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Hammer-headed bat

The hammer-headed bat known as hammer-headed fruit bat and big-lipped bat, is a megabat distributed in equatorial Africa. This large bat is found in riverine forests, mangroves and palm forests at elevations less than 1,800 metres; the hammer-headed bat was described as a new species in 1861 by American scientist Harrison Allen. Allen placed the species into Hypsignathus; the holotype had been collected by French-American zoologist Paul Du Chaillu in Gabon. The genus name Hypsignathus comes from Ancient Greek "húpsos" meaning "high" and "gnáthos" meaning "jaw." T. S. Palmer speculated that Allen chose the name Hypsignathus to allude to the "deeply arched mouth" of the species; the species name "monstrosus" is Latin for "having the qualities of a monster."Initially, Allen identified the hammer-headed bat as a member of the subfamily Pteropodinae of the megabats. However, in 1997, it was more recognized as a member of the subfamily Epomophorinae. A 2011 study found that Hypsignathus was the most basal member of a clade of megabats that included the following genera: Epomops, Micropteropus and Nanonycteris.

Together, these genera form the tribe Epomophorini within Epomophorinae. Some taxonomists do not recognize Epomophorinae as a valid subfamily and include its taxa within Rousettinae. In this alternate taxonomy, however, it is still placed within the tribe Epomophorini with the same other four genera; the hammer-headed bat is the largest bat in Africa, with a wingspan of 68.6 to 97 cm and a total length of 195 to 285 mm. Males, ranging from 228 to 450 g, are larger than females, which range from 218 to 377 g. Pelage is grey-brown to slaty-brown with a whitish collar of fur extending from shoulder to shoulder; the flight membranes are brown and the ears are dark brown with a tuft of white fur at the base. The face is dark brown with a few stiff whiskers around the mouth; the skull may be diagnosed by specific dental features. The second premolar and molars are markedly lobed; this feature is specific for this genus, no other African fruit bats have this characteristic. There is extreme sexual dimorphism in this species.

The male possesses an enormous head for producing loud honking calls. The enlarged rostrum and lips allow these sounds to be resonant; the larynx fills out most of the thoracic cavity. It is nearly three times larger in males than females; the male has a hairless split chin and warty rostrum with wrinkled skin around it. Females have a much more fox-like appearance, similar to most fruit bats. Hammer-headed bats are frugivores. Figs make up much of their diet, but they may include mangos and guavas. There are some complications inherent in a fruit diet such as insufficient protein intake, it is suggested that fruit bats compensate for this by possessing a proportionally longer intestine compared to insectivorous species. This enhances their ability to absorb protein, they do have rapid digestive systems allowing these bats to assimilate high amounts of fruit to ensure that adequate protein is absorbed. It is suggested that by eating a wide variety of fruits with varying protein contents, fruit bats are able to maintain an frugivorous diet.

In 1968, however, it was claimed that Hypsignathus ate tethered chickens. Fruit is picked and taken to a nearby tree where it is chewed, the juice squeezed out and the pulp discarded. Since they do not consume the pulp, these bats are not considered to be good seed distributors. Males may forage long distances to locate the highest quality food. Females rely on established feeding routes; this may reflect different metabolic requirements based on body size differences. Large bats experience difficulties with overheating during flight; the limited thermoregulatory capabilities of flying bats appears to be one factor associated with why flight activity occurs during cooler nocturnal temperatures. It has been found that hammer-headed bats are able to tolerate higher ambient temperatures during flight than other bats; this ability is associated with this bat's high thermal conductance, defined as the total heat loss less the heat loss due to evaporation divided by body temperature less the ambient temperature.

However, they are sensitive to ambient temperatures below 11 °C and a decrease in flight coordination is seen. Due to the large surface area of the wing, convective heat loss to cool air may be significant enough to chill flight muscles preventing the precise coordination essential for flight; these bats are nocturnal. They rely on camouflage to hide them from predators. Specific species of trees are not selected for roosting, however some roosts may be used for long periods of time. Roosts are 20–30 metres from the ground; the main predators of this species are nocturnal and diurnal birds of prey. However, infection by parasites is the most significant problem for the hammer-headed bat. Adults are infected with mites and the hepatoparasite, Hepatocystis carpenteri. Little is known about reproduction in hammer-headed bats. In some populations breeding is thought to take place semi-annually during the dry seasons; the timing of the dry season varies depending on the locality, but in general there are two breeding seasons, one from June to August and the other from December to February.

However, in other populations, breeding is not restricted

René Lesson

René Primevère Lesson was a French surgeon, naturalist and herpetologist. He was born at Rochefort, entered the Naval Medical School in Rochefort at the age of sixteen, he served in the French Navy during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1816 Lesson changed his classification to pharmacist, he served on Duperrey's round-the-world voyage of La Coquille, of which he collected natural history specimens with his fellow surgeon Prosper Garnot and officer Dumont d'Urville. During his visits to the Moluccas and New Guinea, Lesson became the first naturalist to see birds of paradise in the wild. On returning to Paris, he spent seven years preparing the section on vertebrates for the official account of the expedition: "Voyage autour du monde entrepris par ordre du Gouvernement sur la corvette La Coquille". During this time period, he produced "Manuel d'Ornithologie", "Traité d'Ornithologie", "Centurie Zoologique" and "Illustrations de Zoologie". Lesson published several monographs on hummingbirds and one book on birds of paradise: Histoire naturelle des oiseaux-mouches.

Ouvrage orné de planches.... Histoire naturelle des Colibris suivie d'un supplement a l'histoire naturelle des oiseaux-mouches. Les trochilidées ou les colibris et les oiseaux-mouches. Histoire naturelle des oiseaux de paradis et des épimaques. In the field of herpetology he described many new species of reptiles. On the 3rd of February 1827 he married the artist and scientific illustrator Clémence Dumont de Sainte-Croix. Dumont de Sainte-Croix along with her sister Zoë Dumont de Sainte-Croix illustrated plates in Lesson's publications. From 1831, he served as a professor of pharmacy, following a series of promotions, became the top-ranking naval pharmacist at Rochefort, his experience as a ship's surgeon resulted in his two-volume "Manuel d'histoire naturelle medicale, et de pharmacographie", intended as a handbook for naval surgeons. He became a corresponding member of the Académie de Médecine in 1828 becoming a correspondent of the Académie des Sciences, he received the Légion d'honneur in 1847.

René Primevère Lesson is sometimes confused with his brother, Pierre Adolphe Lesson, who participated on the Astrolabe expedition in 1826–29, under the command of Jules Dumont d'Urville. Listed in the order they were described Litoria aurea as Rana aurea Pleurodema thaul as Bufo thaul Hylarana papua as Rana papua Scincus cyanurus now Emoia cyanura Hinulia smaragdina now Lamprolepis smaragdina Calotes chiliensis now Liolaemus chiliensis Scincus noctua now Lipinia noctua Varanus douarrha Scincus atrocostatus now Emoia atrocostata Scincus cyanogaster now Emoia cyanogaster Lophurus brasiliensis now Enyalius brasiliensis Gecko oceanicus now Gehyra oceanica Stellio peruvianus now Microlophus peruvianus Coluber ikaheka now Micropechis ikaheca Naja kaouthia Lesson, 1831 Crocodylus palustris Lesson, 1831 Euphlyctis hexadactylus as Rana hexadactylus Draco bourouniensis Lesson, 1834 listed in the order they were described Rana esculenta var. lessonae now Pelophylax lessonae Diploglossus lessonae Peracca, 1890 Agama lessonae now Tapelus lessonae Manuel d'ornithologie, ou Description des genres et des principales espèces d'oiseaux, deux volumes, Paris, 1828.

Histoire naturelle des oiseaux-mouches: ouvrage orné de planches dessinées et gravées par les meilleurs artistes, deux volumes, Arthus Bertrand, Paris, 1829. Histoire naturelle des colibris, suivie d'un supplément à l'histoire naturelle des oiseaux-mouches. Ouvrage orné de planches dessinées et gravées par les meilleurs artistes, et dédié à M. le baron Cuvier, Arthus Bertrand, Paris, 1830–1831. Centurie zoologique, ou, Choix d'animaux rares, nouveaux ou imparfaitement connus: enrichi de planches inédites, dessinées d'après nature par M. Prêtre, gravées et coloriées avec le plus grand soin, F. G. Levrault, Bruxelles, 1830–1832. Traité d'ornithologie, ou Tableau méthodique des ordres, sous-ordres, tribus, sous-genres et races d'oiseaux, Paris, 1831. Illustrations de zoologie, ou, Recueil de figures d'animaux peintes d'après nature, Arthus Bertrand, Paris, 1831–1835. Manuel d'Histoire Naturelle Médicale, et de Pharmacographie, ou tábleau synoptique, méthodique et descriptif des produits que la médecine et les arts empruntent à l'histoire naturelle, Paris, 1833.

Flore rochefortine, ou Description des plantes qui croissent spontanément ou qui sont naturalisées aux environs de la ville de Rochefort, Rochefort, 1835. Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des mammifères et des oiseaux découverts depuis la mort de Buffon, Pourrat Frères, Paris, 1834–1836. Voyage autour du monde, entrepris par ordre du gouvernement sur la Corvette La Coquille, Pourrat frères, Pa

Voices of Classic Rock

Voices of Classic Rock is a rock music ensemble featuring singers and musicians from classic rock groups popular in the 1970s and 1980s. Voices of Classic Rock was formed in 1998. In 2001, following the September 11 attacks, they released a version of "The Battle Hymn of the Republic". Singers and musicians who have performed as part of Voices of Classic Rock include: Mike Reno, singer with Loverboy Bobby Kimball, singer with Toto John Cafferty, singer with John Cafferty & The Beaver Brown Band Joe Lynn Turner, singer with Rainbow and Deep Purple Benjamin Orr and bassist of The Cars Pat Travers and multi-instrumentalist Glenn Hughes and singer with Deep Purple and Black Sabbath Spencer Davis, multi-instrumentalist Gary U. S. Bonds and songwriter Mickey Thomas, singer with Jefferson Starship Jimi Jamison, singer with Survivor Nick Gilder, singer Barry Dunaway, bassist with Pat Travers, Yngwie Malmsteen Alex Ligertwood Singer Santana Larry Hoppen and vocalist for Orleans Fergie Frederiksen, singer for Toto Peter Rivera and drummer with Rare Earth Ronnie Hammond, singer with Atlanta Rhythm Section

Swiss Hotel Management School

The SHMS Swiss Hotel Management School is Switzerland's largest English-speaking hotel management school. SHMS provides an international programme through a mixture of practical internships; the school offers various programs other than the basic bachelor's degree BA in International Hospitality Management, including Postgraduate and Master's programmes. Until 2015, the motto of the Leyin campus was school centre; as SHMS was inappropriately using the term university, a protected term in Switzerland, the Leysin site had to change to the Caux motto to Centre of Excellence. SHMS is owned by the Swiss Education Group. An investment of Invision Private Equity AG. Invision invested in SEG in 2008; the "Caux-Palace", was the largest hotel in its day. Today, Caux-Palace and Leysin Campus are the home of SHMS. SHMS's academic programs combine practical elements from all aspects of the hospitality industry with management skills. SHMS offers Postgraduate Diploma and master's degree programs. 2 years: Swiss Diploma in Hotel Operational Management 2.5 years: Swiss Higher Diploma in Hospitality Management Hospitality and Events ManagementThe American Hotel and Lodging Association Diploma in Hospitality Management 3 years: Swiss BA Degree from Swiss Hotel Management School and British BA Degree from the University of Derby in Hospitality Management Hospitality and Events Management Hotel & Events Management Hotel Operations Management Hotel and Restaurant Management MSc - Masters of Science in International Hospitality Management MIB - Master of International Business in Hotel Management MIB - Master of International Business in Hotel & Resort Management 1992 The Swiss Hotel Management School was founded as a private hotel management school in Les Paccots.

1995 Move into the Caux Palace located above Montreux. 1998 Partnership established with the University of Derby for the awards of the Bachelor of Arts degree and Master of Arts.2001 The Swiss Hotel School Association recognised the programmes offered at the Swiss Hotel Management School and granted full accreditation.2004 Acquisition of the Mont-Blanc Palace and Belvédère hotel in Leysin and opening of the Leysin campus.2006 Revalidation of the programmes run in partnership with the University of Derby. The programmes are the Bachelor of Master of Arts. 2011 Launch of the Master of International Business in Resort and Spa Management programme. Opening of a student-managed spa with a public section in Leysin. 2012 Swiss eduQua qualification awarded. 2013 Launch of the Master of Science in International Hospitality Management built on the success of the Master of Arts in International Hospitality Management. Hotel Institute Montreux Cesar Ritz Colleges International Hotel and Tourism Training Institute Swiss Education Group Swiss Hotel Management School

Don't Tell Alfred

Don't Tell Alfred is a novel by Nancy Mitford, first published in 1960 by Hamish Hamilton. It is the third in a trilogy centered on an upper-class English family, takes place twenty years after the events of The Pursuit of Love and Love in a Cold Climate, it was Mitford's final novel, though she continued to produce works of biography for a number of years before her death in 1973. As in the previous novels, Don't Tell Alfred is narrated by Fanny, now middle-aged and dealing with her own problems, her husband Alfred Wincham, an Oxford don, has long been settled at this university as the Professor of Pastoral Theology but has now been named as the unlikely British Ambassador to France. The novel suggests that this is a reward for the now "Sir" Alfred Wincham's "war work", but Fanny is unclear about her husband's role during this period. Fanny finds herself uprooted from moving to a grand Embassy in Paris, she is at first clumsy and naive about Embassy life. A former student of Alfred's and friend of the family, the young career diplomat, Philip, is at ease in the complex world of French politics and society.

He and Fanny work together to find a way to dislodge the former ambassadress who has retained residence in the Embassy, try to smooth the way for Alfred to concentrate on the complexities of his new position. Various characters in the novel mutter, "Don't tell Alfred," when anything difficult or dramatic occurs in the day-to-day life of the Embassy, hence the title. Fanny must contend with her four free-thinking sons, her social secretary Northey who spends more time leading a hectic social life in Paris, with a trail of suitors behind her, than working, a grumpy gossip columnist who skews everything that happens at the Embassy into embarrassing and untrue news stories. Unlike the previous novels, The Pursuit of Love and Love in a Cold Climate, Fanny's narration focuses on her own life, rather than that of other people; this novel does provide details about the lives of some other characters from these novels and The Blessing, though these are not germane to Don't Tell Alfred. Mitford, Nancy.

Don't Tell Alfred. 1960, London. Official Nancy Mitford website

Anik (satellite)

The Anik satellites are a series of geostationary communications satellites launched by Telesat Canada for television in Canada, from 1972 through 2013. Some of the satellites in the series remain operational in orbit, while others have been retired and are derelict; the naming of the satellite was determined by a national contest, was won by Julie-Frances Czapla of St. Leonard, Quebec. In Inuktitut, Anik means "little brother"; the Anik A satellites were the world's first national domestic satellites. The Anik A fleet of three satellites gave CBC the ability to reach the Canadian North for the first time; each of the satellites was equipped with 12 C-band transponders, thus had the capacity for 12 colour television channels. Three channels were allocated for CBC, two to TCTS and CNCP Telecommunications, two to Bell Canada, one for Canadian Overseas Telecommunications. Two channels were to put on reserve and the remaining two were unallocated, it was launched on December 15, 1978, was the successor to the Anik A series and Hermes experimental satellite.

Most of the transponders were devoted to CBC Television—East and West feed, CBC Parliamentary Television Network, CITV-TV Edmonton, CHCH Hamilton, TVOntario. CNCP Telecommunications used Anik B as a relay for its services; the Globe and Mail used Anik B to transmit copy to printing plants across Canada. The Anik C satellite series was three times more powerful than the Anik A series, they each had sixteen Ku band transponders. Anik C-3 was used to distribute Canada's first pay television networks -- First Choice, Superchannel, C-Channel, Star Channel, AIM Pay-TV since February 1983. Anik C-3 transponder lineup: 02 - Atlantic Satellite Network 03 - Assiniboia Downs Racing Network 06 - Super Écran TV Payante 10 - Radio-Quebec 14 - La Sette 2 15 - Knowledge 16 - La Sette 1 17 - Access Alberta 18 - TFO 19 - Premier Choix/TVEC TV Payante 20 - TVOntario 23 - Superchannel 24 - TVOntario-Legislature Channel 25 - CHSC Canadian Home Shopping Club 27 - Knowledge Network 30 - First Choice 32 - CHSC Canadian Home Shopping Club Anik D1 & D2 series C-Band satellites were launched in 1982 and 1984.

They were based on the Hughes 376 design. Anik E1 & E2 were launched in the early 1990s to replace Anik D1 & D2. Unlike the cylinder-shaped spin-stabilised satellites of the D-series, these were cubical, 3-axis satellites using momentum wheels for attitude stabilisation. Anik E2 experienced an anomaly during deployment of its C-band antenna, deployed after several corrective maneuvers. On Thursday, January 20, 1994, Anik E1 and E2 suffered problems due to solar activity. E1 failed first at 12:50 EST. After a few hours, Telesat managed to restore normal functions on E1 at 20:15 EST. At 21:00 EST, both the primary and redundant E2 momentum wheels failed, thus eliminating the gyroscope effect that helps keep the satellite pointed towards Earth; the exact problem lay with the circuitry having to do with the stabilizing momentum wheel. E2 was not restored to service for five months. Telesat restored E2 by constructing special earth stations at each end of the country to monitor the satellite's position, designed specialised software to use a combination of its control jets and magnetic torquing coils to finely position the satellite.

Though a small amount of extra stationkeeping fuel was needed for pitch control, the efficiencies from using the magnetic coils for roll-yaw adjustment compensated for fuel usage that would have been used in those axes, so there was an insignificant overall effect on fuel use throughout the life of the satellite. The Anik E2 satellite continued to provide full service for 14 years. On March 26, 1996, another catastrophic failure occurred. A critical diode on Anik E1's solar panel shorted out, causing a permanent loss of half the satellite's power. Anik F1 is a Canadian geosynchronous communications satellite, launched on November 21, 2000, by an Ariane 4 rocket from the European Space Agency Guiana Space Centre at Kourou. At the moment of its launch it was the most powerful communications satellite built, it has an advanced xenon Ion thruster propulsion system and its communication "footprint" covers Central America as well as North America. It was launched by a Canadian communications company.

The primary customers are the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Shaw Direct, CHUM Limited and Canadian Satellite Communications Inc. Manufacturer: Telesat Canada Satellite Type: Boeing Satellite Systems bus model 702 Mass: 4710 kg at launch and 3015 kg in orbit Dimensions: 40.4 m long and 9.0 m wide with the solar panels and antennas deployed. DC power: 17.5 kW Expected lifetime: 15 years Transponders: 84 C band and Ku band Launch vehicle: Ariane 4The solar panels of Anik F1 degraded more than expected, a replacement Anik F1R was launched in 2005, with Anik F1 switching to serving only South America. Anik F1R carries a GPS/WAAS payload in addition to the C band and Ku band transponders. At 5,900 kilograms, it is more than ten times the size of Anik A2 and is one of the largest, most powerful communications satellites built. Anik F2 is a Boeing 702-series satellite, designed to supp