Samuel Shepard Rogers III, known professionally as Sam Shepard, was an American actor, author and director whose career spanned half a century. He won ten Obie Awards for directing, the most won by any writer or director, he wrote 44 plays as well as several books of short stories and memoirs. Shepard received the Pulitzer Prize for Drama in 1979 for his play Buried Child and was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his portrayal of pilot Chuck Yeager in the 1983 film The Right Stuff, he received the PEN/Laura Pels International Foundation for Theater Award as a master American dramatist in 2009. New York magazine described Shepard as "the greatest American playwright of his generation."Shepard's plays are known for their bleak, surrealist elements, black comedy, rootless characters living on the outskirts of American society. His style evolved from the absurdism of his early off-off-Broadway work to the realism of plays like Buried Child and Curse of the Starving Class.
Shepard was born on November 1943, in Fort Sheridan, Illinois. He was named Samuel Shepard Rogers III after his father, Samuel Shepard Rogers, Jr. but was called Steve Rogers. Samuel Shepard Rogers, Jr. was a teacher and farmer who served in the United States Army Air Forces as a bomber pilot during World War II. Shepard characterized his father as "a drinking man, a dedicated alcoholic", his mother, Jane Elaine, was a native of Chicago. Shepard worked on a ranch as a teenager. After graduating from Duarte High School in Duarte, California in 1961, he studied animal husbandry at nearby Mt. San Antonio College. While at college, Shepard became enamored of Samuel Beckett and abstract expressionism, he dropped out to join the Bishop's Company. Shepard found work as a busboy at the Village Gate nightclub when he arrived in New York City, in 1962 became involved in the off-off-Broadway theater scene through Ralph Cook, the Village Gate's head waiter. Steve Rogers adopted the professional name Sam Shepard.
Although his plays would be staged at several off-off-Broadway venues, Shepard was most connected with Cook's Theatre Genesis, housed at St. Mark's Church in-the-Bowery in the East Village. In 1965, Shepard's one-act plays Dog and The Rocking Chair were produced at La MaMa Experimental Theatre Club; this was the first in many productions of Shepard's work at La MaMa during the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s. In 1967, Tom O'Horgan directed Shepard's Melodrama Play alongside Leonard Melfi's Times Square and Rochelle Owens' Futz at La MaMa. In 1969, Jeff Bleckner directed; the Unseen Hand would influence Richard O'Brien's musical The Rocky Horror Show. Bleckner directed The Unseen Hand alongside Forensic and the Navigators at the nearby Astor Place Theater in 1970. Shepard's play. Seth Allen directed Melodrama Play at La MaMa the following year. In 1981, Tony Barsha directed The Unseen Hand at La MaMa; the production transferred to the Provincetown Playhouse and ran for over 100 performances. Syracuse Stage co-produced The Tooth of Crime at La MaMa in 1983.
In 1983, the Overtone Theatre and New Writers at the Westside co-produced Shepard's plays Superstitions and The Sad Lament of Pecos Bill on the Eve of Killing His Wife at La MaMa. John Densmore performed in his own play Skins and Shepard and Joseph Chaikin's play Tongues, directed as a double bill by Tony Abatemarco, at La MaMa in 1984. Nicholas Swyrydenko directed a production of Geography of a Horse Dreamer at La MaMa in 1985. Several of Shepard's early plays, including Red Cross and La Turista, were directed by Jacques Levy. A patron of the Chelsea Hotel scene, he contributed to Kenneth Tynan's Oh! Calcutta! and drummed sporadically from 1967 through 1971 with the psychedelic folk band The Holy Modal Rounders, appearing on their albums Indian War Whoop and The Moray Eels Eat The Holy Modal Rounders. After winning six Obie Awards between 1966 and 1968, Shepard emerged as a screenwriter with Robert Frank's Me and My Brother and Michelangelo Antonioni's Zabriskie Point. Cowboy Mouth, a collaboration with his then-lover Patti Smith, was staged at The American Place Theatre in April 1971, providing early exposure for Smith, who became a well-known musician.
The story and characters in Cowboy Mouth were loosely inspired by Smith's relationship. After opening night, he abandoned the production and fled to New England without a word to anyone involved. Shortly thereafter, Shepard relocated with his son to London. While in London, he immersed himself in the study of G. I. Gurdjieff's a recurring preoccupation for much of his life. Returning to the United States in 1975, he moved to the 20-acre Flying Y Ranch in Mill Valley, where he raised a young colt named Drum and rode double with his young son on an appaloosa named Cody. Shepard continued to write plays and served for a semester as Regents' Professor of Drama at the University of California, Davis. Shepard accompanied Bob Dylan on the Rolling Thunder Revue of 1975 as the screenwriter for Renaldo and Clara that emerged from the tour. However, because much of the film was improvised, Shepard's work was used, his diary of the tour, Rolling Thunder Logbook, was published in 1978. A decade Dylan and Shepard co-wrote the 11-minute song "Brownsville Girl", included on Dylan's 1986 Knocked Out Loaded album and on compilations.
In 1975, Shepard was named playwright-in-residence at the Magic Theatre in San Francisco, where he created many of his notable works, including his
In William Shakespeare's play Hamlet, Gertrude is Hamlet's mother and Queen of Denmark. Her relationship with Hamlet is somewhat turbulent, since he resents her marrying her husband's brother Claudius after he murdered the King. Gertrude reveals no guilt in her marriage with Claudius after the recent murder of her husband, Hamlet begins to show signs of jealousy towards Claudius. According to Hamlet, she scarcely mourned her husband's death before marrying Claudius, her name may derive from Gertrude of Bavaria, Queen Consort of Denmark 1182–1197. Gertrude is first seen in Act 1 Scene 2 as she tries to cheer Hamlet over the loss of his father, begging him to stay at home rather than going back to school in Wittenberg, her worry over him continues into the second act, as she sides with King Claudius in sending Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to raise the spirits of her son. Rather than ascribing Hamlet's sudden madness to Ophelia's rejection, she believes the cause to be his father, King Hamlet's death and her quick, subsequent marriage to Claudius: "I doubt it is no other but the main.
In Act three, she eagerly listens to the report of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern on their attempt to cheer him, supports the King and Polonius' plan to watch Hamlet from a hidden vantage point as he speaks with Ophelia, with the hope that her presence will heal him. In the next act, Gertrude tells Claudius of Polonius' murder, convinced that Hamlet is mad, she shows genuine compassion and affection as she watches along with others as Ophelia sings and acts in absolute madness. At Ophelia's burial, she expresses her former hope that the young woman might have married her son: "I hoped thou shouldst have been my Hamlet's wife." When Hamlet appears and grapples with Laertes, she asks him to stop and for someone to hold him back—saying that he may be in a fit of madness now, but that will alleviate soon. At the beginning of the play, Gertrude lies more with her husband than her son. In the final scene, Gertrude notices Hamlet is tired during the fight with Laertes, offers to wipe his brow, she drinks a cup of poison intended for Hamlet by the King, against the King's wishes, dies, shouting in agony as she falls: "No, no, the drink,—O my dear Hamlet—The drink, the drink!
I am poison'd." Other characters' views of the Queen are negative. When the Ghost of her former husband appears to Hamlet, he describes her as a "seeming virtuous queen", but orders Hamlet not to confront her about it and leave her judgement to heaven. However, he expresses that his love for her was benevolent as he states that he would have held back the elements if they "visited her face too roughly". Hamlet sees her as an example of the weakness of women and hurt in his reflections of how she remarried. There have been numerous attempts to account for Gertrude's state of mind during the play, it could be argued that as she does not confess to any sins before she dies, she did not participate in her husband's murder. However, other considerations do point to Gertrude's complicity. After repeated erratic threats towards his mother to no response, Hamlet threatens to discover the true nature of Gertrude's character by setting up a mirror, at which point she projects a killer: In the 1919 essay "Hamlet and his problems" T. S. Eliot suggests that the main cause of Hamlet's internal dilemma is Gertrude's sinful behaviour.
He states, "Shakespeare's Hamlet... is a play dealing with the effect of a mother's guilt upon her son."In 1924, the social reformer Lillie Buffum Chace Wyman published a study, Gertrude of Denmark: An Interpretive Romance, an early attempt to give Gertrude's own perspective on her life and the events of the play. Wyman explicitly "interrogates the nineteenth-century cult of the self-sacrificing mother", critiquing the influence it had on interpretations of the play by both male critics and actresses playing Gertrude. In the 1940s, Ernest Jones—a psychoanalyst and Freud's biographer—developed Freud's ideas into a series of essays that culminated in his book Hamlet and Oedipus. Influenced by Jones's psychoanalytic approach, several productions have portrayed the "closet scene", where Hamlet confronts his mother in her private quarters, in a sexual light. In this reading, Hamlet is disgusted by his mother's "incestuous" relationship with Claudius while fearful of killing him, as this would clear Hamlet's path to his mother's bed.
Carolyn Heilbrun's 1957 essay "Hamlet's Mother" defends Gertrude, arguing that the text never hints that Gertrude knew of Claudius poisoning King Hamlet. This analysis has been championed by many feminist critics. Heilbrun argued that men have for centuries misinterpreted Gertrude, believing what Hamlet said about her rather than the actual text of the play. By this account, no clear evidence suggests that Gertrude is an adulteress: she is adapting to the circumstances of her husband's death for the good of the kingdom. Women were exclusively banned from appearing as actresses on the stage until 1660 and in the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods, troupes appeared that were composed of boy players. Indeed, they are famously mentioned in Hamlet, in which a group of travelling actors has left the city due to rivalry with a troupe of "little eyases". Eileen Herlie portrayed Gertrude in Laurence Olivier's 1948 Hamlet. Glenn Close played mother to Mel Gibson in the Franco Zeffirelli's 1990 Hamlet. Julie Christie appeared as Gertrude in Kenneth Branagh's 1996 Hamlet.
Despite her classical training as an actor, it was her first-ever
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions and spiritual practices based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are recognized by scholars: Theravada and Mahayana. Most Buddhist traditions share the goal of overcoming suffering and the cycle of death and rebirth, either by the attainment of Nirvana or through the path of Buddhahood. Buddhist schools vary in their interpretation of the path to liberation, the relative importance and canonicity assigned to the various Buddhist texts, their specific teachings and practices. Observed practices include taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha, observance of moral precepts, monasticism and the cultivation of the Paramitas.
Theravada Buddhism has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia such as Myanmar and Thailand. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Nichiren Buddhism and Tiantai, is found throughout East Asia. Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian adepts, may be viewed as a separate branch or as an aspect of Mahayana Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth-century India, is practiced in the countries of the Himalayan region and Kalmykia. Buddhism is an Indian religion attributed to the teachings of the Buddha born Siddhārtha Gautama, known as the Tathāgata and Sakyamuni. Early texts have his personal name as "Gautama" or "Gotama" without any mention of "Siddhārtha," which appears to have been a kind of honorific title when it does appear; the details of Buddha's life are mentioned in many Early Buddhist Texts but are inconsistent, his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain. The evidence of the early texts suggests that he was born as Siddhārtha Gautama in Lumbini and grew up in Kapilavasthu, a town in the plains region of the modern Nepal-India border, that he spent his life in what is now modern Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother was Queen Maya, he was born in Lumbini gardens. However, scholars such as Richard Gombrich consider this a dubious claim because a combination of evidence suggests he was born in the Shakyas community – one that gave him the title Shakyamuni, the Shakya community was governed by a small oligarchy or republic-like council where there were no ranks but where seniority mattered instead; some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, claims about the society he grew up in may have been invented and interpolated at a time into the Buddhist texts. According to the Buddhist sutras, Gautama was moved by the innate suffering of humanity and its endless repetition due to rebirth, he set out on a quest to end this repeated suffering. Early Buddhist canonical texts and early biographies of Gautama state that Gautama first studied under Vedic teachers, namely Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, learning meditation and ancient philosophies the concept of "nothingness, emptiness" from the former, "what is neither seen nor unseen" from the latter.
Finding these teachings to be insufficient to attain his goal, he turned to the practice of asceticism. This too fell short of attaining his goal, he turned to the practice of dhyana, which he had discovered in his youth, he famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya in the Gangetic plains region of South Asia. He gained insight into the workings of karma and his former lives, attained enlightenment, certainty about the Middle Way as the right path of spiritual practice to end suffering from rebirths in Saṃsāra; as a enlightened Buddha, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his life teaching the Dharma he had discovered, died at the age of 80 in Kushinagar, India. Buddha's teachings were propagated by his followers, which in the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE became over 18 Buddhist sub-schools of thought, each with its own basket of texts containing different interpretations and authentic teachings of the Buddha.
The Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful. This keeps us caught in saṃsāra, the endless cycle of repeated rebirth and dying again, but there is a way to liberation from this endless cycle to the state of nirvana, namely following the Noble Eightfold Path. The truth of dukkha is the basic insight that life in this mundane world, with its clinging and craving to impermanent states and things is dukkha, unsatisfactory. Dukkha can be translated as "incapable of satisfying," "the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity of all conditioned phenomena". Dukkha is most translated as "suffering," but this is inaccurate, since it refers not to episodic suffering, but to the intrinsically unsat
Polonius is a character in William Shakespeare's Hamlet. He is chief counsellor of the king, the father of Laertes and Ophelia. Regarded as wrong in every judgment he makes over the course of the play, Polonius is described by William Hazlitt as a "sincere" father, but "a busy-body, is accordingly officious and impertinent". In Act II Hamlet refers to Polonius as a "tedious old fool" and taunts him as a latter day "Jeptha". Polonius connives with Claudius to spy on Hamlet. Hamlet unknowingly kills Polonius, provoking Ophelia's fit of madness resulting in her early death and the climax of the play: a duel between Laertes and Hamlet. Father of Ophelia and Laertes, counselor to King Claudius, he is described as a windbag by some and a rambler of wisdom by others, it has been suggested that he only acts like a "foolish prating knave" to keep his position and popularity safe and to keep anyone from discovering his plots for social advancement. It is important to note that throughout the play, Polonius is characterised as a typical Renaissance "new man", who pays much attention to appearances and ceremonious behaviour.
Some adaptations show him conspiring with Claudius in the murder of King Hamlet. In Act 1, Scene 3, Polonius gives advice to his son Laertes, leaving for France, in the form of a list of sententious maxims, he finishes by giving his son his blessing, is at ease with his son's departure. However, in Act 2, Scene 1, he orders his servant Reynaldo to travel to Paris and spy on Laertes and report if he is indulging in any local vice. Laertes is not the only character, he is fearful that Hamlet's relationship with his daughter will hurt his reputation with the king and instructs Ophelia to "lock herself from resort". He suspects that Ophelia's rejection of Hamlet's attention has caused the prince to lose his wits, informs Gertrude and Claudius of his suspicion, claiming that his reason for commanding Ophelia to reject Hamlet was that the prince was above her station, he and the king test his hypothesis by interrogating Ophelia. In his last attempt to spy on Hamlet, Polonius hides himself behind an arras in Gertrude's room.
Hamlet deals with his mother, causing her to cry for help. Polonius echoes the request for help and is heard by Hamlet, who mistakes the voice for Claudius' and stabs through the arras and kills him. Polonius' death at the hands of Hamlet causes Claudius to fear for his own life, Ophelia to go mad, Laertes to seek revenge, which leads to the duel in the final act; the literary origins of the character may be traced to the King's counselor found in the Belleforest and William Painter versions of the Hamlet legend. However, at least since the 19th century scholars have sought to understand the character in terms of Elizabethan court politics. Polonius was first proposed as a parody of Queen Elizabeth's leading counsellor, Lord Treasurer, Principal Secretary William Cecil, Lord Burghley in 1869. Israel Gollancz suggested that Polonius might have been a satire on Burghley; the theory was finessed with supplementary arguments, but disputed. Arden Hamlet editor Harold Jenkins, for example, criticised the idea of any direct personal satire of Burghley as "unlikely" and "uncharacteristic of Shakespeare".
Gollancz proposed that the source for the character's name and sententious platitudes was De optimo senatore, a book on statesmanship by the Polish courtier Wawrzyniec Grzymała Goślicki, read after it was translated into English and published in 1598 under the title The Counsellor. "Polonius" is Latin for "Polish" or "a/the Polish man." The English translation of the book refers to its author as a statesman of the "polonian empyre". In the first quarto of Hamlet, Polonius is named "Corambis", it has been suggested that this derives from "crambe" or "crambo", derived from a Latin phrase meaning "reheated cabbage", implying "a boring old man" who spouts trite rehashed ideas. Whether this was the original name of the character or not is debated. Various suggestions have been made to explain this. G. R. Hibbard argues that the name was Polonius, but was changed because Q1 derives from a version of the play to be performed in Oxford and Cambridge, the original name was too close to that of Robert Polenius, founder of Oxford University.
Since Polonius is a parody of a pompous pseudo-intellectual, the name might have been interpreted as a deliberate insult. The title page of Q1 states that the play was performed in London and Cambridge. In most productions of the 20th century, up to about 1980, Polonius was played as a somewhat senile, garrulous man of about seventy-five or so, eliciting a few laughs from the audience by the depiction. More recent productions have tended to play him as a younger man, to emphasise his shiftiness rather than pompous senility, harking back to the traditional manner in which Polonius was played before the 20th century; until the 1900s there was a tradition that the actor who plays Polonius plays the quick-witted gravedigger in Act V. This bit suggests that the actor who played Polonius was an actor used to playing clowns much like the Fool in King Lear: not a doddering old fool, but an alive and intelligent master of illusion and misdirection. Polonius is a controlling and menacing character. One key to the portrayal is a producer's decision to keep or remove the brief scene with his servant, which comes after his scene of genial, fatherly advice to Laertes.
He instructs Reynaldo to spy on his son, suggest that he has been gambling and consorting with prostitutes, to find out what he has been up to. The inclusion of this scene portray
The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark shortened to Hamlet, is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare sometime between 1599 and 1602. Set in Denmark, the play depicts Prince Hamlet and his revenge against his uncle, who has murdered Hamlet's father in order to seize his throne and marry Hamlet's mother. Hamlet is Shakespeare's longest play and is considered among the most powerful and influential works of world literature, with a story capable of "seemingly endless retelling and adaptation by others", it was one of Shakespeare's most popular works during his lifetime and still ranks among his most performed, topping the performance list of the Royal Shakespeare Company and its predecessors in Stratford-upon-Avon since 1879. It has inspired many other writers—from Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Charles Dickens to James Joyce and Iris Murdoch—and has been described as "the world's most filmed story after Cinderella"; the story of Shakespeare's Hamlet was derived from the legend of Amleth, preserved by 13th-century chronicler Saxo Grammaticus in his Gesta Danorum, as subsequently retold by the 16th-century scholar François de Belleforest.
Shakespeare may have drawn on an earlier Elizabethan play known today as the Ur-Hamlet, though some scholars believe Shakespeare wrote the Ur-Hamlet revising it to create the version of Hamlet we now have. He certainly wrote his version of the title role for his fellow actor, Richard Burbage, the leading tragedian of Shakespeare's time. In the 400 years since its inception, the role has been performed by numerous acclaimed actors in each successive century. Three different early versions of the play are extant: the First Quarto; each version includes entire scenes missing from the others. The play's structure and depth of characterisation have inspired much critical scrutiny. One such example is the centuries-old debate about Hamlet's hesitation to kill his uncle, which some see as a plot device to prolong the action but which others argue is a dramatisation of the complex philosophical and ethical issues that surround cold-blooded murder, calculated revenge, thwarted desire. More psychoanalytic critics have examined Hamlet's unconscious desires, while feminist critics have re-evaluated and attempted to rehabilitate the maligned characters of Ophelia and Gertrude.
The protagonist of Hamlet is Prince Hamlet of Denmark, son of the deceased King Hamlet, nephew of King Claudius, his father's brother and successor. Claudius hastily married King Hamlet's widow, Hamlet's mother, took the throne for himself. Denmark has a long-standing feud with neighbouring Norway, in which King Hamlet slew King Fortinbras of Norway in a battle some years ago. Although Denmark defeated Norway and the Norwegian throne fell to King Fortinbras's infirm brother, Denmark fears that an invasion led by the dead Norwegian king's son, Prince Fortinbras, is imminent. On a cold night on the ramparts of Elsinore, the Danish royal castle, the sentries Bernardo and Marcellus discuss a ghost resembling the late King Hamlet which they have seen, bring Prince Hamlet's friend Horatio as a witness. After the ghost appears again, the three vow to tell Prince Hamlet; as the court gathers the next day, while King Claudius and Queen Gertrude discuss affairs of state with their elderly adviser Polonius, Hamlet looks on glumly.
During the court, Claudius grants permission for Polonius's son Laertes to return to school in France and sends envoys to inform the King of Norway about Fortinbras. Claudius scolds Hamlet for continuing to grieve over his father and forbids him to return to his schooling in Wittenberg. After the court exits, Hamlet despairs of his mother's hasty remarriage. Learning of the ghost from Horatio, Hamlet resolves to see it himself; as Polonius's son Laertes prepares to depart for a visit to France, Polonius gives him contradictory advice that culminates in the ironic maxim "to thine own self be true." Polonius's daughter, admits her interest in Hamlet, but Laertes warns her against seeking the prince's attention, Polonius orders her to reject his advances. That night on the rampart, the ghost appears to Hamlet, telling the prince that he was murdered by Claudius and demanding that Hamlet avenge him. Hamlet agrees, the ghost vanishes; the prince confides to Horatio and the sentries that from now on he plans to "put an antic disposition on", or act as though he has gone mad, forces them to swear to keep his plans for revenge secret.
However, he remains uncertain of the ghost's reliability. Soon thereafter, Ophelia rushes to her father, telling him that Hamlet arrived at her door the prior night half-undressed and behaving erratically. Polonius resolves to inform Claudius and Gertrude; as he enters to do so, the king and queen finish welcoming Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, two student acquaintances of Hamlet, to Elsinore. The royal couple has requested that the students investigate the cause of Hamlet's mood and behaviour. Additional news requires that Polonius wait to be heard: messengers from Norway inform Claudius that the King of Norway has rebuked Prince Fortinbras for attempting to re-fight his father's battles; the forces that Fortinbras had conscripted to march against Denmark will instead be sent against Poland, though they will pass through Danish territory to get there. Polonius tells Claudius and Gertrude his theory regarding Hamlet's behaviour and speaks to Hamlet in a hall of the castle to try to uncover more information.
Hamlet feigns madness but subtly insults Polonius all the while. When Rosencrantz and Guildenstern arrive, Hamlet greets his "friends" warm
Covert listening device
A covert listening device, more known as a bug or a wire, is a combination of a miniature radio transmitter with a microphone. The use of bugs, called bugging, is a common technique in surveillance and police investigations. Self-contained electronic covert listening devices came into common use with intelligence agencies in the 1950's, when technology allowed for a suitable transmitter to be built into a small package. By 1956, the U. S. Central Intelligence Agency was designing and building "Surveillance Transmitters" that employed transistors, which reduced the size and power consumption. An all solid-state device had low enough power needs that it could be operated by small batteries, which revolutionized the business of covert listening. A bug does not have to be a device designed for the purpose of eavesdropping. For instance, with the right equipment, it is possible to remotely activate the microphone of cellular phones when a call is not being made, to listen to conversations in the vicinity of the phone.
A "wire" is a device, hidden or concealed under a person's clothes for the purpose of covertly listening to conversations in proximity to the person wearing the "wire". Wires are used in police sting operations in order to gather information about suspects; the act of "wearing a wire" refers to a person knowingly recording the conversation or transmitting the contents of a conversation to a police listening post. Some sort of device is attached to the body in an inconspicuous way, such as taping a microphone wire to their chest. "Wearing a wire" by undercover agents is typical plot element in gangster and police related movies and television shows. A stereotypical movie scene is someone being suspected of "wearing a wire" and the criminals tearing the suspect's shirt open hoping to reveal the deception; when infiltrating a criminal organization a mole may be given a "wire" to wear under his or her clothes. The wire device transmits to a remote location where law enforcement agents monitor what is being said.
Wearing a wire is viewed as risky since discovery of a hidden wire by a criminal could lead to violence against the mole or other retaliatory responses. Mobile phone microphones can be activated remotely, without any need for physical access; this "roving bug" feature has been used by law enforcement agencies and intelligence services to listen in on nearby conversations. A United States court ruled in 1988 that a similar technique used by the FBI against reputed former Gulfport, Mississippi cocaine dealers after having obtained a court order was permissible. In 2003 the FBI obtained a court order to surreptitiously listen in on conversations in a car through the car's built-in emergency and tracking security system. A panel of the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals prohibited the use of this technique because it involved deactivating the device's security features. A laser microphone can be used to reconstruct audio from a laser beam shot onto an object in a room, or a window. Researchers have prototyped a method for reconstructing audio from video of thin objects that can pick up sound vibrations, such as a houseplant or bag of potato chips.
Embassies and other diplomatic posts are the targets of bugging operations. The Soviet embassy in Ottawa was bugged by the Government of Canada and MI5 during its construction in 1956; the Russian Embassy in The Hague was bugged by the BVD and the CIA in 1958 and 1959 using an Easy Chair Mark III listening device. Extensive bugging of the West German embassy in Moscow by the KGB was discovered by German engineer Horst Schwirkmann, leading to an attack on Schwirkmann in 1964; the Great Seal bug was hidden in a copy of the Great Seal of the United States, presented by the Soviet Union to the United States ambassador in Moscow in 1946 and only discovered in 1952. The bug was unusual in that it had no power source or transmitter, making it much harder to detect – it was a new type of device, called a passive resonant cavity bug; the cavity had a metallic diaphragm that moved in unison with sound waves from a conversation in the room. When illuminated by a radio beam from a remote location, the cavity would return a frequency modulated signal.
The United States Embassy in Moscow was bugged during its construction in the 1970s by Soviet agents posing as laborers. When discovered in the early 1980s, it was found that the concrete columns were so riddled with bugs that the building had to be torn down and replaced with a new one, built with U. S. materials and labor. For a time, until the new building was completed, embassy workers had to communicate in conference rooms in writing, using children's "Mystic Writing Tablets". In 1984, bugs were discovered in at least 16 IBM Selectric typewriters in the US Embassy in Moscow and the US Consulate in Leningrad; the sophisticated devices were planted by the Soviets between 1976 and 1984, were hidden inside a metal support bar. Information was intercepted by detecting the movements of metal bars inside the typewriter by means of magnetometers; the data was compressed and transmitted in bursts. In 1990, it was reported that the embassy of the People's Republic of China in Canberra, had been bugged by the Australian Secret Intelligence Service as part of the UKUSA Project Echelon.
During World War II, the Nazis took over a Berlin brothel, Salon Kitty, used concealed microphones to spy on patrons. During the war, the British used covert listening devices to monitor captured German fighter pilots being held at Trent Park. In the late 1970s, a bug was discovered in a meeting room at the OPEC headquarters in Vienna; the bug intercepted the audio from the PA system via a pickup coil and transmitted it on a frequency
Thích Nhất Hạnh
Thích Nhất Hạnh is a Vietnamese Buddhist monk and peace activist, founder of the Plum Village Tradition. Thích Nhất Hạnh spent most of his life residing in the Plum Village Monastery in southwest France, travelling internationally to give retreats and talks, he coined the term "Engaged Buddhism" in his book Vietnam: Lotus in a Sea of Fire. After a long term of exile, he was given permission to make his first return trip to Vietnam in 2005. In November 2018, he returned to Vietnam to spend his remaining days at his "root temple," Từ Hiếu Temple near Huế. Nhất Hạnh has published over 100 books, including more than 70 in English, he is active in the peace movement, promoting nonviolent solutions to conflict. He refrains from animal product consumption as a means of nonviolence towards animals. Born as Nguyễn Xuân Bảo, Nhất Hạnh was born in the city of Huế in Central Vietnam in 1926. At the age of 16 he entered the monastery at nearby Từ Hiếu Temple, where his primary teacher was Zen Master Thanh Quý Chân Thật.
A graduate of Báo Quốc Buddhist Academy in Central Vietnam, Thích Nhất Hạnh received training in Vietnamese traditions of Mahayana Buddhism, as well as Vietnamese Thiền, received full ordination as a Bhikkhu in 1951. In the following years he founded Lá Bối Press, the Vạn Hanh Buddhist University in Saigon, the School of Youth for Social Service. On May 1, 1966 at Từ Hiếu Temple, he received the "lamp transmission", making him a dharmacharya, from Zen Master Chân Thật. Nhất Hạnh is now recognized as a dharmacharya, as the spiritual head of the Từ Hiếu Pagoda and associated monasteries. In 1961 Nhất Hạnh went to the US to teach comparative religion at Princeton University, was subsequently appointed lecturer in Buddhism at Columbia University. By he had gained fluency in French, Sanskrit, Pali and English, in addition to his native Vietnamese. In 1963, he returned to Vietnam to aid his fellow monks in their non-violent peace efforts. Nhất Hạnh taught Buddhist psychology and prajnaparamita literature at Vạn Hanh Buddhist University, a private institution that taught Buddhist studies, Vietnamese culture, languages.
At a meeting in April 1965, Vạn Hanh Union students issued a Call for Peace statement. It declared: "It is time for North and South Vietnam to find a way to stop the war and help all Vietnamese people live peacefully and with mutual respect." Nhất Hạnh left for the U. S. shortly afterwards, leaving Chân Không in charge of the SYSS. Vạn Hạnh University was taken over by one of the Chancellors who wished to sever ties with Thich Nhất Hạnh and the SYSS, accusing Chân Không of being a communist. From that point the SYSS faced attacks on its members; the SYSS persisted in their relief efforts without taking sides in the conflict. Nhất Hạnh returned to the US in 1966 to lead a symposium in Vietnamese Buddhism at Cornell University, to continue his work for peace. While in the US, Nhất Hạnh stopped at Gethsemani Abbey to speak with Thomas Merton; when Vietnam threatened to block Nhất Hạnh's re-entry to the country, Merton penned an essay of solidarity entitled "Nhat Hanh is my Brother". He had written a letter to Martin Luther King, Jr. in 1965 entitled: "In Search of the Enemy of Man".
It was during his 1966 stay in the US that Nhất Hạnh met with King and urged him to publicly denounce the Vietnam War. In 1967, Dr. King gave a famous speech at the Riverside Church in New York City, his first to publicly question the U. S. involvement in Vietnam. That year, Dr. King nominated Nhất Hạnh for the 1967 Nobel Peace Prize. In his nomination Dr. King said, "I do not know of anyone more worthy of than this gentle monk from Vietnam, his ideas for peace, if applied, would build a monument to ecumenism, to world brotherhood, to humanity". The fact that King had revealed the candidate he had chosen to nominate and had made a "strong request" to the prize committee, was in sharp violation of the Nobel traditions and protocol; the committee did not make an award that year. Nhất Hạnh became the chair of the Vietnamese Buddhist Peace Delegation; when the Northern Vietnamese army took control of the south in 1975, he was denied permission to return to Vietnam. From 1976–1977 he led efforts to help rescue Vietnamese boat people in the Gulf of Siam stopping under pressure from the governments of Thailand and Singapore.
A CIA document from the Vietnam War has called Thích Nhất Hạnh a "brain truster" of Thich Tri Quang, the leader of a dissident group. Nhất Hạnh created the Order of Interbeing in 1966, he heads this monastic and lay group, teaching Five Mindfulness Trainings and the Fourteen Mindfulness Trainings. In 1969 he established the Unified Buddhist Church in France. In 1975 he formed the Sweet Potato Meditation Center; the center grew and in 1982 he and his colleague Chân Không founded Plum Village Monastery, a vihara in the Dordogne in the south of France. The Plum Village Community of Engaged Buddhism and its sister organization in France the Congregation Bouddhique Zen Village des Pruniers are the recognized governing bodies for Plum Village in France, for Blue Cliff Monastery in Pine Bush, New York, the Community of Mindful Living, Parallax Press, Deer Park Monastery in California, Magnolia Grove Monastery in Batesville and the European Institute of Applied Buddhism in Waldbröl, Germany. According to the Thích Nhất Hạnh Foundation