South African Airways
South African Airways is the flag carrier airline of South Africa. Its headquarters are in Airways Park on the grounds of O. R. Tambo International Airport in Kempton Park, Gauteng. In partnership with SA Express, SA Airlink and its low-cost carrier, the airline flies to 56 destinations in South Africa, continental Africa and around the world from its Johannesburg hub, using a fleet of 47 aircraft. Vuyani Jarana has been CEO since November 2017. South African Airways was founded in 1934 after the acquisition of Union Airways by the South African government; the airline was overseen and controlled by South African Railways and Harbours Administration. Anti-apartheid sanctions by African countries deprived the airline of stopover airports during apartheid, forcing it to bypass the continent with long-range aircraft. During this time, it was known by its Afrikaans name, Suid-Afrikaanse Lugdiens, which has since been dropped by the airline. In 1997 SAA changed its name and aircraft livery and introduced online ticketing services.
In 2006, SAA was split from its parent company, to operate as an independent airline. It remains of the largest of South Africa's state owned enterprises. SAA owns Mango, a low-cost domestic airline, has established links with Airlink and South African Express, it is a member of the Star Alliance. South African Airways was formed on 1 February 1934 following the acquisition of Union Airways by the South African government. Forty staff members, along with one de Havilland DH.60 Gypsy Moth, one de Havilland DH.80A Puss Moth, three Junkers F.13s and a leased Junkers F13 and Junkers A50 were among the acquired aircraft. Upon acquisition, the government changed the airline's name to South African Airways. Came under control of the South African Railways and Harbours Administration. Charter operations started that year. On 1 February the following year, the carrier acquired Suidwes Lugdiens / South West Airways, which had since 1932 been providing a weekly air-mail service between Windhoek and Kimberley.
During this time, South African ordered three Junkers Ju 52/3m aircraft, which were delivered in October 1934 and entered service 10 days later. These aircraft were configured to carry 14 passengers, along with four crew, they enabled thrice-weekly Durban–Johannesburg services, with weekly services on the Durban–East London–Port Elizabeth–George/Mossel Bay–Cape Town route. On 1 July 1935, SAA moved its operations to Rand Airport as it became obvious that Johannesburg would become the country's aviation hub, which coincided with the launching of Rand–Durban–East London–Port Elizabeth–Cape Town services. From July the following year a weekly Rand–Kimberley–Beaufort West–Cape Town service commenced. A fourth Ju 52/3m soon joined the fleet. Orders for a further ten Ju 52/3m aircraft, along with eighteen Junkers Ju 86s and seven Airspeed Envoys were placed; this raised the number of Ju 52s to fourteen, although three older models were sold when deliveries of the newer Ju 52s began. The airline experienced a rapid expansion during this time, but suffered its first accident.
From 1 February 1934 until the start of World War II, SAA carried 118,822 passengers, 3,278 tonnes of airmail and 248 tonnes of cargo, which were served by 418 employees. On 24 May 1940, all operations were suspended. Following the war, frequencies were increased and more routes were opened, which necessitated the conversion of three South African Air Force Envoys to passenger layout; these aircraft would prove to be unsuitable for passenger and cargo services and were returned to the SAAF after the arrival of the Junkers Ju 86s. The main aircraft of SAA in the 1930s was the Junkers Ju 52. Other types used in the 1930s included eighteen Junkers Ju 86s; the slow growth continued during the 1940s, though the airline was closed for the duration of World War II. In 1944 SAA began operating 28 Lockheed Lodestars to restart domestic services and by 1948 SAA was operating nineteen examples; these were withdrawn in 1955. On 10 November 1945, SAA achieved a longtime company goal by operating a route to Europe when an Avro York landed in Bournemouth, after the long flight from Palmietfontein Airport near Johannesburg.
These were replaced by the Douglas DC-4 from 1946 onwards, which in turn was replaced by the Lockheed Constellation on international routes in 1950. Of note in the post war era was the DC-3 Dakota, of which eight served with SAA, the last example being withdrawn as late as 1970. On 10 November 1945, the airline introduced its first inter-continental service, the 3-day Springbok Service, operated by the Avro York, routed Palmietfontein–Nairobi–Khartoum–Cairo–Castel Benito–Hurn Bournemouth. A weekly service was flown, but this increased to 6 times weekly due to high passenger demand; the Douglas DC-4 Skymaster debuted with SAA in May 1946 between Johannesburg and Cape Town, which coincided with the introduction of the Douglas DC-3 on the Johannesburg–Durban route. From 1946, passengers and cargo carried increased, along with the size of SAA's staff; as the Skymasters arrived, out went the Avro Yorks, back to BOAC. Air hostesses were introduced in September 1946, at first on domestic routes on Springbok Services.
The two de Havilland Doves were introduced at the end of the year. The 28-seat Vickers Viki
Robert Brian Skinstad is a rugby union player who has represented the South African national team, the Springboks. He played in the positions of number eight. Skinstad lived in Kloof, KwaZulu-Natal while he attended Highbury Preparatory School, he attended Fores in Rondebosch, before boarding at Hilton College, his university studies took him to Stellenbosch University where he lived in the Simonsberg men's residence and captained the'Maties' 1st side. Skinstad was selected by Western Province for the Currie Cup and Super 12, went on to captain both sides, he moved to Johannesburg and played the 2003 season for the Golden Lions and the Cats before leaving for the United Kingdom. Skinstad was eligible to represent 3 countries at international level, Zimbabwe South Africa and Ireland through his Irish mother Alana who hails from County Louth. Having represented South Africa at all levels, including captaining the under 21 Springbok side in 1996 and 1997, playing for the SA Sevens team in 1997, Skinstad made his début for the Springboks as a replacement on 29 November 1997 against England.
In all he played 42 tests for the Springboks, scoring 11 tries. His inclusion in the 1999 World Cup squad at the expense of successful captain Gary Teichmann was controversial in South Africa, although South Africa finished third in the competition there were many who believed that Teichmann should have been retained as captain for that tournament. Skinstad carried a leg injury into the competition, made little impression. Skinstad captained the Springboks in 12 tests, since 24 October 2003. In January 2004 Skinstad terminated his contract with SA Rugby and signed with Newport Gwent Dragons in Wales, for whom he played just 9 games, he worked with a group, including businessmen Johann Rupert and Wayne Huizenga trying to take over an English club in London and played part-time for Richmond in England's London South-East Division 1. He was a regular player for the Barbarians and has captained them on several occasions. In December 2006 Bob played alongside his friend, former Scottish international Kenny Logan in the Dubai 7's for'Stefan BHF' to raise awareness for the British Heart Foundation in memory of the late Stefan Czerpak, ex England colts Newbury RFC and Richmond RFC rugby coach who died in 1998 from a heart attack.
Skinstad started his own sports management company, Esportif, as a joint venture with Saatchi & Saatchi based in their London headquarters. He has worked as an analyst and occasional presenter covering the Super 14, Currie Cup and NPC Tournaments for Sky Sports. After months of speculation about a return to professional rugby, Skinstad returned to Super 14 rugby in 2007 playing for the Sharks, he made his return coming off the bench against the Highlanders in New Zealand, went on to make another 9 appearances, including a substitute's role in the final. He was rewarded with a recall to the Springbok training camp in May 2007, when Danie Rossouw was taken ill, Skinstad was named on the bench for the second test against England on 2 June, continuing a remarkable comeback, he was chosen as captain for the Boks' 2007 Tri Nations match against Australia on 7 July, when coach Jake White rested several senior players in preparation for the World Cup. An experienced Boks side took a surprising 17-0 lead before fading to lose 25-17.
Despite suffering a broken rib in the Australia match, Skinstad would see his comeback capped off on 21 July with selection to the South Africa squad for the 2007 Rugby World Cup. He only played and captained one full game in South Africa's winning campaign, made three further appearances as a substitute, he retired from professional rugby on 6 November 2007. On 21 October 2013 Bob was appointed as Tourism Brand Ambassador for the Cape Whale Coast region in the Western Cape, South Africa; this region is made up of the following towns. Currie Cup: Winner 1997, 2000, 2001. Finalist 1998 Superrugby: Finalist 2007. Tri-Nations: Winner 1998 World Cup: Winner 2007. 3rd place with Springboks 1999 "SA Rugby Player Profile – Bobby Skinstad". South African Rugby Union. Retrieved 10 March 2016. SA Rugby Hall of Fame profile Newport Gwent Dragons Official Site
University of Pretoria
The University of Pretoria is a multi-campus public research university in Pretoria, the administrative and de facto capital of South Africa. The university was established in 1908 as the Pretoria campus of the Johannesburg-based Transvaal University College and is the fourth South African institution in continuous operation to be awarded university status; the university has grown from the original 32 students in a single late Victorian house to 39,000 in 2010. The University was built on 7 suburban campuses on 1,120 hectares; the University is organised into a business school. Established in 1920, the University of Pretoria Faculty of Veterinary Science is the second oldest veterinary school in Africa and the only veterinary school in South Africa. In 1949 the university launched the first MBA programme outside North America and the university's Gordon Institute of Business Science has been ranked the top business school in Africa for executive education, as well as being placed in the top 50 in the world.
In 2012 the Financial Times ranked the GIBS Executive MBA 1st in 60th in the world. Since 1997, the university has produced more research outputs every year than any other institution of higher learning in South Africa, as measured by the Department of Education's accreditation benchmark. In 2008, the university awarded 15.8% of all masters and doctorate degrees in South Africa, the highest percentage in the country. The university is referred to as UP, Tuks, or Tukkies and in post-nominals the university is abbreviated as Pret or UP, although Pretoria is used in official publications; the proposal for a university for the capital, first mooted in the Volksraad in 1889, was interrupted by the outbreak of the Anglo Boer War in 1899. In 1896 the South African School of Mines was founded in Kimberley. Eight years in 1904, the school was moved to Johannesburg and was renamed the Transvaal Technical Institute; the school's name changed yet again in 1906 to Transvaal University College. In 1902 after the signing of the Peace of Vereeniging, the Normal College for teacher training was established in Groenkloof, Pretoria.
On 4 March 1908 when the Transvaal University College transferred its arts and science courses to its newly established Pretoria Campus the precursor to the university was established offering courses in languages and law. Instruction commenced with 32 students, 4 professors and 3 lecturers in the Kya Rosa, 270 Skinner Street a late Victorian residence purchased from Leo Weinthal the owner of The Press; the first four professors were Prof H. Th. Reinink, J. Purves, D. F. du Toit Malherbe and A. C. Paterson, who would become the first Vice-ChancellorIn 1910 the Colonial Secretary, General Jan Smuts tabled the act constituting the university as a separate entity before the Transvaal Parliament, the "Transvaalse Universiteits-Inlijvingswet" Law 1 of 1910. On 17 May 1910 the Johannesburg and Pretoria campuses separated, each becoming an independent institution; the Johannesburg campus being reincorporated as the South African School of Mines and Technology, while the Pretoria campus retained the name of Transvaal University College until 1930.
The South African School of Mines and Technology would go on to become the University of the Witwatersrand in 1922. In 1910 the TUC acquired its own campus in the East of Pretoria, what is now the western part of the university's main campus in Hatfield. On 3 August 1910 Governor-General Herbert John Gladstone, 1st Viscount Gladstone laid the cornerstone of the Old Arts Building, the first building to be built on the newly established Hatfield campus; the building's striking Cape Dutch and Neo-Romanesque architectural style was recognised in 1968 when it was declared a provincial heritage site. During this time the colloquial name for the university, Tukkies or Tuks, was derived from the Afrikaans acronym for the college i.e. Transvaalse Universiteitskollege; the late 1910s and early 1920s saw the establishment of several faculties as the academic activities were expanded. Courses in agriculture, theology and political science, veterinary science, music were established as the institution grew.
On 10 October 1930 the University of Pretoria Private Act, No. 13 of 1930 changed the name of the TUC to the University of Pretoria. The TUC established as an English medium institution had evolved into the only bilingual university in South Africa and remained as such until the early 1930s; the rapid increase of Afrikaans speaking students brought about an imbalance between the demographics of students and the languages of instruction. By 1931, although 65% of students were Afrikaans speaking, 68% of the classes were conducted in English. In 1932 the University Council addressed the imbalance, deciding that Afrikaans would become the only medium of instruction. An increase in student numbers necessitated the building of new facilities such as the Club Hall and Administration Building when the 7th faculty, the Medical Faculty, was established in 1943; this period further saw the establishment of numerous student activities such as the annual Spring Day event and intervarsity. Student publications established include the Trek in 1931, the first Rag Mag in 1936 and the weekly student newspaper, Die Perdeby in 1939.
The period of 1948–1982 is characterised by the substantial increase in numbers of an exclusively white student body and the concomitant physical growth of the university infrastructure. The nearly doubling of stu
Sea Point is one of Cape Town's most affluent and densely populated suburbs, situated between Signal Hill and the Atlantic Ocean, a few kilometres to the west of Cape Town's Central Business District. Moving from Sea Point to the CBD, one passes through first the small suburb of Three Anchor Bay Green Point. Seaward from Green Point is the area known as Mouille Point, where the local lighthouse is situated, it is neighboured to the southwest by the suburb of Bantry Bay. Sea Point is the only sea-side suburb of Cape Town with significant high-rise development and this, along with other factors, has made it a popular residential area, or for investing in first or second homes and apartments; the area was classed as a "whites only" area only during the apartheid era under the terms of the Group Areas Act, a series of South African laws which restricted urban areas according to racial classifications With the collapse of apartheid and from the late 1990s, a diverse mix of residents emerged and changed the demographic mix.
According to the 2011 census, the white population was at 67.7% Sea Point is a suburb of Cape Town and is situated on a narrow stretch of land between Cape Town's well known Lion's Head to the south-east and the Atlantic Ocean to the north-west. It is a high density area where houses are built in close proximity to one another towards the surrounding mountainside. Apartment buildings are more common toward the beach-front. An important communal space is the beach-front promenade, a paved walkway along the beach-front used for walking, jogging or socialising. Along the litoral of the Sea Point promenade, the coastline has varied characteristics; some parts are difficult of access, while other parts have broad beaches. Sea Point beach adjoins an Olympic-sized seawater swimming pool, which had served generations of Capetonians since at least the early fifties. Further towards the city is a beach known as Rocklands. Adjoining Sea Point is Three Anchor Bay; the beaches along this stretch are in the main covered with mussel shells thrown up by the ocean, unlike the beaches of Clifton and Camps Bay, which are sandy.
The rocks off the beaches at Sea Point are in large part basaltic, of late Precambrian age and internationally famous in the history of geology. A plaque on the rocks commemorates Charles Darwin's observation of the rare geological interface, where igneous rock has invaded and replaced metamorphic rock. There are extensive beds of kelp offshore. Compared to the False Bay side of the Cape Peninsula, the water is colder; the community of Sea Point was the subject of a 2008 documentary film directed by François Verster, entitled Sea Point Days. Graaf's Pool, a beachfront tidal pool demolished in 2005, was the subject of a short film entitled "Behind the Wall", which contrasted the pool's origin story of Lady Marais, paralysed from the waist down from childbirth, whose husband built the pool for her as a private bathing area in the thirties, the Sea Point gay scene, which adopted the pool as a cruising ground between the 1960s and the turn of the century. Schools in the area include Sea Point Primary School and Sea Point High School founded in 1884, Herzlia Weizmann Primary.
The French School of Cape Town opened on 14 October 2014 after an R18m upgrade of the old Tafelberg Remedial School. The primary school campus of the French school is in Sea Point; some of the first settlers in the area were the aristocratic, Protestant Le Sueuer family from Bayeux in Normandy. Francois le Seuer arrived in 1739 as spiritual advisor to Cape Governor Hendrik Swellengrebel; the family’s Cape estate, Winterslust covered 200 acres on the slopes of Signal Hill. The estate was named Fresnaye, now forms part of the suburbs of Sea Point and Fresnaye. Sea Point got its name in 1767 when one of the commanders serving under Captain Cook, Sam Wallis, encamped his men in the area to avoid a smallpox epidemic in Cape Town at the time, it grew as a residential suburb in the early 1800s, in 1839 was merged into a single municipality with neighbouring Green Point. The 1875 census indicated that Sea Point and Green Point jointly had a population of 1,425. By 1904 it stood at 8,839. With the 1862 opening of the Sea Point tramline, the area became Cape Town's first "commuter suburb", though the line linked to Camps Bay.
At the turn of the century, the tramline was augmented by the Metropolitan and Suburban Railway Company, which added a line to the City Centre. During the 1800s, Sea Point's development was dominated by the influence of its most famous resident, the liberal parliamentarian and MP for Cape Town, Saul Solomon. Solomon was both the founder of the Cape Argus and the most influential liberal in the country - fighting racial inequality in the Cape, his Round Church of 1878 reflected his syncretic approach to religion - housing 4 different religions in its walls, which were rounded to avoid "denominational corners". "Solomon's Temple", as it was humorously known by residents, stood on its triangular traffic island at the intersection of Main and Kloof roads, a centre of the Sea Point community, until it was destroyed by the city council in the 1930s. The suburb was classed by the Apartheid regime as a whites-only area, but this changed in the late 1990s with a rapid growth of Sea Point's black and coloured communities.
Ships entering the harbour in Table Bay from the east coast of Africa have to round the coast at Sea Point and over the years many of them have been wrecked on the reefs just off-shore. In May 1954, during a great storm, the Basuto Coast ended up on the rocks within a few metres of the concrete wall
South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
Loftus Versfeld Stadium
Loftus Versfeld Stadium is a rugby and soccer stadium situated in the Arcadia suburb of Pretoria, South Africa. The stadium has a capacity of 51,762 for rugby union and it is used for football matches; the stadium is the home ground of the Bulls franchise of the Super Rugby tournament and the Blue Bulls union in South Africa's Currie Cup. It hosted the 2009 Super 14 Final which the Bulls won 61 - 17 against the Waikato Chiefs, the 2009 Currie Cup final, which the Bulls went on to win 36 - 24 against the Free State Cheetahs; the South Africa national rugby union team has played several test matches at the Loftus Versfeld Stadium. They played New Zealand in 1970, 1996, 1999, 2003 and 2006, Australia in 1967, 1997, 2001, 2005, 2010 and 2012, England in 1994, 2000 and 2007, Ireland in 1998. In June 2010, the stadium hosted opening round games and one game of the round of 16 of the 2010 FIFA World Cup; the stadium was named after Robert Loftus Owen Versfeld, the founder of organized sports in Pretoria.
Through the years the stadium has undergone various name changes as sponsors came and went, though locals have always referred to the stadium as Loftus Versfeld. From 11 June 1998 to 4 February 2003 the stadium was named Minolta Loftus after Minolta became the stadium's name sponsor. Sponsorship was taken over by security giant Securicor, who announced the name Securicor Loftus on 5 February 2003. On 1 September 2005 the renaming process went full circle when cellular provider Vodacom, taking over sponsorship from Securicor, renamed the stadium back to the original Loftus Versfeld; the site of the stadium was first used for sports in 1906, the field was called the Eastern Sports Ground. The first concrete structure was erected there by the City Council in 1923; the original structure could only accommodate 2000 spectators and did not have proper sports facilities. In 1928 because of the All Blacks tour to South Africa that year, the Pretoria sub-union made a large profit which they used to erect changing rooms and toilets.
When Mr Loftus Versfeld died in May 1932 the Pretoria sub-union renamed the Eastern Sports Ground after him as a tribute. The stadium has been known as Loftus Versfeld Stadium since, it has been upgraded on several occasions, most in 1984, when the Northern Pavilion received an upgrade. Loftus hosted. Loftus Versfeld was one of the venues for the 2009 FIFA Confederations Cup, it hosted the Group B matches USA vs. Italy, USA vs. Brazil and Brazil vs. Italy. Minimal upgrading was undertaken in order for Loftus Versfeld to qualify as a venue for first and second round matches for the 2010 FIFA World Cup; the floodlights, sound system and stadium roof were improved, as roads and parking facilities around it. While expected to be finished in August 2008, renovation was completed in January 2009; the stadium has hosted many musical events including concerts by UB40 and Robbie Williams' Close Encounters Tour on 17 April 2006 with an attendance of over 56,000. Canadian superstar Celine Dion performed as part of her Taking Chances Tour a two-night stand at the stadium on 16 and 17 February 2008 with a total attendance of about 80,000.
1999 Staging of Verdi's Aida. A cast of 00's formed the backing for international singers. On 20 October 1979, South African Heavyweight boxer Gerrie Coetzee challenged the unbeaten American Heavyweight John Tate for the vacant WBA World Heavyweight title in front of a crowd of 80,000 people. Despite massive support within the stadium Coetzee lost on points to the American. Between 1956 and 1959 six first-class cricket matches. List of African stadiums by capacity Vodacom Blue Bulls Stadium picture The Telegraph Virtual Tour of Loftus Versfeld Extreme Definition Loftus Versfeld Virtual Seating Plan FIFA Profile
Cape Town is the oldest city in South Africa, colloquially named the Mother City. It is primate city of the Western Cape province, it forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality. The Parliament of South Africa sits in Cape Town; the other two capitals are located in Bloemfontein. The city is known for its harbour, for its natural setting in the Cape Floristic Region, for landmarks such as Table Mountain and Cape Point. Cape Town is home to 64% of the Western Cape's population, it is one of the most multicultural cities in the world, reflecting its role as a major destination for immigrants and expatriates to South Africa. The city was named the World Design Capital for 2014 by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design. In 2014, Cape Town was named the best place in the world to visit by both The New York Times and The Daily Telegraph. Located on the shore of Table Bay, Cape Town, as the oldest urban area in South Africa, was developed by the Dutch East India Company as a supply station for Dutch ships sailing to East Africa and the Far East.
Jan van Riebeeck's arrival on 6 April 1652 established Dutch Cape Colony, the first permanent European settlement in South Africa. Cape Town outgrew its original purpose as the first European outpost at the Castle of Good Hope, becoming the economic and cultural hub of the Cape Colony; until the Witwatersrand Gold Rush and the development of Johannesburg, Cape Town was the largest city in South Africa. Cape Town is not just the city centre area, its suburbs and non-urban areas extend from the South Peninsula to beyond Mamre in the north and as far east as Gordon's Bay; the earliest known remnants in the region were found at Peers Cave in Fish Hoek and date to between 15,000 and 12,000 years ago. Little is known of the history of the region's first residents, since there is no written history from the area before it was first mentioned by Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias in 1488, the first European to reach the area and named it "Cape of Storms", it was renamed by John II of Portugal as "Cape of Good Hope" because of the great optimism engendered by the opening of a sea route to India and the East.
Vasco da Gama recorded a sighting of the Cape of Good Hope in 1497. In the late 16th century, French, Danish and English but Portuguese ships stopped over in Table Bay en route to the Indies, they traded tobacco and iron with the Khoikhoi in exchange for fresh meat. In 1652, Jan van Riebeeck and other employees of the Dutch East India Company were sent to the Cape to establish a way-station for ships travelling to the Dutch East Indies, the Fort de Goede Hoop; the settlement grew during this period, as it was hard to find adequate labour. This labour shortage prompted the authorities to import slaves from Madagascar. Many of these became ancestors of the first Cape Coloured communities. Under Van Riebeeck and his successors as VOC commanders and governors at the Cape, an impressive range of useful plants were introduced to the Cape – in the process changing the natural environment forever; some of these, including grapes, ground nuts, potatoes and citrus, had an important and lasting influence on the societies and economies of the region.
The Dutch Republic being transformed in Revolutionary France's vassal Batavian Republic, Great Britain moved to take control of its colonies. Britain captured Cape Town in 1795, but the Cape was returned to the Dutch by treaty in 1803. British forces occupied the Cape again in 1806 following the Battle of Blaauwberg. In the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814, Cape Town was permanently ceded to Britain, it became the capital of the newly formed Cape Colony, whose territory expanded substantially through the 1800s. With expansion came calls for greater independence from Britain, with the Cape attaining its own parliament and a locally accountable Prime Minister. Suffrage was established according to sexist Cape Qualified Franchise; the discovery of diamonds in Griqualand West in 1867, the Witwatersrand Gold Rush in 1886, prompted a flood of immigrants to South Africa. Conflicts between the Boer republics in the interior and the British colonial government resulted in the Second Boer War of 1899–1902, which Britain won.
In 1910, Britain established the Union of South Africa, which unified the Cape Colony with the two defeated Boer Republics and the British colony of Natal. Cape Town became the legislative capital of the Union, of the Republic of South Africa. In the 1948 national elections, the National Party won on a platform of apartheid under the slogan of "swart gevaar"; this led to the erosion and eventual abolition of the Cape's multiracial franchise, as well as to the Group Areas Act, which classified all areas according to race. Multi-racial suburbs of Cape Town were either purged of unlawful residents or demolished; the most infamous example of this in Cape Town was District Six. After it was declared a whites-only region in 1965, all housing there was demolished and over 60,000 residents were forcibly removed. Many of these residents were relocated to the Cape Lavender Hill. Under apartheid, the Cape was considered a "Coloured labour preference area", to the exclusion of "Bantus", i.e. Africans. School students from Langa and Nyanga in Cape Town reacted to the news of