Hamilton is the capital of the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda. It is a major port and tourist destination, its population of 1,010 is one of the smallest of any capital cities. The history of Hamilton as a British city began in 1790 when the government of Bermuda set aside 145 acres for its future seat incorporated in 1793 by an Act of Parliament, named for Governor Henry Hamilton; the colony's capital relocated to Hamilton from St George's in 1815. The city has been at the political and military heart of Bermuda since. Government buildings include the parliament building, the Government House to the north, the former Admiralty House of the Royal Navy to the west, the British Army garrison headquarters at Prospect Camp to its east; the Town of Hamilton became a city in 1897, ahead of the consecration in 1911 of the Cathedral of the Most Holy Trinity, under construction at the time. A Catholic cathedral, St. Theresa's, was constructed. Today, the city overlooking Hamilton Harbour is a business district, with few structures other than office buildings and shops.
The City of Hamilton has long maintained a building height and view limit, which states that no buildings may obscure the Cathedral. In the 21st century, buildings have been planned and some are under construction that are as high as ten storeys in the area. Bermuda's local newspaper, The Royal Gazette, reports, "If you don't recognise the city, from 15 years ago, we don't blame you as it has changed so much". Hamilton is located on the north side of Hamilton Harbour, is Bermuda's main port. Although there is a parish of the same name, the city of Hamilton is in the parish of Pembroke; the city is named after Sir Henry Hamilton, governor of the territory from 1786 to 1793. Hamilton Parish antedates the city; the administrative capital of Bermuda, has a limited permanent population around 1,010. The only incorporated city in Bermuda, Hamilton is smaller than the historic town of St. George's. A more representative measure of Bermuda's local residential populations tends to be by parish; as the offshore domicile of many foreign companies, Bermuda has a developed international business economy.
Finance and international business constitute the largest sector of Bermuda's economy, all of this business takes place within the borders of Hamilton. Numerous leading international insurance companies are based in Hamilton, as it is a global reinsurance centre. Around 400 internationally owned and operated businesses are physically based in Bermuda, many are represented by the Association of Bermuda International Companies. In total, over 1,500 exempted or international companies are registered with the Registrar of Companies in Bermuda; the city is the registered headquarters of the spirits manufacturer Bacardi, semiconductor manufacturer Marvell Technology, outsourcing company Genpact, telecommunications company Global Crossing, reinsurance company Tokio Millennium Re Ltd. Hamilton is known as the headquarters of international shipping companies, such as DryShips Inc, Frontline Ltd. and Dockwise. Its low corporate tax rate makes it attractive to US companies. In addition, the corporate headquarters of the Bermuda grocery store chain The MarketPlace is located within the chain's Hamilton MarketPlace location, the largest grocery store in Bermuda.
Hamilton was named the city with the highest cost of living index in the world. The coat of arms of the city of Hamilton incorporate a shield featuring a golden sailing ship, representing the Resolution, surrounded by three cinquefoils, two above the ship and one below in gold, all on a plain blue background; this shield is supported by a mermaid and heraldic sea horse, is placed on a mount in front of, a scroll containing the motto "Sparsa Collegit". The shield is topped by a crest featuring a closed helm topped with a torque above which an heraldic seahorse is emerging from the sea holding a flower; the city's full motto is Hamilton sparsa collegit. The city's flag is a banner of arms, featuring the same details as on the shield of the city's coat of arms, but with the flowers in white rather than gold; the city of Hamilton has many parks for its size. The most notable park in the city is Victoria Park; this park was named after Queen Victoria. Other parks in the city are Par La Ville Park, Barr's Park, All Buoy's Point Park, the hidden Cedar Park.
Although located some distance north of the geographic tropics, Hamilton has a warm trade-wind tropical rainforest climate. It is warm enough for coconut palms and other tropical palms to grow, although they may not fruit properly due to the lack of heat or sunshine during the winter months because of latitude. Hamilton has uncharacteristically warm temperatures for its latitude because of the moderating influence of the North Atlantic and nearby Gulf Stream. Hamilton features warm and humid summers and semi-warm "winters"; as temperatures are moderated by the Atlantic Ocean, it gets hot or cold in the city. Precipitation is plentiful throughout the year and Hamilton does not have a dry season month, a month where on average less than 60 mm of precipitation falls. Summer precipitation is from showers and tropical disturbances or tropical cyclones. Meanwhile, winter precipitation is derived from westerly moving extra-tropical cyclones and their associated fronts
East Coast of the United States
The East Coast of the United States known as the Eastern Seaboard, the Atlantic Coast, the Atlantic Seaboard, is the coastline along which the Eastern United States meets the North Atlantic Ocean. The coastal states that have shoreline on the Atlantic Ocean are, from north to south, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina and Florida; the place name "East Coast" derives from the idea that the contiguous 48 states are defined by two major coastlines, one at the western edge and one on the eastern edge. Other terms for referring to this area include the "Eastern Seaboard", "Atlantic Coast", "Atlantic Seaboard"; the fourteen states that have a shoreline on the Atlantic Ocean are, from north to south, the U. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina and Florida. In addition and the District of Columbia border tidal arms of the Atlantic; the states of Alabama, Mississippi and Texas, as well as the territories of Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands, Navassa Island have Atlantic coastline, but are not included in the definition.
Although Vermont and West Virginia have no Atlantic coastline, they are sometimes grouped with the Eastern Seaboard states because of their locations in New England and the Old South, their history as part of the land base of the original Thirteen Colonies. The original thirteen colonies of Great Britain in North America all lay along the East Coast. Two additional U. S. states on the East Coast were not among the original thirteen colonies: Florida. The Middle Colonies had been owned by the Dutch as New Netherland, until they were captured by the English in the mid-to-late 17th century. There are three basic climate regions on the East Coast according to the Köppen climate classification from north to south based on the monthly mean temperature of the coldest month: The region from northern Maine south to northern Rhode Island and Connecticut has a continental climate, with warm summers, cold and snowy winters; the area from southern Rhode Island and New York City south to central Florida has a temperate climate, with long, hot summers and cold winters with occasional snow in the northern portions, milder winters in the southern portions.
Around south-central Florida southward has a tropical climate, frost free and is warm to hot all year. Average monthly precipitation ranges from a slight late fall maximum from Massachusetts northward, to a slight summer maximum in the Mid-Atlantic states from southern Connecticut south to Virginia, to a more pronounced summer maximum from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, southward along the Southeastern United States coast to Savannah, Georgia; the Florida peninsula has a sharp wet-summer/dry-winter pattern, with 60 to 70 percent of precipitation falling between June and October in an average year, a dry, sunny late fall and early spring. Although landfalls are rare, the Eastern seaboard is susceptible to hurricanes in the Atlantic hurricane season running from June 1 to November 30, although hurricanes can occur before or after these dates. Hurricanes Hazel, Bob, Irene and most Florence are some of the more significant storms to have affected the region; the East Coast is a passive margin coast.
It has been shaped by the Pleistocene glaciation in the far northern areas from New York City northward, with offshore islands such as Nantucket, Block Island, Fishers Island, the nearly peninsular Long Island and New York City's Staten Island the result of terminal moraines, with Massachusetts' unique peninsula of Cape Cod showing the additional action of outwash plains, besides terminal moraines. The coastal plain broadens southwards, separated from the Piedmont region by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line of the East Coast rivers marking the head of navigation and prominent sites of cities; the coastal areas from Long Island south to Florida are made up of barrier islands that front the coastal areas, with the long stretches of sandy beaches. Many of the larger capes along the lower East Coast are in fact barrier islands, like the Outer Banks of North Carolina and Cape Canaveral, Florida; the Florida Keys provide the only coral reefs on the US mainland. In 2010, the population of the states which have shoreline on the East Coast was estimated at 112,642,503.
The East Coast is the most populated coastal area in the United States. The primary Interstate Highway along the East Coast is Interstate 95, completed in 2018, which replaced the historic U. S. Route 1, the original federal highway that traversed all East Coast states, except Delaware. By water, the East Coast is connected from Boston, Massachusetts to Miami, Florida, by the Intracoastal Waterway known as the East Coast Canal, completed in 1912. Amtrak's Downeaster and Northeast Regional offer the main passe
Paget Parish is one of the nine parishes of Bermuda. It is named for 4th Baron Paget de Beaudesert; the parish is located in the central south of the island chain south of Hamilton Harbor on the main island. It is joined to Warwick Parish in the southwest, Devonshire Parish in the northeast; as with most of Bermuda's parishes, it covers just over 2.3 square miles. Other notable features of Paget include Bermuda College, the Bermuda Division of the British Red Cross, Bermuda Botanical Gardens and Masterworks Museum of Bermuda Art. Public primary schools: St. Paul’s Preschool Gilbert Institute As of 2016 it has 130 students and has Bermuda's sole primary deaf and hearing impaired student programme. In 2016 the Bermudian government proposed closing the school. Members of the PTA suggested the school could reduce costs by using parents to carry out maintenance. Grant Gibbons, the former Bermudian Minister for Education, expressed support to keep Gilbert open. Paget Primary SchoolNatural features in Paget include Hamilton Harbor, Coral Beach, Elbow Beach, Grape Bay, as well as Salt Kettle, a peninsula which protects the approach to Hamilton Harbour, Hinson's Island, which though geographically closer to Warwick Parish, is part of Paget.
The island's only hospital, King Edward VII Memorial, is in Paget. William Gilbert Gosling was a Canadian politician and author. From 1916 to 1920, he served as the mayor of Newfoundland and Labrador. Jade Hannah is a Canadian swimmer Flora Duffy is a triathlete Bermuda Online
St. George's Harbour, Bermuda
St. George's Harbour is a natural harbour in the north of Bermuda, it serves as the port for the town of St. George's, located to its north. To its south is St. David's Island; the harbour and both islands lie within St. George's Parish, it was for two centuries the primary harbour of the British Overseas Territory. The harbour separates St. George's Island in the north and west from St. David's Island in the south and east. Several other islands lie to the south and east, closing the harbour from the open sea to the east, separating it from Smith's Sound, to the South, it is open to the Atlantic Ocean at Gunner Bay in the northeast, where its mouth is guarded by numerous islands, notably Smith's and Paget Islands. The waters of Bermuda are protected by coral reef, which can be perilous to sailors. Several other islands lie within the harbour, notably the important Ordnance Island. In the south, a long channel, Ferry Reach, links the harbour with another opening to the Atlantic Ocean and the picturesque Castle Harbour.
The original channel used by shipping to access the harbour lies to the south of Paget Island. This was replaced a century ago by dredging out the passage to the north of Paget Island. At the time, the dredging of that passage had been necessary for St. George's to remain a viable port as steam replaced sail. Most freight, today, is offloaded at Hamilton, but St. George's is still used for offloading of gravel and other consignments, by cruise ships visiting the Old Town, it is the only port of entry for yachts, which must clear H. M. Customs and Bermuda Immigration at Ordnance Island before visiting other parts of the archipelago. To enter St. George's Harbour, sailors must fly a yellow quarantine flag, navigate the ship towards the Customs dock. Boaters who don't bring their vessel through customs will be fined. Before passing through Bermuda customs, visitors must declare all medicines, cannot bring fruits or vegetables into the country. Animals are only allowed to be brought to Bermuda if they have proof of health and a permit from the Bermuda Department of Environmental Protection.
The shore of St. George's Harbour was the site of the first settlements in Bermuda, which occurred in the early 17th century; the crew and passengers of the Sea Venture, driven onto the reefs off St. Catherine's Point in 1609, stayed on St. George's Island for nearly a year; when most departed, two men remained behind on Smith's Island. When the first intentional settlers arrived from England in 1609, they settled briefly on St. David's Island, before moving across the Harbour to create St. George's, the oldest continuously-inhabited English settlement in the New World; the harbour was well fortified during this time, as can still be seen in the several period forts located nearby. The 19th Century saw the establishment of a Royal Naval base in Bermuda; this was in St. George's Harbour, with the Royal Navy operating from facilities in Convict Bay and within St. George's town; this build up began in 1795, but a decade the Royal Navy was developing the dockyard on Ireland Island, it soon withdrew from St. George's completely.
The buildup of the dockyard at the West End of the archipelago still resulted in considerable defence infrastructure around St. George's, at the East End, however, as this was the gateway through the surrounding reefs to all of Bermuda. In addition to the 17th and 18th century forts built by the militia, there are many 19th and 20th Century forts and batteries built by the regular British Army on the islands surrounding the harbour, for which Ordnance Island was the primary ammunition depot; the various surviving East End forts and other military structures, together with the old capital, have been declared by the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization as a World Heritage Site, the Historic Town of St George and Related Fortifications, Bermuda. Castle Harbour, Bermuda Hamilton Harbour, Bermuda
Queen Elizabeth 2
Queen Elizabeth 2 referred to as QE2, is a floating hotel and retired ocean liner built for the Cunard Line, operated by Cunard as both a transatlantic liner and a cruise ship from 1969 to 2008. Since 18 April 2018, she has been operating as a floating hotel in Dubai. QE2 was designed for the transatlantic service from her home port of Southampton, UK to New York, she was named after the earlier Cunard liner RMS Queen Elizabeth, she served as the flagship of the line from 1969 until succeeded by RMS Queen Mary 2 in 2004. QE2 was built in Clydebank, Scotland, she was considered the last of the great transatlantic ocean liners until Queen Mary 2 entered service. QE2 was the last oil-fired passenger steamship to cross the Atlantic in scheduled liner service until she was refitted with a modern diesel powerplant in 1986-87, she undertook regular world cruises during 40 years of service, operated predominantly as a cruise ship, sailing out of Southampton, England. QE2 never ran a year-round weekly transatlantic express service to New York.
She did, continue the Cunard tradition of regular scheduled transatlantic crossings every year of her service life. QE2 was never given a Royal Mail Ship designation, instead carrying the SS and MV or MS prefixes in official documents. QE2 was retired from active Cunard service on 27 November 2008, she had been acquired by the private equity arm of Dubai World, which planned to begin conversion of the vessel to a 500-room floating hotel moored at the Palm Jumeirah, Dubai. The 2008 financial crisis intervened and the ship was laid up at Dubai Drydocks and Port Rashid. Subsequent conversion plans were announced by in 2012 and by the Oceanic Group in 2013 but these both stalled. In November, 2015 Cruise Arabia & Africa quoted DP World chairman Ahmed Sultan Bin Sulayem as saying that QE2 would not be scrapped and a Dubai-based construction company announced in March, 2017 that it had been contracted to refurbish the ship; the restored QE2 opened to visitors on 18 April 2018, with a soft opening. The grand opening was set for October 2018.
By 1957, it was obvious that transatlantic travel was becoming dominated by air travel due to its speed and low cost relative to sea routes, with passenger numbers split 50:50 between sea and air transport. The increase in market share by air showed no signs of slowing down once the Boeing 707 entered service in 1958. Conversely, Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth were becoming expensive to operate, both internally and externally were relics of the pre-war years and needed to be retired by the mid-1960s. Despite falling passenger revenues, Cunard did not want to give up its traditional role as a provider of a North Atlantic passenger service, so decided to replace the existing ageing Queens with a new ocean liner designated "Q3", as it would be the third Cunard Queen; the Q3 was projected to measure 75,000 gross register tons, have berths for 2,270 passengers, cost an estimated ₤30 million. Work had proceeded as far as the preparation of submissions from six shipyards and applying for government financial assistance with the construction when misgivings among some executives and directors, coupled with a shareholder revolt, led to the benefits of the project being reappraised and cancelled on 19 October 1961.
Cunard decided to continue with a replacement "Queen" but with an altered operating regime and more flexible design. Realising the decline of transatlantic trade, it was visualised that she would be a three-class dual-purpose ship operating for eight months of the year on the transatlantic route, during the winter months would operate as a cruise ship in warmer climates. Compared with the old "Queen", which had two engine rooms and four propellers, the newly designated Q4 would be smaller with one boiler room, one engine room and two propellers, which combined with automation would allow a smaller engineering complement. Despite producing 110,000 shp, she was to have the same service speed of 28.5 knots as previous Queens which needed 160,000shp, while its fuel consumption would be halved to 520 tons, expected to save ₤1 million a year in fuel bills. The Q4 would be able to transit the Panama Canal and Suez Canal and her draught of 32 feet, seven feet less than her predecessors, would allow her to enter ports that the old Queens could not, so compete with the new generation of cruise ships.
The original construction budget was ₤22 million, but costs soon began to increase, which led to the decision to reduce the number of boilers from four to three. The interior and superstructure for the QE2 was designed by James Gardner, his design for the ocean liner was described by The Council of Industrial Design as that of a "very big yacht" and with a "look sleek and purposeful". At the time of retirement, the ship was 963 ft long. QE2 had a top speed of 32.5 knots with her original steam turbines. The steel hull had a bulbous bow and was welded which avoided the weight penalty of over ten million rivets and overlapped plates compared with the previous "Queen". Like both Normandie and France, QE2 had clean forecastle. What was controversial at the time, was that Cunard decided not to paint the funnel with the line's distinctive colour and pattern, something, done on all merchant vessels since the first Cunard ship, the RMS Britannia, sailed in 1840. Instead, the funnel was painted white and black, with the Cunard orange-red appearing only on the inside
Royal Bermuda Yacht Club
The Royal Bermuda Yacht Club is a private yacht club, established as the Bermuda Yacht Club on November 1, 1844. In 1845, Prince Albert consented to become Patron of the Club and in 1846 the club was permitted to add the adjective "Royal" to its name; the RBYC flies the blue ensign with the RBYC badge. In 1933 the club moved to its current site at Hamilton; the club has about 850 resident and non-resident members. The club is the third oldest'Royal' club outside British shores; the club has co-hosted the biannual Bermuda Race from 1906 to 1926 with various American yacht clubs, since 1926 with the Cruising Club of America. It currently hosts the Charleston Bermuda Race; the RBYC gave name to the Royal Bermuda Cocktail, - a mixed drink that contains Barbados rum, fresh lime juice, sugar or falernum. Official site RBYC ensign
A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water. The term is used for tropical coastal vegetation consisting of such species. Mangroves occur worldwide in the tropics and subtropics between latitudes 25° N and 25° S; the total mangrove forest area of the world in 2000 was 137,800 square kilometres, spanning 118 countries and territories. Mangroves are salt-tolerant trees called halophytes, are adapted to life in harsh coastal conditions, they contain a complex salt filtration system and complex root system to cope with salt water immersion and wave action. They are adapted to the low oxygen conditions of waterlogged mud; the word is used in at least three senses: most broadly to refer to the habitat and entire plant assemblage or mangal, for which the terms mangrove forest biome, mangrove swamp are used, to refer to all trees and large shrubs in the mangrove swamp, narrowly to refer to the mangrove family of plants, the Rhizophoraceae, or more just to mangrove trees of the genus Rhizophora.
The mangrove biome, or mangal, is a distinct saline woodland or shrubland habitat characterized by depositional coastal environments, where fine sediments collect in areas protected from high-energy wave action. The saline conditions tolerated by various mangrove species range from brackish water, through pure seawater, to water concentrated by evaporation to over twice the salinity of ocean seawater; the term "mangrove" comes to English from Spanish, is to originate from Guarani. It was earlier "mangrow", but this word was corrupted via folk etymology influence of the word "grove". Mangrove swamps are found in subtropical tidal areas. Areas where mangals occur include marine shorelines; the intertidal existence to which these trees are adapted represents the major limitation to the number of species able to thrive in their habitat. High tide brings in salt water, when the tide recedes, solar evaporation of the seawater in the soil leads to further increases in salinity; the return of tide can flush out these soils, bringing them back to salinity levels comparable to that of seawater.
At low tide, organisms are exposed to increases in temperature and desiccation, are cooled and flooded by the tide. Thus, for a plant to survive in this environment, it must tolerate broad ranges of salinity and moisture, as well as a number of other key environmental factors—thus only a select few species make up the mangrove tree community. About 110 species are considered "mangroves", in the sense of being a tree that grows in such a saline swamp, though only a few are from the mangrove plant genus, Rhizophora. However, a given mangrove swamp features only a small number of tree species, it is not uncommon for a mangrove forest in the Caribbean to feature only three or four tree species. For comparison, the tropical rainforest biome contains thousands of tree species, but this is not to say mangrove forests lack diversity. Though the trees themselves are few in species, the ecosystem that these trees create provides a home for a great variety of other species. Mangrove plants require a number of physiological adaptations to overcome the problems of anoxia, high salinity and frequent tidal inundation.
Each species has its own solutions to these problems. Small environmental variations within a mangal may lead to differing methods for coping with the environment. Therefore, the mix of species is determined by the tolerances of individual species to physical conditions, such as tidal inundation and salinity, but may be influenced by other factors, such as predation of plant seedlings by crabs. Once established, mangrove roots provide an oyster habitat and slow water flow, thereby enhancing sediment deposition in areas where it is occurring; the fine, anoxic sediments under mangroves act as sinks for a variety of heavy metals which colloidal particles in the sediments have scavenged from the water. Mangrove removal disturbs these underlying sediments creating problems of trace metal contamination of seawater and biota. Mangrove swamps protect coastal areas from erosion, storm surge, tsunamis; the mangroves' massive root systems are efficient at dissipating wave energy. They slow down tidal water enough so its sediment is deposited as the tide comes in, leaving all except fine particles when the tide ebbs.
In this way, mangroves build their own environments. Because of the uniqueness of mangrove ecosystems and the protection against erosion they provide, they are the object of conservation programs, including national biodiversity action plans. Mangrove swamps' effectiveness in terms of erosion control can sometimes be overstated. Wave energy is low in areas where mangroves grow, so their effect on erosion is measured over long periods, their capacity to limit high-energy wave erosion is in relation to events such as storm surges and tsunamis. The unique ecosystem found in the intricate mesh of mangrove roots offers a quiet marine region for young organisms. In areas where roots are permanently submerged, the organisms they host include algae, oysters and bryozoans, which all require a hard surface for anchoring while they filter feed. Shrimps and mud lobsters use the muddy bottoms as their home. Mangrove crabs munch on the mangrove leaves, adding nutrients to the mangal muds for other bottom feeders.
In at least some cases, export of carbon fixed in mangroves is imp