American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t
Hamilton is a city in Hancock County, United States. The population was 2,951 at the 2010 census, a decline from 3,029 in 2000; the city is located directly across the Mississippi River from Iowa. Hamilton is the largest city in Hancock County. Hamilton was laid out in 1852 by several men in the area, including Samuel Gordon and Bryant Bartlett. Hamilton was incorporated as a town in 1854, re-incorporated as a city in 1859. Artois Hamilton, for whom the town was named, was active in the early history of the town. According to the 2010 census, Hamilton has a total area of 5.354 square miles, of which 3.56 square miles is land and 1.794 square miles is water. Hamilton and Keokuk share Dam 19 on the Mississippi River; the dam has the largest fall of any on the Mississippi and the power house supplies a majority of the electricity for St. Louis, MO. Lake Cooper, formed above the dam, represents the widest span of the Mississippi between Montrose, IA and Nauvoo, IL; as of the census of 2000, there were 3,029 people, 1,223 households, 805 families residing in the city.
The population density was 808.3 people per square mile. There were 1,325 housing units at an average density of 353.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.18% White, 0.56% African American, 0.17% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.43% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.79% of the population. There were 1,223 households out of which 28.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.4% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.1% were non-families. 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.94. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.9% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 26.3% from 25 to 44, 24.9% from 45 to 64, 17.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.9 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $40,179, the median income for a family was $48,935. Males had a median income of $32,149 versus $21,587 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,775. About 4.6% of families and 7.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.5% of those under age 18 and 11.8% of those age 65 or over. Hamilton Community Unit School District #328 consists of Hamilton Elementary, Hamilton Junior High School, Hamilton High School; the school's nickname is the Cardinals, but is switching over to Titans with the sports co-op with Warsaw and Nauvoo schools. The only sports that will still be "Cardinals" are Scholastic Bowl and Junior High and Elementary sports. In 2008, the newly co-oped West Hancock Girls basketball team took first place in the IHSA Class 2A Championship, it is the first year of the co-op basketball team, their first championship. John Brock, MLB catcher for the St. Louis Cardinals Alden W. Clausen, president of the World Bank and CEO of Bank of America Russell Lee Arms and singer who starred on Your Hit Parade television program.
Gallatin County, Illinois
Gallatin County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 5,589, making it the fifth-least populous county in Illinois, its county seat is Shawneetown. It is located in the southern portion of Illinois known locally as "Little Egypt". Located at the mouth of the Wabash River, Gallatin County, along with neighboring Posey County and Union County, Kentucky form the tri-point of the Illinois-Indiana-Kentucky Tri-State Area. Salt production served as the state's first major industry in the early 19th century. Saltworks developed first by Native Americans, the French had settled at the Great Salt Spring on the south side of the Saline River, about five miles downstream from Equality. Beginning in 1803, salt works were developed at Half Moon Lick, southwest of Equality on the north side of the Saline River. Half Moon Lick is now on private land, but the Great Salt Springs are on public lands in the Shawnee National Forest, about one mile west of the Saline River bridge across Illinois Route 1 on Salt Well Road.
Gallatin county was organized in 1812 from land in Randolph County. It was named for Albert Gallatin, Secretary of the Treasury; the bank at Shawneetown was the first in Illinois. It was in the John Marshall House, rebuilt and serves as the museum of the Gallatin County Historical Society; this should not be confused with the State Bank of Illinois building, a state historic site a block away in Old Shawneetown According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 328 square miles, of which 323 square miles is land and 5.1 square miles is water. The Wabash and Ohio rivers join in the northeastern part of the county; the Saline River is a major drainage in the county, it feeds into the Ohio River. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Shawneetown have ranged from a low of 21 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −22 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 104 °F was recorded in August 2007. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 3.22 inches in October to 5.02 inches in May.
U. S. Highway 45 Illinois Route 1 Illinois Route 13 Illinois Route 141 Illinois Route 142 White County - north Posey County, Indiana - northeast Union County, Kentucky - east Hardin County - south Saline County - west Hamilton County - northwest Shawnee National Forest Gallatin County government is led by a five-member county board. In addition, the county is divided into ten townships; as the most culturally Southern of all Illinois counties, Gallatin County was pro-Confederate during the Civil War and provided a few volunteers to the Confederate Army. It became solidly Democratic for the next century and a third, voting Republican only in the GOP landslides of 1920, 1952, 1972 and 1980. In those four elections, no Republican candidate received more than Richard Nixon’s 53.7 percent in his 3,000-plus-county 1972 triumph. Since 2000, Gallatin County has followed the same political trajectory as Tennessee, Kentucky, West Virginia and Appalachian regions of adjacent states, whereby the Democratic Party’s liberal views on social issues have produced dramatic swings to the Republican Party amongst its entirely Southern white population.
Over the five elections from 2000 to 2016, Gallatin County has seen a swing of 84 percentage points to the Republican Party – an average of 17 percentage points per election – so that Hillary Clinton’s 24.3 percent vote share in 2016 is half the worst Democrat percentage from before 2010. Whereas according to the 2010 census: 97.9% White 0.2% Black 0.3% Native American 0.1% Asian 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 1.2% Two or more races 1.2% Hispanic or Latino As of the 2010 census, there were 5,589 people, 2,403 households, 1,556 families residing in the county. The population density was 17.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,746 housing units at an average density of 8.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.9% white, 0.3% American Indian, 0.2% black or African American, 0.1% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 23.6% were German, 22.9% were Irish, 10.7% were English, 7.0% were American.
Of the 2,403 households, 26.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.6% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.2% were non-families, 31.1% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age was 44.4 years. The median income for a household in the county was $38,003 and the median income for a family was $48,892. Males had a median income of $38,801 versus $22,425 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,537. About 12.4% of families and 18.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.9% of those under age 18 and 14.9% of those age 65 or over. Shawneetown Equality Junction New Haven Old Shawneetown Omaha Ridgway National Register of Historic Places listings in Gallatin County, Illinois 1887. History of Gallatin, Hamilton and Williamson Counties, Illinois. Chicago: Goodspeed Publishing Co. Musgrave, Jon, ed. 2002.
Handbook of Old Gallatin County and Southeastern Illinois. Marion, Ill.: IllinoisHistory.com. 464 pages. Musgrave, Jon. 2004, Rev. ed. 2005. Slaves, Sex & Mr. Crenshaw: The Real Story of the Old Slave House and America's Reverse Underground R. R.. Marion, Ill.: IllinoisHistory.com. 608 pages. Waggoner, Horace Q. interviewer. 1978. "Lucille Law
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Hamilton County Courthouse (Illinois)
The Hamilton County Courthouse is a government building in McLeansboro, the county seat of Hamilton County, United States. Built in 1938, more than forty years after the destruction of the previous courthouse in McLeansboro, it is the third such building to serve the county. Land was first registered in Hamilton County in 1815, the law establishing the county was enacted in early 1821. Local officials soon began working to choose a location as the county seat, they approved a piece of land donated by one William McLean, for whom the future city was named. Here was built an early courthouse, a log cabin completed by mid-1821; this building remained in use until the completion of a brick replacement in 1840. For nearly half a century, the county operated without a courthouse: the public square housed a combined records office and jail, but most county business accomplished in nearby rented buildings. A weak attempt at building a courthouse saw minimal success, so the advent of the Great Depression saw Hamilton County still functioning without a courthouse.
This state of affairs concluded in 1938, when a Works Progress Administration team erected the present Art Deco brick building. Entrances are placed in the center of each side, flanked by three or four windows on either left or right. Hamilton County website
Illinois Route 14
Illinois Route 14 is a major east–west highway in southern Illinois. It runs from U. S. Route 51 south of Du Quoin to the New Harmony Toll Bridge over the Wabash River to State Road 66 at the Indiana state line; this is a distance of 76.24 miles. Illinois 14 runs east–west from Du Quoin to New Harmony, Indiana via State Road 66; the eastern terminus of Illinois 14 is the New Harmony Toll Bridge to New Harmony, which bridges the states of Illinois and Indiana. The bridge is a four-span truss bridge built in 1931, it was built as a toll bridge, but has been closed to automobile traffic since May 21, 2012. Illinois Route 14 followed the present-day routing of Illinois 14, from Du Quoin to Carmi. In 1937 it was extended east to its current terminus across from New Harmony, replacing Illinois Route 139 in the process. From 1947 to 1974, U. S. Route 460 replaced Illinois 14 between the Indiana state line. Illinois Highway Ends: Illinois Route 14