and citizenship status are among the criteria used to determine eligibility, but some countries further restrict eligibility based on sex, race, or religion. After increasing for many decades, there has been a trend of decreasing voter turnout in most established democracies since the 1980s. In general, low turnout is attributed to indifference, or a sense of futility. According to Stanford University political scientists Adam Bonica and Michael McFaul, there is a consensus among political scientists that "democracies perform better when more people vote."Low turnout is considered to be undesirable. As a result, there have been many efforts to increase voter turnout and encourage participation in the political process. In spite of significant study into the issue, scholars are divided on the reasons for the decline.
Its cause has been attributed to a wide array of economic, cultural and institutional factors. Different countries have different voter turnout rates. For example, turnout in the United States 2012 presidential election was about 55%. In both Belgium, which has obligatory attendance, Malta, which does not, participation reaches about 95%. In Belgium there is obligatory attendance, misinterpreted as compulsory voting The chance of any one vote determining the outcome is low; some studies show that a single vote in a voting scheme such as the Electoral College in the United States has an lower chance of determining the outcome. Other studies claim that the Electoral College increases voting power. Studies using game theory, which takes into account the ability of voters to interact, have found that the expected turnout for any large election should be zero; the basic formula for determining whether someone will vote, on the questionable assumption that people act rationally, is P B + D > C, where P is the probability that an individual's vote will affect the outcome of an election, B is the perceived benefit that would be received if that person's favored political party or candidate were elected, D stood for democracy or civic duty, but today represents any social or personal gratification an individual gets from voting, C is the time and financial cost involved in voting.
Since P is zero in most elections, PB is near zero, D is thus the most important element in motivating people to vote. For a person to vote, these factors must outweigh C. Experimental political science has found that when P is greater than zero, this term has no effect on voter turnout. Enos and Fowler conducted a field experiment that exploits the rare opportunity of a tied election for major political office. Informing citizens that the special election to break the tie will be close has little mobilizing effect on voter turnout. Riker and Ordeshook developed the modern understanding of D, they listed five major forms of gratification that people receive for voting: complying with the social obligation to vote. Other political scientists have since added other motivators and questioned some of Riker and Ordeshook's assumptions. All of these concepts are inherently imprecise, making it difficult to discover why people choose to vote. Several scholars have considered the possibility that B includes not only a personal interest in the outcome, but a concern for the welfare of others in the society.
In particular, experiments in which subject altruism was measured using a dictator game showed that concern for the well-being of others is a major factor in predicting turnout and political participation. Note that this motivation is distinct from D, because voters must think others benefit from the outcome of the election, not their act of voting in and of itself. There are philosophical and practical reasons that some people cite for not voting in electoral politics. Robert LeFevre, Francis Tandy, John Pugsley, Frank Chodorov, George H. Smith, Carl Watner, Wendy McElroy, Lysander Spooner are some moderately well-known authors who have written about these reasons. High voter turnout is considered to be desirable, though among political scientists and economists specializing in public choice, the issue is still debated. A high turnout is seen as evidence of the legitimacy of the current system. Dictators have fabricated high turnouts in showcase elections for this purpose. For instance, Saddam Hussein's 2002 plebiscite was claimed to have had 100% participation.
Opposition parties sometimes boycott votes they feel are unfair or illegitimate, or if the election is for a government, considered illegitimate. For example, the Holy See instructed Italian Catholics to boycott national elections for several decades after the creation of the state of Italy. In some countries, there are threats of violence against those who vote, such as during the 2005 Iraq elections, an example of voter suppression. However, some political scientists question the view that high turnout is an implicit endorsement of the system. Mark
North Lanarkshire Scottish Gaelic: Siorrachd Lannraig a Tuath) is one of 32 council areas of Scotland. It borders onto the northeast of the City of Glasgow and contains many of Glasgow's suburbs and commuter towns and villages, it borders East Dunbartonshire, Stirling, South Lanarkshire and West Lothian. The council covers parts of the traditional counties of Dunbartonshire and Stirlingshire; the area was formed in 1996 made up from the Cumbernauld and Kilsyth and parts from the former Monklands District Council as well as significant elements of Strathclyde Regional Council. Cumbernauld – 52,270 Coatbridge – 41,176 Airdrie – 37,130 Motherwell – 31,906 Wishaw – 28,565 Bellshill – 20,705 Kilsyth – 10,100 The council is made up of 21 wards, as follows: North Lanarkshire at Curlie