Stelco Tower is the third tallest building in Hamilton, Canada. The 26-storey structure was completed in 1972, is attached to Lloyd D. Jackson Square. Known as Stelco Tower and now known as the 100 King Street West building, many Hamiltonians still refer to it as the Stelco Tower; the tower was built as the head office of Stelco, Canada's largest steel producer and one of Hamilton's largest employers. The company used the tower to demonstrate the versatility of steel and to showcase its newest development, "Stelcoloy"; the rust helps protect the steel from further damage. This process of oxidation accounts for the steel's unique self-colouring nature. List of tallest buildings in Hamilton, Ontario Hamilton Skyscraper page- diagrams Image: Stelco Tower
Toronto, Hamilton and Buffalo Railway
The Toronto and Buffalo Railway was a railway based in Hamilton that ran in Southern Ontario from 1894 to 1987. It never reached the other two cities in its name, although it did have branch lines extending to Dunnville and Port Maitland; the railway was chartered in 1884 by the Ontario Legislative Assembly to run from Toronto to the International Railway Bridge, connecting with local lines to Buffalo. The original charter forbade the company any attempt to merge with, lease from, sell to, or pool with any other railway. Given the business conditions at the time, this turned out to be an impossible condition; the original corporation was unable to complete the line before the original charter expired, so the government revived the act, requiring the line to be completed by 1894, with a new group of promoters. It began operations in 1892, when it took over the incomplete line of the Brantford, Waterloo & Lake Erie Railway between Brantford and Waterford; the line reached Hamilton in October, 1894 and Welland on December 30, 1895.
In 1895, the Canadian Pacific Railway and the New York Central Railroad bought the TH&B. The TH&B was jointly owned by the NYC for several decades. NYC and its subsidiaries owned 73%, while the CPR owned the other 27%, it never built into Toronto or Buffalo, but used its parent companies' trackage to reach the two cities. Passenger service on the TH&B was discontinued on April 26, 1981. In 1977, CP Rail acquired NYC's portion which held a 10% ownership, The CPR merged the TH&B into its system in 1987. While the TH&B line between Hamilton and Welland is still in use, its former line west of Hamilton to Waterford via Brantford has been abandoned past Aberdeen Avenue in Hamilton; the portion between Hamilton and Brantford was abandoned in the 1990s after trackage next to the Grand River was washed out. Some former TH&B industrial trackage still remains in the city of Brantford, although it is now operated by Canadian National Railway. Increased operating costs, tighter profit margins in that decade meant the future of the railroad was much in doubt.
The TH&B Railway was merged into the Canadian Pacific Railway on January 1, 1987. A portion of the branch of the former TH&B railroad, running from Smithville to Port Maitland via Dunnville, was abandoned on May 7, 2001, when the Port Maitland Turn made its final run between Smithville and E & O on that line. Trains were redirected onto the former NYC CASO subdivision, at Welland, to the remainder of the Dunnville spur, via a new connecting track; the railroad's yellow and black paint scheme started being applied to boxcars in early 1952, was applied to cabooses in 1954. These colours were chosen in honour of the local Hamilton Tiger-Cats football team; the TH&B's second train station in Hamilton, built in 1932-33, was in fact the first building in Canada adhering to the International Style. The station was refurbished in 1996 and is now used by GO Transit for both bus and train service as the Hamilton GO Centre; the TH&B's Brantford station has been converted to use as a restaurant and has carried several names since the first one opened in 1970.
The TH&B's Smithville station, built 1903, was restored in 1996, is now the headquarters of the West Lincoln Historical Society. It is open seasonally as a tourist information centre; the TH&B's Jerseyville station is now at the Westfield Heritage Village near Rockton, along with preserved TH&B steam locomotive #103. Perce Hankinson, who began his railway career in 1917 with the Michigan Central Railroad realized a lifelong dream when made Vice-President and General Manager of the TH&B on June 7, 1965, he retired 5 years after 53 years of working for the railroad only to return to the TH&B the next year and spend another 16 years on the Board of Directors. Hankinson retired from the board June 1987, at the age of 85 after 68 years of railway service. In 2001, Perce Hankinson was inducted into the North America Railway Hall of Fame in the category of "Local: Railway Workers & Builders." The TH&B was one of the first railways in Canada to dieselize. Starting in January 1948, the railway purchased four NW2 diesel switchers from General Motors Electro-Motive Division.
These locomotives were numbered 51-54. In the fall of 1950 the TH&B received an order of four GP7 road switchers built by GMD in London; these GP7s were the first Canadian-built "Geeps", were numbered 71-74. In December 1950 the TH&B took a second group from GMD for four SW9 switchers. With its switcher fleet complete the TH&B looked to add to its freight Geeps. In the summer of 1953 the final three GP7s were purchased from GMD, numbered 75-77. Still needing to commit motive power to the locomotive pool for through Toronto-Buffalo passenger service, the TH&B purchased three GP9s; these three locomotives were delivered in early 1954, numbered 401-403. This completed the railway's diesel fleet, the TH&B did not purchase any new motive power for the remainder of its operating years. In his song "Under a Stormy Sky", Quebec-born singer and producer Daniel Lanois pays homage to the presence of TH&B locomotives during his youth: "I hear the T. H.& B. the diesel turning, calling you and me to the city of steel, smokestack - spinning wheel come with me Bebette, oui under the stormy sky" Hamilton-Brantford-Cambridge Trails Toronto, Hamilton & Buffalo Railway Historical Society Canrail Video Productions The North America Railway Hall of Fame
War of 1812
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815. Historians in Britain see it as a minor theater of the Napoleonic Wars. From the outbreak of war with Napoleonic France, Britain had enforced a naval blockade to choke off neutral trade to France, which the US contested as illegal under international law. To man the blockade, Britain impressed American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy. Incidents such as the Chesapeake–Leopard affair, which happened five years before the war, inflamed anti-British sentiment in the US. In 1811, the British were in turn outraged by the Little Belt affair, in which 11 British sailors died. Britain supplied Native Americans who raided American settlers on the frontier, hindering American expansion and provoking resentment. Historians debate whether the desire to annex some or all of British North America contributed to the American decision to go to war. On June 18, 1812, US President James Madison, after heavy pressure from the War Hawks in Congress, signed the American declaration of war into law.
With most of its army in Europe fighting Napoleon, Britain adopted a defensive strategy, with offensive operations limited to the border, the western frontier. American prosecution of the war effort suffered from its unpopularity in New England, where it was derogatorily referred to as "Mr. Madison's War". American defeats at the Siege of Detroit and the Battle of Queenston Heights thwarted attempts to seize Upper Canada, improving British morale. American attempts to invade Lower Canada and capture Montreal failed. In 1813, the Americans won the Battle of Lake Erie, gaining control of the lake, at the Battle of the Thames defeated Tecumseh's Confederacy, securing a primary war goal. A final American attempt to invade Canada was fought to a draw at the Battle of Lundy's Lane during the summer of 1814. At sea, the powerful Royal Navy blockaded American ports, cutting off trade and allowing the British to raid the coast at will. In 1814, one of these raids burned the capital, but the Americans repulsed British attempts to invade New York and Maryland, ending invasions of the northern and mid-Atlantic United States from Canada.
Fighting took place overseas in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. In neighbouring Spanish Florida, a two-day battle for the city of Pensacola ended in Spanish surrender. In Britain, there was mounting opposition to wartime taxation. With the abdication of Napoleon, the war with France ended and Britain ceased impressment, rendering the issue of the impressment of American sailors moot; the British were able to increase the strength of the blockade on the United States coast, annihilating American maritime trade, but attempts to invade the U. S. ended unsuccessfully. Peace negotiations began in August 1814, the Treaty of Ghent was signed on December 24. News of the peace did not reach America for some time. Unaware of the treaty, British forces invaded Louisiana and were defeated at the Battle of New Orleans in January 1815; these late victories were viewed by Americans as having restored national honour, leading to the collapse of anti-war sentiment and the beginning of the Era of Good Feelings, a period of national unity.
News of the treaty arrived shortly thereafter. The treaty was unanimously ratified by the US Senate on February 17, 1815, ending the war with no boundary changes. Historians have long debated the relative weight of the multiple reasons underlying the origins of the War of 1812; this section summarizes several contributing factors which resulted in the declaration of war by the United States. As Risjord notes, a powerful motivation for the Americans was the desire to uphold national honour in the face of what they considered to be British insults such as the Chesapeake–Leopard affair. H. W. Brands says, "The other war hawks spoke of the struggle with Britain as a second war of independence; the approaching conflict was about violations of American rights, but it was about vindication of American identity." Americans at the time and historians since have called it the United States' "Second War of Independence". The British were offended by what they considered insults such as the Little Belt affair.
This gave the British a particular interest in capturing the United States flagship President, which they succeeded in doing in 1815. In 1807, Britain introduced a series of trade restrictions via the Orders in Council to impede neutral trade with France, which Britain was fighting in the Napoleonic Wars; the United States contested these restrictions as illegal under international law. Historian Reginald Horsman states, "a large section of influential British opinion, both in the government and in the country, thought that America presented a threat to British maritime supremacy."The American merchant marine had nearly doubled between 1802 and 1810, making it by far the largest neutral fleet. Britain was the largest trading partner, receiving 80% of U. S. cotton and 50% of other U. S. exports. The British public and press were resentful of commercial competition; the United States' view was. During the Napoleonic Wars, the Royal Navy expanded to 176 ships of the line and 600 ships overall, requiring 140,000 sailors to man.
While the Royal Navy could man its ships with volunteers in peacetime, it competed in wartime with merchant shi
A bookmobile or mobile library is a vehicle designed for use as a library. Bookmobiles expand the reach of traditional libraries by transporting books to potential readers, providing library services to people in otherwise-underserved locations and/or circumstances. Bookmobile services and materials, may be customized for the populations served. In addition to motor vehicles, bookmobiles have been based on various means of conveyance, including bicycles and trains, as well as elephants, horses and donkeys. In the United States of America, The American School Library was a traveling frontier library published by Harper & Brothers; the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History has the only complete original set of this series complete with its wooden carrying case. The British Workman reported in 1857 about a perambulating library operating in a circle of eight villages, in Cumbria. A Victorian merchant and philanthropist, George Moore, had created the project to "diffuse good literature among the rural population".
The Warrington Perambulating Library, set up in 1858, was another early British mobile library. This horse-drawn van was operated by the Warrington Mechanics' Institute, which aimed to increase the lending of its books to enthusiastic local patrons. One of the earliest mobile libraries in the United States was a mule-drawn wagon carrying wooden boxes of books, it was created in 1904 by the People's Free Library of Chester County, South Carolina, served the rural areas there. Another early mobile library service was developed by Mary Lemist Titcomb; as a librarian in Washington County, Titcomb was concerned that the library was not reaching all the people it could. The annual report for 1902 listed 23 "branches", each being a collection of 50 books in a case, placed in a store or post office throughout the county. Realizing that this did not reach the most rural residents, the Washington County Free Library began a "book wagon" in 1905, taking the library materials directly to people's homes in remote parts of the county.
With the rise of motorized transport in America, a pioneering librarian in 1920 named Sarah Byrd Askew began driving her specially outfitted Model T to provide library books to rural areas in New Jersey. The automobile remained rare, in Minneapolis, the Hennepin County Public Library operated a horse-drawn book wagon starting in 1922. Following the Great Depression in the United States, a WPA effort from 1935 to 1943 called the Pack Horse Library Project covered the remote coves and mountainsides of Kentucky and nearby Appalachia, bringing books and similar supplies on foot and on hoof to those who could not make the trip to a library on their own. Sometimes these "packhorse librarians" relied on a centralized contact to help them distribute the materials. At Fairfax County, county-wide bookmobile service was begun in 1940, in a truck loaned by the Works Progress Administration; the WPA support of the bookmobile ended in 1942. The "Library in Action" was a late-1960s bookmobile program in the Bronx, NY, run by interracial staff that brought books to teenagers of color in under-served neighborhoods.
Bookmobiles reached their height of popularity in the mid-twentieth century. Bookmobiles are still in use, operated by libraries, schools and other organizations. Although some feel the bookmobile is an outmoded service, giving reasons like high costs, advanced technology and ineffectiveness, others cite the ability of the bookmobile to be more cost-efficient than building more branch libraries would be and its high use among its patrons as support for its continuation. To meet the growing demand for "greener" bookmobiles that deliver outreach services to their patrons, some bookmobile manufacturers have introduced significant advances to reduce their carbon footprint, such as solar/battery solutions in lieu of traditional generators, all-electric and hybrid-electric chassis. Bookmobiles have taken on an updated form in the form of m libraries known as mobile libraries in which patrons are delivered content electronically The Internet Archive runs its own bookmobile to print out-of-copyright books on demand.
The project has spun off similar efforts elsewhere in the developing world. The Free Black Women's Library is a mobile library in Brooklyn. Founded by Ola Ronke Akinmowo in 2015, this bookmobile features books written by black women. Titles are available in exchange for other titles written by black female authors. National Bookmobile Day, sponsored by the American Library Association, is celebrated in April each year, on the Wednesday of National Library Week. In Kenya, the Camel Mobile Library Service is funded by the National Library Service of Kenya and by Book Aid International and it operates in Garissa and Wajir, near the border with Somalia; the service started with three camels in October 1996 and had 12 in 2006, delivering more than 7,000 books —in English and Swahili. Masha Hamilton used this service as a background for her 2007 novel The Camel Bookmobile. "Donkey Drawn Electro-Communication Library Carts" were being employed in Zimbabwe in 2002 as "a centre for electric and electronic communication: radio, fax, e-mail, Internet".
In Indonesia in 2015, Ridwan Sururi and his horse "Luna" started a mobile library called Kudapustaka. The goal is to improve access to books for villagers in a region that has more than 977,000 illiterate adults; the duo travel between villages in central Java with books balanced on Luna's back. Sururi visits schools three times a week. I
Mechanics' Institutes are educational establishments formed to provide adult education in technical subjects, to working men. Similar organisation are sometimes called Institutes; as such, they were funded by local industrialists on the grounds that they would benefit from having more knowledgeable and skilled employees. The Mechanics' Institutes were used as'libraries' for the adult working class, provided them with an alternative pastime to gambling and drinking in pubs; the world's first Mechanics' Institute was established in Edinburgh, Scotland in October 1821 as the School of Arts of Edinburgh, with the provision of technical education for working people and professionals. Its purpose was to "address societal needs by incorporating fundamental scientific thinking and research into engineering solutions"; the school revolutionised access to education in technology for ordinary people. The second Institute in Scotland was incorporated in Glasgow in November 1823, built on the foundations of a group started at the turn of the previous century by George Birkbeck.
Under the auspices of the Andersonian University, Birkbeck had first instituted free lectures on arts and technical subjects in 1800. This mechanics' class continued to meet after he moved to London in 1804, in 1823 they decided to formalise their organisation by incorporating themselves as the Mechanics' Institute; the first Mechanics' Institute in England was opened at Liverpool in July 1823. The London Mechanics' Institute followed in December 1823, the Mechanics' Institutes in Ipswich and Manchester in 1824. By the mid-19th century, there were over 700 institutes in towns and cities across the UK and overseas, some of which became the early roots of other colleges and universities. See for example the University of Gloucestershire, which has the Cheltenham Mechanics' Institute and Gloucester Mechanics' Institute within its history timeline, it was as a result of delivering a lecture series at the Cheltenham Mechanics' Institute that the famous radical George Holyoake was arrested and convicted on a charge of blasphemy.
In Australia, the first Mechanics' Institute was established in Hobart in 1827, followed by the Sydney Mechanics' School of Arts in 1833, Newcastle School of Arts in 1835 the Melbourne Mechanics' Institute established in 1839. From the 1850s, Mechanics' Institutes spread throughout Victoria wherever a hall, library or school was needed. Over 1200 Mechanics' Institutes were built in Victoria but just over 500 remain today, only six still operate their lending library services; the Industrial Revolution created a new class of reader in Britain by the end of the 18th century,'mechanics,' who were civil and mechanical engineers in reality. The Birmingham Brotherly Society was founded in 1796 by local mechanics to fill this need, was the forerunner of Mechanics' Institutes, which grew in England to over seven hundred in number by 1850. G. Jefferson explains that: The first phase, the Mechanics Institute movement, grew in an atmosphere of interest by a greater proportion of the population in scientific matters revealed in the public lectures of famous scientists such as Faraday.
More as a consequence of the introduction of machinery a class workmen emerged to build and repair, the machines on which the blessing of progress depended, at a time when population shifts and the dissolving influences of industrialization in the new urban areas, where these were concentrated, destroyed the inadequate old apprentice system and threw into relief the connection between material advancement and the necessity of education to take part in its advantages. Small tradesmen and workers could not afford subscription libraries, so for their benefit, benevolent groups and individuals created "Mechanics' Institutes" that contained inspirational and vocational reading matter, for a small rental fee. Popular non-fiction and fiction books were added to these collections; the first known library of this type was the Birmingham Artisans' Library, formed in 1823. Some mechanics' libraries only lasted a decade or two, many became public libraries or were given to local public libraries after the Public Libraries Act 1850 passed.
Though use of the mechanics' library was limited, the majority of the users were favourable towards the idea of free library use and service, were a ready to read public when the establishment of free libraries occurred. Beyond a lending library, Mechanics' Institutes provided lecture courses, in some cases contained a museum for the member's entertainment and education; the Glasgow Institute, founded in 1823, not only had all three, it was provided free light on two evenings a week from the local Gas Light Company. The London Mechanics' Institute installed gas illumination by 1825, revealing the demand and need for members to use the books. Thousands of Mechanics' Institutes still operate throughout the world—some as libraries, parts of universities, adult education facilities, cinemas, recreational facilities, or community halls. Ballarat Mechanics' Institute, Ballarat Berwick Mechanics' Institute, Berwick Briagolong Mechanics' Institute, Briagolong Footscray Mechanics' Institute Inc. Library Kilmore Mechanics' Institute & Free Library Kyneton Mechanics' Institute Lancefield Mechanics' Institute & Free Library Little River Mechanics' Institute, Little River Maldon Athenaeum, Maldon Melbourne Athenaeum Narre Warren Mechanics Institute Prahran M
Bank of Hamilton
The Bank of Hamilton was established in 1872 by local businessmen in the city of Hamilton, Canada under the leadership of Donald McInnes, the bank's first President. Like the other Canadian chartered banks, it issued its own paper money; the bank issued notes 1872-1922. The end dates are the final dates appearing on notes; the bank had a rough start, including near bankruptcy during the summer of 1879 when six banks in the area had to suspend activities due to financial difficulties. On August 1, 1879, the bank would run into further difficulties. On July 29, 1896 the Bank of Hamilton's first Winnipeg branch opened. By December 1898, six more branches were opened in Manitoba; this marked the beginning of two decades of explosive growth in the West. In total, between 1898 and 1910, the Bank of Hamilton would go on to open 128 branches throughout Ontario and Western Canada. By 1928, this number had grown to 152 branches. Like the other Canadian chartered banks, it issued its own paper money; the Bank of Canada was established through the Bank of Canada Act of 1934 and the banks relinquished their right to issue their own currency.
By 1905 the bank was doing so well that it decided to expand its head office, adding on an additional 8 stories. This is significant because the bank headquarters became Hamilton's first skyscraper on the corner of King and James Street; this tall building attracted the attention of Harry H. Gardiner of Washington, known as the Human Fly, he climbed the Bank of Hamilton building on November 11, 1918, to celebrate the end of World War I. The Bank of Hamilton in Winnipeg, built 1916 to 1918 is on the Registry of Historical Places of Canada; the Bank of Hamilton merged with Canadian Bank of Commerce on January 2, 1924. It was one of the last surviving banks in Canada, not headquartered in Toronto or Montreal. Thirty-five members of the Bank of Hamilton from branches across Canada died as a result of their World War I service, their names were listed on a bronze memorial plaque, displayed at the former Bank of Montreal building in Hamilton, Ontario. Canadian chartered bank notes "Mergers and amalgamations: The Canadian Bank of Commerce".
Cibc.com. Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce. Archived from the original on August 9, 2011. Retrieved December 11, 2017