Urban renewal is a program of land redevelopment in cities where there is urban decay. Urban renewal refers to the clearing out of blighted areas in inner cities to clear out slums and create opportunities for higher class housing and more. Modern attempts at renewal began in the late 19th century in developed nations, experienced an intense phase in the late 1940s under the rubric of reconstruction; the process has had a major impact on many urban landscapes, has played an important role in the history and demographics of cities around the world. Urban renewal is a process where owned properties within a designated renewal area are purchased or taken by eminent domain by a municipal redevelopment authority and reconveyed to selected developers who devote them to other uses; until 1970, the displaced owners and tenants received only the constitutionally-mandated "just compensation" specified in the Fifth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution; this measure of compensation covered only the fair market value of the taken property, omitted compensation for a variety of incidental losses like, for example, moving expenses, loss of favorable financing and notably, business losses, such as loss of business goodwill.
In the 1970s the federal government and state governments enacted the Uniform Relocation Assistance Act which provides for limited compensation of some of these losses. However the Act denies the displaced land owners the right to sue to enforce its provisions, so it is deemed an act of legislative grace rather than a constitutional right. Urban redevelopment has been controversial because of such practices as taking private property by eminent domain for "public use" and turning it over to redevelopers free of charge or for less than the acquisition cost. Thus, in the controversial Connecticut case of Kelo v. City of New London the plan called for a redeveloper to lease the subject 90-acre waterfront property for $1 per year; this process is carried out in rural areas, referred to as village renewal, though it may not be the same in practice. In some cases, renewal may result in urban sprawl when city infrastructure begins to include freeways and expressways. Urban renewal has been seen by proponents as an economic engine and a reform mechanism, by critics as a mechanism for control.
Though it may bring more wealth to communities, it may edge out its preexisting residents. Some redevelopment projects have been failures, including the Kelo case, in which the U. S. Supreme Court upheld the taking by a 5 to 4 vote, but where nothing was built on the taken property. Many cities link the revitalization of the central business district and gentrification of residential neighborhoods to earlier urban renewal programs; the goal of urban renewal evolved into a policy based less on destruction and more on renovation and investment, today is an integral part of many local governments combined with small and big business incentives. Urban renewal sometimes lives up to the hopes of its original proponents – it has been assessed by politicians, urban planners, civic leaders, residents – it has played an undeniably important if controversial role, but at other times urban redevelopment projects have failed in several American cities, having wasted large amounts of public funds to no purpose.
Replenished housing stock might be an improvement in quality. It may, in some instances, improve cultural and social amenity, it may improve opportunities for safety and surveillance. Developments such as London Docklands increased tax revenues for government. In late 1964, the British commentator Neil Wates expressed the opinion that urban renewal in the United States had'demonstrated the tremendous advantages which flow from an urban renewal programme,' such as remedying the'personal problems' of the poor, creation or renovation of housing stock and cultural'opportunities'. In the United States successful urban redevelopment projects tend to revitalize downtown areas, but have not been successful in revitalizing cities as a whole; the process has resulted in the displacement of low-income city inhabitants when their dwellings were taken and demolished. Urban redevelopment became an engine of construction of shopping malls, automobile factories and dealerships, "large box" department stores.
Thus, in Washington, DC, the famous Southwest Washington renewal project displaced thousands of African-American families, but provided them with no replacement housing because at the time the law did not provide for any. The version of the project, approved by the U. S. Supreme Court in Berman, provided for low-cost replacement housing, one-third of, to rent for $17/room/month, but after the court's decision, that provision in the local law was repealed. Replacement housing – in the form of high-rise housing for low-income tenants – have not been successful; these projects are difficult to police, leading to an increase in crime, such structures might in themselves be dehumanising. Public housing projects like Cabrini-Green in Chicago and Pruitt-Igoe in St. Louis became so bad that they had to be demolished; the concept of urban renewal as a method for social reform emerged in England as a reaction to the cramped and unsanitary conditions of the urban poor in the industrializing cities of the 19th century.
The agenda that emerged was a progressive d
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
A city block, urban block or block is a central element of urban planning and urban design. A city block is the smallest area, surrounded by streets. City blocks are the space for buildings within the street pattern of a city, form the basic unit of a city's urban fabric. City blocks may be subdivided into any number of smaller land lots in private ownership, though in some cases, it may be other forms of tenure. City blocks are built-up to varying degrees and thus form the physical containers or'streetwalls' of public space. Most cities are composed of a lesser variety of sizes and shapes of urban block. For example, many pre-industrial cores of cities in Europe and the Middle-east tend to have irregularly shaped street patterns and urban blocks, while cities based on grids have much more regular arrangements. In most cities of the world that were planned, rather than developing over a long period of time, streets are laid out on a grid plan, so that city blocks are square or rectangular. Using the perimeter block development principle, city blocks are developed so that buildings are located along the perimeter of the block, with entrances facing the street, semi-private courtyards in the rear of the buildings.
This arrangement is intended to provide good social interaction among people. Since the spacing of streets in grid plans varies so among cities, or within cities, it is difficult to generalize about the size of a city block. However, as reference points for US cities, the standard square blocks of Portland and Sacramento are 264 by 264 feet, 330 by 330 feet, 410 by 410 feet respectively. Oblong blocks range in width and length; the standard block in Manhattan is about 264 by 900 feet. S. cities standard blocks are as wide as 660 feet. The blocks in Calgary, are 330 by 560 feet, while those in Edmonton, Canada are 197 by 560 feet; the blocks in central Melbourne, are 330 by 660 feet, formed by splitting the square blocks in an original grid with a narrow street down the middle. In Chicago and Minneapolis, Minnesota, a typical city block is 660 by 330 feet, meaning that 16 east-west blocks or 8 north-south blocks measure one mile. Many world cities have grown by accretion over time rather than being planned from the outset.
For this reason, a regular pattern of square or rectangular city blocks is not so common among European cities, for example. An exception is represented by those cities that were founded as Roman military settlements, that preserve the original grid layout around two main orthogonal axes. One notable example is Italy. Following the example of Philadelphia, New York City adopted the Commissioners' Plan of 1811 for a more extensive grid plan. By the middle of the 20th century, the adoption of the uniform, rectilinear block subsided completely, different layouts prevailed, with random sized and either curvilinear or non-orthogonal blocks and corresponding street patterns. In much of the United States and Canada, the addresses follow a block and lot number system, in which each block of a street is allotted 100 building numbers; the concept of city block can be generalized as a sub-block. A superblock or super-block is an area of urban land bounded by arterial roads, the size of multiple typically-sized city blocks.
Within the superblock, the local road network, if any, is designed to serve local needs only. Within the broad concept of a superblock, various typologies emerge based on the internal road networks within the superblock, their historical context, whether they are auto-centric or pedestrian-centric; the context in which superblocks are being studied or conceived gives rise to varying definitions. An internal road network characterised by cul-de-sacs is typical of auto-centric suburban development in Western countries throughout the 20th century; the Oxford Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture's definition is rooted within this suburban conception:“Area containing residential accommodation, schools, etc. with public open space, surrounded by roads and penetrated by cul-de-sac service-roads. It is linked to other super-blocks and a town centre by means of paths over or under the roads.”Though the aim of such superblocks is to minimise traffic within the superblock by directing it to arterial roads, the effect in many cases has been to entrench automobile dependence by limiting pedestrian permeability.
Superblocks can contain an orthogonal internal road network, including ones based on a grid plan or quasi-grid plan. This typology is prevalent in China, for example. Chen defines the supergrid and superblock urban morphology in this context as follows:“The Supergrid is a large-scale net of wide roads that defines a series of cells or Superblocks, each containing a network of narrower streets.”Superblocks can be retroactively superimposed on pre-existing grid plan by changing the traffic rules and streetscape of internal streets within the superblock, as in the case of Barcelona’s superilles. Each superilla comprises nine city blocks, with speed limits on the internal roads slowed to 10–20 km/h and through traffic disallowed, with through travel only possible on the perimeter roads. Superblocks were popular during the early and mid-20th century auto-centric suburban development, arising from modernist ideas in architecture and urban planning. Planning in this era was based upon the distance and speed scales for the automobi
A trailer park is a temporary or permanent area for mobile homes and travel trailers. Advantages include low cost compared to other housing, quick and easy moving to a new area, for example when taking a job in a distant place while keeping the same home. Trailer parks in American culture, are stereotypically viewed as lower income housing for occupants living at or below the poverty line who have low social status and lead a desultory and deleterious lifestyle. Despite the advances in trailer home technology, the trailer park image survives as evoked by a statement from Presidential adviser James Carville who, in the course of one of the Bill Clinton White House political scandals, suggested "Drag $100 bills through trailer parks, there's no telling what you'll find," in reference to Paula Jones, it is seen in the Canadian mockumentary Trailer Park Boys. Tornadoes and hurricanes inflict serious damage on trailer parks because the structures are not secured to the ground and their construction is less able to withstand high wind forces than regular houses.
However, most modern manufactured homes are built to withstand high winds, using hurricane straps and proper foundations. The negative perception of trailer parks was not improved by the creation of emergency trailer parks by the Federal Emergency Management Agency for the displaced victims of Hurricane Katrina, the quality and temporary nature of, disputed. Many stereotypes have been developed by trailer trash regarding people who live in trailer parks, which are similar to stereotypes of the poor and the term trailer trash is used as an adjective in the same vein as the derogatory American terms white trash or ghetto. Though trailer parks appear throughout the United States, they are associated with the Deep South and rural areas. More referred to in the U. S. as "mobile home parks" or "manufactured housing communities", the stereotypes are just that. Age-Restricted communities exist in many locales that permit mobile home parks as "55+ parks" in keeping with the Housing for Older Persons Act.
At least one homeowner in these age-restricted communities must be age 55 or over and persons under the age of 18 are permitted to live there. These can be gated communities with amenities such as swimming pools, clubhouses and on-site maintenance. Homes are permanently installed on foundations. However, in certain circumstances residents may not own the land. Mobile home parks in the U. S. have become an attractive investment for large financial firms, such as Carlyle Group, Apollo Global Management and TPG Capital. Over 100,000 US mobile home sites were estimated to be owned by large firms in 2019. One firm, Stockbridge Capital Group, owner of about 200 mobile-home parks throughout the US "saw a return on investment of more than 30 percent between late 2016 and the end of 2017." The company's expansion into this market was facilitated by $1.3 billion in financing from Fannie Mae, which has called mobile homes "inherently affordable." Profitability for the firms owning the parks has in some cases been tied to rent increases, has not translated into good maintenance of the mobile homes.
In Europe in Germany and Spain, where trailer parks are less common as'normal' accommodation, disputed trailer parks exist that squat on land near urban centers. Names for such phenomena include Wagenburg, Wagendorf or Bauwagenplatz and people living there are associated with certain ethnic groups such as Romani, or with the punk movement, New age travelers, Irish travelers and a do-it-yourself punk ethic. On the whole, trailer parks are much less common in these countries than they are elsewhere and in United States and are much less emblematic of a distinct lifestyle and membership to a certain social class. In Germany, the Netherlands and some other European countries local law allows for normal camping at RV parks for a short time and seasonal camping for holiday makers, long-time camping with hardly movable travel trailers. Sometimes the inhabitants cultivate a garden; some cities allow a long-time camping lot to be the regular address registered with the authorities. Many of mobile home plots are offered by RV parks that allow for all sorts of camping and offer extra plots for mobile homes.
The cost for such a plot tends to be between 400 € and 1.500 € a year, depending on the location and facilities. In France, living in a trailer or mobile home for more than three months is prohibited by law if the resident owns the land. In the United Kingdom, "trailers" are known as static caravans, are used for one of two purposes: firstly as holiday homes, designed for short-term living. Both types of trailers enjoy good amenities and are surrounded by manicured gardens. In Australia, there is no differentiation between a trailer park and an RV park; the term "caravan park" is used to refer to both. In New Zealand, the suburb of Favona in Auckland is an area. RV park Shanty town Trailer Park Boys Trailer trash, a derogatory term for white people who live in trailer parks Why do so many Americans live in mobile homes? by the BBC News Magazine Park Prejudice by All Parks Alliance for Change
Light rail, light rail transit, or fast tram is a form of urban rail transit using rolling stock similar to a tramway, but operating at a higher capacity, on an exclusive right-of-way. There is no standard definition, but in the United States, light rail operates along exclusive rights-of-way and uses either individual tramcars or multiple units coupled to form a train, lower capacity and lower speed than a long heavy-rail passenger train or metro system. A few light rail networks tend to have characteristics closer to rapid transit or commuter rail. Other light rail networks are tram-like in nature and operate on streets. Light rail systems are found on all inhabited continents, they have been popular in recent years due to their lower capital costs and increased reliability compared with heavy rail systems. Many original tram and streetcar systems in the United Kingdom, United States, elsewhere were decommissioned starting in the 1950s as the popularity of the automobile increased. Britain abandoned its last tram system, except for Blackpool, by 1962.
Although some traditional trolley or tram systems exist to this day, the term "light rail" has come to mean a different type of rail system. Modern light rail technology has West German origins, since an attempt by Boeing Vertol to introduce a new American light rail vehicle was a technical failure. After World War II, the Germans retained many of their streetcar networks and evolved them into model light rail systems. Except for Hamburg, all large and most medium-sized German cities maintain light rail networks; the basic concepts of light rail were put forward by H. Dean Quinby in 1962 in an article in Traffic Quarterly called "Major Urban Corridor Facilities: A New Concept". Quinby distinguished this new concept in rail transportation from historic streetcar or tram systems as: having the capacity to carry more passengers appearing like a train, with more than one car connected together having more doors to facilitate full utilization of the space faster and quieter in operationThe term light rail transit was introduced in North America in 1972 to describe this new concept of rail transportation.
The first of the new light rail systems in North America began operation in 1978 when the Canadian city of Edmonton, adopted the German Siemens-Duewag U2 system, followed three years by Calgary and San Diego, California. The concept proved popular, although Canada has few cities big enough for light rail, there are now at least 30 light rail systems in the United States. Britain began replacing its run-down local railways with light rail in the 1980s, starting with the Tyne and Wear Metro and followed by the Docklands Light Railway in London; the historic term light railway was used because it dated from the British Light Railways Act 1896, although the technology used in the DLR system was at the high end of what Americans considered to be light rail. The trend to light rail in the United Kingdom was established with the success of the Manchester Metrolink system in 1992; the term light rail was coined in 1972 by the U. S. Urban Mass Transportation Administration to describe new streetcar transformations that were taking place in Europe and the United States.
In Germany the term Stadtbahn was used to describe the concept, many in UMTA wanted to adopt the direct translation, city rail. However, UMTA adopted the term light rail instead. Light in this context is used in the sense of "intended for light loads and fast movement", rather than referring to physical weight; the infrastructure investment is usually lighter than would be found for a heavy rail system. The Transportation Research Board defined "light rail" in 1977 as "a mode of urban transportation utilizing predominantly reserved but not grade-separated rights-of-way. Electrically propelled. LRT provides a wide range of passenger capabilities and performance characteristics at moderate costs." The American Public Transportation Association, in its Glossary of Transit Terminology, defines light rail as:...a mode of transit service operating passenger rail cars singly on fixed rails in right-of-way, separated from other traffic for part or much of the way. Light rail vehicles are driven electrically with power being drawn from an overhead electric line via a trolley or a pantograph.
However, some diesel-powered transit is designated light rail, such as the O-Train Trillium Line in Ottawa, Canada, the River Line in New Jersey, United States, the Sprinter in California, United States, which use diesel multiple unit cars. Light rail is similar to the British English term light railway, long-used to distinguish railway operations carried out under a less rigorous set of regulation using lighter equipment at lower speeds from mainline railways. Light rail is a generic international English phrase for these types of rail systems, which means more or less the same thing throughout the English-speaking world; the use of the generic term light rail avoids some serious incompatibilities between British and American English. T
Södermalm is a city district area in central Stockholm, created 1 January 2007, through the merging of the boroughs of Maria-Gamla Stan and Katarina-Sofia. It covers the island of some neighboring districts. Södermalm is shortened "Söder"; the two former boroughs made up the western half of the island of Södermalm. The Maria-Gamla Stan included the island districts of Gamla Stan, Långholmen, Riddarholmen and Årsta holmar. All these districts are now parts of the new Södermalm borough. Maria-Gamla Stan was the result of a previous merging between the original borough with the same name, the former borough of Hornstull, in 1999. Södermalm borough has a population of around 110,000, making it the most populated borough of Stockholm; the area Hammarby Sjöstad is located in the Södermalm borough. Media related to Södermalm at Wikimedia Commons
Södermalm shortened to “Söder”, is a district and island in central Stockholm. The district covers the large island of the same name. Although Södermalm is considered an island, water to both its north and south does not flow but passes through locks. Södermalm is connected to its surrounding areas by a number of bridges, it connects to Gamla stan to the north by Slussen, a grid of road and rail and a lock that separates the lake Mälaren from the Baltic Sea, to Långholmen to the northwest by one of the city's larger bridges, Västerbron, to the islet Reimersholme to the west, to Liljeholmen to the southwest by the bridge Liljeholmsbron, to Årsta by Årstabron and Skansbron, to Johanneshov by Johanneshovsbron and Skanstullsbron to the south, to Södra Hammarbyhamnen to the east by Danvikstull Bridge. Administratively, Södermalm is part of Stockholm Municipality, it constitutes, together with Gamla stan and some other districts, from 2007 the administrative district Södermalms stadsdelsområde translated as Södermalm borough.
The name Södermalm is first mentioned in 1288 in a letter from Bishop Anund of Strängnäs. Until the early 17th century Södermalm was a rural, agricultural area, its first urban areas were planned and built in the mid 17th century, comprising a mixture of working class housing, such as the little red cottages of which a few can still be seen in northeastern Södermalm, the summer houses and pavilions of wealthier families, such as Emanuel Swedenborg's pavilion, now in the outdoor museum Skansen. During this time, it was the location of the first theatre in Scandinavia, Björngårdsteatern. Södermalm is poetically named “Söders höjder”, which reflects its topography of sheer cliffs and rocky hills. Indeed, the hills of Södermalm provide remarkable views of Stockholm's skyline. In the 18th century, the working-class cottages that clung to Mariaberget, the steep cliffs facing Riddarfjärden, were replaced by the large buildings that are still present today, it was not until the beginning of the 20th century that urbanisation grasped the entire width of Södermalm, today parts of Södermalm have a rural feeling to them, as for instance the landscape of tiny allotments that climb the slopes of Eriksdal.
Södermalm was once known as the "slum" area of Stockholm. However today, Södermalm is known as the home of bohemian, alternative culture and a broad range of cultural amenities. Meanwhile, the growing demand of housing, as well as an increasing gentrification of Stockholm's central parts, makes apartments in Södermalm more and more difficult or expensive to come by, thus what was. There are four parishes of the Church of Sweden on the island: Högalid, partitioned from the parish of Maria Magdalena in 1925. Maria Magdalena, partitioned from the Stockholm Cathedral parish in 1591, subsequently divided into the modern parishes. Katarina, partitioned from Maria Magdalena in 1654. Sofia, partitioned from Katarina in 1917 and includes parts of the mainland south of Södermalm. Södermalm is divided into the following neighbourhoods: Högalid: Bergsund Drakenberg Heleneborg Tantolunden Zinkensdamm Maria Magdalena: Mariaberget Mariatorget Slussen Södra stationsområdet Åsö: Eriksdal Helgalund Medborgarplatsen Rosenlund Skanstull Katarina-Sofia: Blecktornsområdet Danvikstull Ersta Norra Hammarbyhamnen Nytorget Mosebacke Göta LejonHögalid Church Karl Johanslussen Katarina Elevator Katarina Church Maria Magdalena Church Medborgarhuset Stockholm Mosque St. Eric's Cathedral Skatteskrapan Slussen Södra teatern Sofia kyrka Stockholm South Station Söder Torn Nytorget The songs and poems of the popular 18th century poet and songwriter Carl Michael Bellman are filled with recurring references to names of places bars and meadhalls, on Södermalm.
The celebrated first paragraph of August Strindberg's satirical novel The Red Room describes Stockholm as seen from Mosebacke on Södermalm, where much of the story takes place. City of My Dreams, the first in a series of books by Per Anders Fogelström telling the story of several generations of Stockholmers, follows the young worker Henning's life on Södermalm. Lisbeth Salander and other characters in the Millennium Trilogy by Stieg Larsson live and work on Södermalm. Much of the action in those books takes place in that district. Greta Garbo grew up in the area. Mojang, a video game developer and publisher best known for the creation of the popular game Minecraft, has their main offices located on Södermalm. Egalia SoFo Söder tea