Hamm is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located in the northeastern part of the Ruhr area; as of 2016 its population was 179,397. The city is situated between the A1 A2 motorway. Hamm railway station is an important hub for rail transport and renowned for its distinctive station building; the coat of arms has been in use in its present form for about 750 years. It shows the markish chessboard in silver on a golden field, it was the founders' coat of arms, i. e. the Counts of Mark. The chessboard and the colours are displayed in the coats of arms of further towns founded by that family line; the colours of the city are red and white. The name Ham means "corner" in the old Low German dialect spoken at that time. In the old times the name thom Hamme would be used, which evolved into its modern form Hamm; the name derives from the description of the Hamm's location in the corner of the Lippe river and the narrow Ahse affluent, where it was founded on Ash Wednesday in March 1226 by Count Adolf I of the Mark.

1350 The Black death killed nearly all of the citizens. Only seven families survived. 1469 Hamm became a member of the Hanseatic League. It was one of the most powerful towns in the region, while the large cities of the today's Ruhr area still were only tiny villages. 1614 The Treaty of Xanten ends the conflict about the heritage of Cleve-Mark, the Electorate Brandenburg inherited the Ducal Cleve and the counties Ravensburg and Mark 1618-1648 Thirty Years' War, Hamm was taken several times by different armed forces and had to endure changing garrisons. All buildings were destroyed, except for the main church St. Georg and St. Agnes church. 1657 Establishment of the Gynasium illustre with three faculties. 1753 Establishment of the regional court 1767 "Märkische Kammerdeputation" established 1769 Brewery Isenbeck founded 1787 Changing of the "Märkische Kammerdeputation" into the "Märkische Kriegs- und Domänenkammer" by the Prussian "Generaldirektorium". 1818 Hamm has 4,688 inhabitants. 1820 The regional appeal court moves from Cleve to Hamm.

1847 First train stops at the main station Hamm 1853 Westfälische Union was founded 1856 Westfälische Draht Industrie was founded 1901 30,000 inhabitants, the district Hamm is split up into the urban district of Hamm and the district of Unna. 1901 Coal-mine de Wendel in Herringen starts mining 1902 Coal-mine Maximilian in Werries/Ostwennemar starts mining 1905 Coal-mine Radbod in Bockum-Hövel starts mining 1912 Coal-mine Sachsen in Heessen starts mining 1914 Datteln-Hamm-Canal is completed including the new city port 1938 The A2 reaches Hamm 1939-1945 55 air raids destroy nearly 60% of the old city and leave only a few historical buildings. 1944 Coal-mine Maximillian closes after several problems with water drainage of the hole mine. 1945 First meeting of the city council after the war 1946 Establishment of the industrial court and the industrial court of appeal by the Allied Control Council. 1953 Windsor Boys' School opens for the children on British Service personnel 1956 Sport airfield founded in the Lippe meadows.

1965 A1 reaches Hamm. 1976 Coal-mine Sachsen closes 1983 Windsor Boys' School closes 1984 First Landesgartenschau of North Rhine-Westphalia is held in Hamm. The old area of the coal-mine Maximillian was used for this purpose; the world greatest Glasselefant is built as main attraction and until today is one of the major landmarks of the city. 1990 Coal-mine Radbod closes. 2002 Consecration of the Sri Kamadchi Ampal-Temple 2005 Establishment of the university of applied sciences "SRH Fachhochschule Hamm" ¹ "Volkszählungsergebnis" counted population The city council has 58 members Pirate Party Germany: 1 seat Alliance 90/The Greens: 4 seats SPD: 20 seats Free voters: 2 seats FDP: 2 seats CDU: 25 seats RECHTE: 1 seat THE LEFT: 3 seatsHead of the city Council is the "Oberbürgermeister" the chief executive of the administration. The "Oberbürgermeister" is elected directly for a five years term, together with the city council; the "Oberstadtdirektor" was the non-elected chief executive before the reform of the Northrhine-Westphalian local administration in 1999, the "Oberbürgermeister" in the period before 1999 was only the elected representative of a larger town or city.

In 1939, 1968 and 1975 Hamm incorporated several towns and municipalities: in 1939 the village Mark and in 1968 the villages of Berge and Westtünnen. In the reorganisation of 1975, the following towns and municipalities were incorporated into the City of Hamm: The town of Bockum-Hövel, Lüdinghausen district The town of Heessen, Beckum district The municipality of Uentrop, Unna district, formed in 1968, including the municipalities of Braam-Ostwennemar, Haaren, Schmehausen, Uentrop, Vöckinghausen and Werries The municipality of Rhynern, formed in 1968, including the municipalities of Allen, Hilbeck, Osttünnen, Rhynern, Süddinker and Wambeln The municipality of Pelkum, formed in 1968, including the municipalities of Herringen, Pelkum, Sandbochum and parts of Wiescherhöfen; the number of citizens more than doubles from 83.00

Justin Ready

Justin D. Ready is a former member of the Maryland House of Delegates. Justin Ready was born in Mobile, but moved to Westminster, Maryland at the age of 11 after living in Mississippi. Senator Ready attends Liberty Church in Westminster, Maryland where his father is a pastor and mother is a public school teacher. Justin Ready received an Associate of Arts degree from Carroll Community College and graduated from Salisbury University in 2004 with a bachelor's degree in political science and minor in history, he received a Master's of Business Administration from University of Maryland, University College in 2018. After college, Ready was a legislative aide to Delegate J. B. Jennings from 2004 until 2006. In 2004, he served as a field director for E. J. Pipkin during Pipkin's unsuccessful run for U. S. Senate against Barbara Mikulski. In 2006 he became Chief of Staff to Senator Janet Greenip, a position he held until 2008. Additionally, Ready has worked as a self-employed small business owner specializing in printing design, marketing and advertising.

He was a Huckabee for President delegate and served as the grassroots chairman for that campaign in Maryland. Prior to being elected to the Maryland House of Delegates, Ready served as executive director of the Maryland Republican Party from 2008 until 2009, he served as interim Executive Director from July-December 2011. In January 2015, Ready resigned his House of Delegates seat in order to accept an appointment from Governor Larry Hogan to the State Senate seat in District 5, vacated by Joseph M. Getty, who took a position with the Governor's staff; the appointment was controversial as the Carroll County Republican Central Committee only submitted one name for the vacated State Senate seat, that of former Carroll County Commissioner Robin Bartlett Frazier, defeated in the Republican primary election in her bid for reelection to the said Commissioner seat. Governor Hogan requested three names from which he could choose. Three names were submitted, that of Robin Bartlett Frazier again, Delegate Ready, Dave Wallace who had unsuccessfully run for several political positions in the past.

During his time in the Maryland House of Delegates, Ready was a founding member of the organization "Change Maryland" which became the largest non-partisan advocacy group in the state. Change Maryland was led by now-Governor Larry Hogan, he served as Maryland Co-Chair of the Rick Perry Presidential Campaign in the early 2012 presidential primary season. In November 2014, Ready was appointed to Governor-Elect Larry Hogan's Transition Team where he worked on state agency review and analysis. In the House of Delegates, Ready served as Chief Deputy Whip, a position he was appointed to by Minority Leader Nic Kipke and Minority Whip Kathy Szeliga in 2013, he was a member of the Health and Government Operations Committee and the Rural Health-Care Work Group. He served on two sub-committees - Minority Health Disparities. In the Senate, Ready serves on the Judicial Proceedings Committee and, as the only resident State Senator in Carroll County, is the chairman of the three-member Carroll Senate Delegation.

Ready served as an assistant football coach at North Carroll High School in 2012 and 2013. Ready is a supporter for Alpha Pregnancy Centers, the Fellowship of Christian Athletes and leads worship at Liberty Church in Westminster, MD. 2014 Race for Maryland House of Delegates – District 5Voters to choose three:2010 Race for Maryland House of Delegates – District 5AVoters to choose two:

List of tram systems by gauge and electrification

The following is a list of tram/streetcar, or light rail systems with their track length, track gauge, electrification system. The vast majority of tram systems use 1,435 mm standard gauge. Standard gauge is the standard for every brand new system in places where there is another gauge for the heavy rail. Metre gauge is present in some old, continuously operating systems in Central Europe. Russian gauge is used only in the former Soviet Union. While in Central Europe the standard gauge and metre gauge coexist, in the former Soviet Union is used only the russian gauge; the electrification system for the old systems is 600 V DC while the more recent systems use 750 V DC. Some old system upgraded to 750 V in recent year while some system downgraded the voltage to 600 V to use the second hand vehicles coming from the upgraded German networks. Few systems are or wholly catenary-free, with APS and ACR systems or using a pure internal power source as battery or ultracapacitors. Few vintage systems are horse-drawn tram or cable car.

For references for the figures, see each system's page. Note: Overhead line electrification if not differently specified Hilton, George W.. The Electric Interurban Railways in America. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-4014-2. Retrieved 10 June 2014. Worst of all, not all city systems were built to the standard American and European gauge of 4'-​8 1⁄2". Pittsburgh and most other Pennsylvania cities used 5'-​2 1⁄2", which became known as the Pennsylvania trolley gauge. Cincinnati used 5'-​2 1⁄2", Philadelphia 5'-​2 1⁄4", Columbus 5'-2", Altoona 5'-3", Louisville and Camden 5'-0", Canton and Pueblo 4'-0", Denver and Los Angeles 3'-6", Toronto an odd 4'-​10 7⁄8", Baltimore a vast 5'-​4 1⁄2"