An extended play record referred to as an EP, is a musical recording that contains more tracks than a single, but is unqualified as an album or LP. Contemporary EPs contain a minimum of three tracks and maximum of six tracks, are considered "less expensive and time-consuming" for an artist to produce than an album. An EP referred to specific types of vinyl records other than 78 rpm standard play and LP, but it is now applied to mid-length CDs and downloads as well. Ricardo Baca of The Denver Post said, "EPs—originally extended-play'single' releases that are shorter than traditional albums—have long been popular with punk and indie bands." In the United Kingdom, the Official Chart Company defines a boundary between EP and album classification at 25 minutes of maximum length and no more than four tracks. EPs were released in various sizes in different eras; the earliest multi-track records, issued around 1919 by Grey Gull Records, were vertically cut 78 rpm discs known as "2-in-1" records. These had finer than usual grooves, like Edison Disc Records.
By 1949, when the 45 rpm single and 331⁄3 rpm LP were competing formats, seven-inch 45 rpm singles had a maximum playing time of only about four minutes per side. As an attempt to compete with the LP introduced in 1948 by rival Columbia, RCA Victor introduced "Extended Play" 45s during 1952, their narrower grooves, achieved by lowering the cutting levels and sound compression optionally, enabled them to hold up to 7.5 minutes per side—but still be played by a standard 45 rpm phonograph. These were 10-inch LPs split onto two seven-inch EPs or 12-inch LPs split onto three seven-inch EPs, either sold separately or together in gatefold covers; this practice became much less common with the advent of triple-speed-available phonographs. Some classical music albums released at the beginning of the LP era were distributed as EP albums—notably, the seven operas that Arturo Toscanini conducted on radio between 1944 and 1954; these opera EPs broadcast on the NBC Radio network and manufactured by RCA, which owned the NBC network were made available both in 45 rpm and 331⁄3 rpm.
In the 1990s, they began appearing on compact discs. RCA had success in the format with their top money earner, Elvis Presley, issuing 28 Elvis EPs between 1956 and 1967, many of which topped the separate Billboard EP chart during its brief existence. During the 1950s, RCA published several EP albums of Walt Disney movies, containing both the story and the songs; these featured the original casts of actors and actresses. Each album contained two seven-inch records, plus a illustrated booklet containing the text of the recording so that children could follow along by reading; some of the titles included Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and what was a recent release, the movie version of 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, presented in 1954. The recording and publishing of 20,000 was unusual: it did not employ the movie's cast, years a 12 in 33⅓ rpm album, with a nearly identical script, but another different cast, was sold by Disneyland Records in conjunction with the re-release of the movie in 1963.
Because of the popularity of 7" and other formats, SP records became less popular and the production of SPs in Japan was suspended in 1963. In the 1950s and 1960s, EPs were compilations of singles or album samplers and were played at 45 rpm on seven-inch discs, with two songs on each side. Other than those published by RCA, EPs were uncommon in the United States and Canada, but they were sold in the United Kingdom, in some other European countries, during the 1950s and 1960s. Record Retailer printed the first EP chart in 1960; the New Musical Express, Melody Maker and Music Echo and the Record Mirror continued to list EPs on their respective singles charts. The Beatles' Twist and Shout outsold most singles for some weeks in 1963; when the BBC and Record Retailer commissioned the British Market Research Bureau to compile a chart it was restricted to singles and EPs disappeared from the listings. In the Philippines, seven-inch EPs marketed as "mini-LPs" were introduced in 1970, with tracks selected from an album and packaging resembling the album they were taken from.
This mini-LP format became popular in America in the early 1970s for promotional releases, for use in jukeboxes. Stevie Wonder included a bonus four-song EP with his double LP Songs in the Key of Life in 1976. During the 1970s and 1980s, there was less standardization and EPs were made on seven-inch, 10-inch or 12-inch discs running either 331⁄3 or 45 rpm; some novelty EPs used odd shapes and colors, a few of them were picture discs. Alice in Chains was the first band to have an EP reach number one on the Billboard album chart, its EP, Jar of Flies, was released on January 25, 1994. In 2004, Linkin Park and Jay-Z's collaboration EP, Collision Course, was the next to reach the number one spot after Alice in Chains. In 2010, the cast of the television series Glee became the first artist to have two EPs reach number one, with Glee: The Music, The Power of Madonna on the week of May 8, 2010, Glee: The Music, Journey to Regionals on the week of June 26, 2010. In 2010, Warner Bros. Records revived the format with their "Six-Pak" offering of six songs on a compact disc.
The first EPs were seven-inch vinyl records with more tracks than a normal single. Although they shared size and speed with singles, they were a recognizably different format than the seven-inch single. Alth
In popular music, a cover version, cover song, revival, or cover, is a new performance or recording by someone other than the original artist or composer of a recorded, commercially released song. Before the onset of rock'n' roll in the 1950s, songs were published and several records of a song might be brought out by singers of the day, each giving it their individual treatment. Cover versions could be released as an effort to revive the song's popularity among younger generations of listeners after the popularity of the original version has long since declined over the years. On occasion, a cover can become more popular than the original, such as Elvis Presley's version of Carl Perkins' original "Blue Suede Shoes", Santana's 1970 version of Peter Green's and Fleetwood Mac's 1968 "Black Magic Woman", Johnny Cash's version of Nine Inch Nails' "Hurt", Whitney Houston's versions of Dolly Parton's "I Will Always Love You" and of George Benson's "The Greatest Love of All", Glenn Medeiros's version of George Benson's "Nothing's Gonna Change My Love for You" or Jimi Hendrix's version of Bob Dylan's "All Along the Watchtower".
The Hendrix recording, released six months after Dylan's original, became a Top 10 single in the UK in 1968 and was ranked 48th in Rolling Stone magazine's 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. Another famous example is the Beatles' cover of "Twist and Shout" by the Top Notes, their cover of the song, "Til There Was You", by Meredith Willson, among many others; the term "cover" goes back decades when cover version described a rival version of a tune recorded to compete with the released version. The Chicago Tribune described the term in 1952: "trade jargon meaning to record a tune that looks like a potential hit on someone else's label". Examples of records covered include Paul Williams' 1949 hit tune "The Hucklebuck" and Hank Williams' 1952 song "Jambalaya". Both had numerous hit versions. Before the mid-20th century, the notion of an original version of a popular tune would have seemed odd – the production of musical entertainment was seen as a live event if it was reproduced at home via a copy of the sheet music, learned by heart or captured on a gramophone record.
In fact, one of the principal objects of publishing sheet music was to have a composition performed by as many artists as possible. In previous generations, some artists made successful careers of presenting revivals or reworkings of once-popular tunes out of doing contemporary cover versions of current hits. Musicians now play what they call "cover versions" of songs as a tribute to the original performer or group. Using familiar material is an important method of learning music styles; until the mid-1960s most albums, or long playing records, contained a large number of evergreens or standards to present a fuller range of the artist's abilities and style. Artists might perform interpretations of a favorite artist's hit tunes for the simple pleasure of playing a familiar song or collection of tunes. A cover band plays such "cover versions" exclusively. Today three broad types of entertainers depend on cover versions for their principal repertoire: Tribute acts or bands are performers who make a living by recreating the music of one particular artist or band.
Bands such as Björn Again, Led Zepagain, The Fab Four, Australian Pink Floyd Show, The Iron Maidens and Glory Days are dedicated to playing the music of ABBA, Led Zeppelin, The Beatles, Pink Floyd, Iron Maiden and Bruce Springsteen respectively. Some tribute acts salute the Who, many other classic rock acts. Many tribute acts target artists who remain popular but no longer perform, allowing an audience to experience the "next best thing" to the original act; the formation of tribute acts is proportional to the enduring popularity of the original act. Many tribute bands attempt to recreate another band's music as faithfully as possible, but some such bands introduce a twist. Dread Zeppelin performs reggae versions of the Zeppelin catalog and Beatallica creates heavy metal fusions of songs by the Beatles and Metallica. There are situations in which a member of a tribute band will go on to greater success, sometimes with the original act they tribute. One notable example is Tim "Ripper" Owens who, once the lead singer of Judas Priest tribute band British Steel, went on to join Judas Priest himself.
Cover acts or bands are entertainers who perform a broad variety of crowd-pleasing cover songs for audiences who enjoy the familiarity of hit songs. Such bands draw from current Top 40 hits and/or those of previous decades to provide nostalgic entertainment in bars, on cruise ships and at such events as weddings, family celebrations and corporate functions. Since the advent of inexpensive computers, some cover bands use a computerized catalog of songs, so that the singer can have the lyrics to a song displayed on a computer screen; the use of a screen for lyrics as a memory aid can increase the number of songs a singer can perform. Revivalist artists or bands are performers who are inspired by an entire genre of music and dedicate themselves to curating and recreating the genre and introducing it to younger audiences who have not experienced that music first hand. Unlike tribute bands and cover bands who rely on audiences seeking a nostalgic experience, revivalist bands seek new young audiences for whom the music is fresh and has no nostalgic value.
For example, Sha Na Na
Essen is the central and second largest city of the Ruhr, the largest urban area in Germany. Its population of 583,393 makes it the ninth largest city of Germany, as well as the fourth largest city of the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. On the Ruhr and Emscher rivers, Essen geographically is part of the Rhineland and the larger Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region; the Ruhrdeutsch regiolect spoken in the region has strong influences of both Low German and Low Franconian. Essen is seat to several of the region's authorities, as well as to eight of the 100 largest publicly-held German corporations regarding turnover, including three DAX corporations, placing Essen first among all German cities in the number of DAX corporate headquarters, together with Munich. Essen is considered the energy capital of Germany with E. ON and RWE, Germany's largest energy providers, both headquartered in the city. Essen is known for its impact on the arts through the respected Folkwang University of the Arts, its Zollverein School of Management and Design, the Red Dot industrial product design award.
In early 2003, the universities of Essen and the nearby city of Duisburg were merged into the University of Duisburg-Essen with campuses in both cities and a university hospital in Essen. In 1958, Essen was chosen to serve as the seat to a Roman Catholic diocese. Founded around 845, Essen remained a small town within the sphere of influence of an important ecclesiastical principality until the onset of industrialization; the city — through the Krupp family iron works — became one of Germany's most important coal and steel centers. Essen, until the 1970s, attracted workers from all over the country. Following the region-wide decline of heavy industries in the last decades of the 20th century, the city has seen the development of a strong tertiary sector of the economy; the most notable witness of this Strukturwandel is the Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex, which has once been the largest of its kind in Europe. Closed in 1993, both the coking plant and the mine have been inscribed in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 2001.
Notable accomplishments of the city in recent years include the title of European Capital of Culture on behalf of the whole Ruhr area in 2010 and the selection as the European Green Capital for 2017. Essen is located in the centre of the Ruhr area, one of the largest urban areas in Europe, comprising eleven independent cities and four districts with some 5.3 million inhabitants. The city limits of Essen itself are 87 km long and border ten cities, five independent and five kreisangehörig, with a total population of 1.4 million. The city extends over 21 km from north to south and 17 km from west to east north of the River Ruhr; the Ruhr forms the Lake Baldeney reservoir in the boroughs of Fischlaken, Kupferdreh and Werden. The lake, a popular recreational area, dates from 1931 to 1933, when some thousands of unemployed coal miners dredged it with primitive tools. Large areas south of the River Ruhr are quite green and are quoted as examples of rural structures in the otherwise densely populated central Ruhr area.
According to the Federal Statistical Office of Germany, Essen with 9.2% of its area covered by recreational green is the greenest city in North Rhine-Westphalia and the third-greenest city in Germany. The city has been shortlisted for the title of European Green Capital two consecutive times, for 2016 and 2017, winning for 2017; the city was singled out for its exemplary practices in protecting and enhancing nature and biodiversity and efforts to reduce water consumption. Essen participates in a variety of networks and initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to improve the city’s resilience in the face of climate change; the lowest point can be found in the northern borough of Karnap at 26.5 m, the highest point in the borough of Heidhausen at 202.5 m. The average elevation is 116 m. Essen comprises fifty boroughs which in turn are grouped into nine suburban districts named after the most important boroughs; each Stadtbezirk is assigned a Roman numeral and has a local body of nineteen members with limited authority.
Most of the boroughs were independent municipalities but were annexed from 1901 to 1975. This long-lasting process of annexation has led to a strong identification of the population with "their" boroughs or districts and to a rare peculiarity: The borough of Kettwig, located south of the Ruhr River, and, not annexed until 1975, has its own area code. Additionally, the Archbishop of Cologne managed to keep Kettwig directly subject to the Archdiocese of Cologne, whereas all other boroughs of Essen and some neighboring cities constitute the Diocese of Essen. Essen has a "true"/typical oceanic climate with mild winters and cool summers. Without large mountains and the presence of inland seas, it ends up extending a predominantly marine climate is found in Essen a little more extreme and drier in other continents in such geographical location, its average annual temperature is 10 °C: 13.3 °C during the day and 6.7 °C at night. The average annual precipitation is 934 mm; the coldest m
Kill is the tenth studio album by American death metal band Cannibal Corpse, released on March 21, 2006. This release marks the return of guitarist Rob Barrett, who had played on The Bleeding and Vile; the European version of the album comes with a live DVD filmed in Strasbourg in 2004 called Hammer Smashed Laiterie. The album was produced at Mana Recording Studios by Hate Eternal guitarist Erik Rutan. Music videos were produced for the tracks "Make Them Suffer" and "Death Walking Terror". In the week following its release, Kill became the second Cannibal Corpse album to make an appearance on the Billboard 200 chart, debuting at number 170; the album cover is one of only three Cannibal Corpse album covers to not feature explicit graphic violence. Alex Webster, in an interview, stated that they decided to have an album cover such as this because all the band members couldn't agree on a cover for the album, he stated that they wanted their fans to focus on their music and not to be distracted by a violent cover.
He stated "this time they wanted to do something different.""The original art that Vince gave us was cool, but we didn't think it would make the best cover. We decided to use it as interior art, just have a simple band logo/album title type cover; the main focus of our band should be music anyway, so I don't think it's a big deal that the cover's not a blood soaked scene of carnage the way our others have been. This doesn't mean we won't have more bloody covers in the future though." The album has been received quite positively by critics: AllMusic gave it a 3.5 out of 5 rating, stating that "Kill doesn't break any new ground for the veteran sickos, but if it ain't broke don't fix it -- just turn it up louder", while commenting that the songs are "13 aural assaults that will be welcomed by fans with open mouths". In 2018, Kill was inducted into Decibel Magazine's Hall of Fame via a special Cannibal Corpse issue. Writing and production credits are adapted from the album liner notes. George "Corpsegrinder" Fisher – vocals Pat O'Brien – lead guitar, rhythm guitar on "Submerged In Boiling Flesh" Rob Barrett – rhythm guitar, lead guitar on "Submerged In Boiling Flesh" Alex Webster – bass Paul Mazurkiewicz – drums Erik Rutan – backing vocals on "The Time to Kill is Now" Erik Rutan – production, mixing Shawn Ohtani – additional engineering Alan Douches – mastering Vincent Locke – cover art Brian Ames – design Alex Solca – photography Mana Recording Studios, St. Petersburg, FL, USA – recording, mixing West Westside Music – mastering Kill at AllMusic Kill at Metal Blade Records
Pat O'Brien (guitarist)
Pat O'Brien is the lead guitarist for the death metal band Cannibal Corpse, as well as a former member for the heavy metal band Nevermore, a former touring musician with the thrash metal band Slayer. O'Brien was born in Northern Kentucky, he graduated from Conner High School in Hebron, Kentucky in 1983 and resides in Tampa. He is of German heritage, his hobbies involve target shooting. O'Brien got his first guitar when he was 11, his mother bought him an acoustic guitar for Christmas. When he started to practice more he received his first electric guitar, a Gibson SG copy, his father bought him a 1974 Gibson Flying V. His influences include Black Sabbath, Deep Purple, Mercyful Fate and Metallica; as a guitarist, O'Brien is formally trained. He gave lessons at Buddy Rogers Music, a music store in Florence, where he encouraged his students to listen to jazz, fusion and blues and not focus on metal, he recalls that his interest in classical guitar came from a concert of Andrés Segovia he attended with his father.
Segovia remains his main inspiration. O'Brien started playing in a series of bands, sometimes as a touring musician and sometimes as a full-time member. Throughout the 1980s he played in heavy metal bands such as Prizoner. In the 1990s O'Brien evolved from heavy metal to death metal. Between 1990 and 1992 he played in the Cincinnati-based death/thrash metal band Ceremony alongside Steve Tucker, Greg Reed and Shannon Purdon, they released a demo in 1992 entitled Ceremony, an EP called The Days before the Death that did not come out before 2000 and for which O'Brien did the mastering with Mark Prator. After the band's breakup, O'Brien decided to move out of Cincinnati, he searched for a new band. Through tape trading he got hired by Nevermore, who at the time were looking for a second guitarist. O'Brien stayed in the band for two years during which they recorded the EP In Memory and the full-length The Politics of Ecstasy which both came out in 1996, he toured with the band and took part in a video shoot for the song "What Tomorrow Knows" from Nevermore's eponymous debut album.
However, he felt unsatisfied with the band. Following his departure from Nevermore, O'Brien went through a transitional period where he joined Monstrosity as a touring member but remained somewhat inactive for the rest of the time. In 1997 he was approached by Cannibal Corpse through several relations. After auditioning for the band, O'Brien became a permanent member replacing Rob Barrett, he has been featured on every Cannibal Corpse album since Gallery of Suicide. Since his involvement in Cannibal Corpse, O'Brien has been credited on some of the band's more technically complicated songs. One song, cited by other band members, both past and current, as the most difficult Cannibal Corpse song is "Frantic Disembowelment" from the album The Wretched Spawn. To this day the band has performed this song live only once. O'Brien has been complimented by his co-members and other musicians in the death metal scene for his proficiency. In the documentary DVD Centuries of Torment: The First 20 Years bassist Alex Webster stated that "Some of his rhythm parts are as difficult as a solo might be in another band."
Drummer Paul Mazurkiewicz commended his contribution to the band's music, stating "He is a vital part of the Cannibal sound. His songs are awesome and we need his songs on our CDs." O'Brien himself admitted that he tends to write more technical songs but regards it as a by-product of the songwriting process rather than an aim in itself. However unlike Webster and Mazurkiewicz, O'Brien does not take part in the composition of lyrics and instead focuses on the music. In April 2011 O'Brien filled in for Exodus' Gary Holt when Holt left the Slayer European tour to play with his own band. Holt himself had been filling in for the now deceased Slayer guitarist Jeff Hanneman since February 26, 2011, subsequently joining the band. O'Brien made several guest appearances as lead guitarist, he collaborated on Leather's solo debut album Shock Waves which came out in 1989. He played lead on the track "Balancing Act" which came out as a bonus track for the 1997 re-issue of Lethal's "Your Favorite God" EP. In 2006 he played lead guitar on "Render My Prey" on Spawn of Possession's album Noctambulant.
In 2008 O'Brien played guitar on the song "Race Against Disaster" on Jeff Loomis's debut solo album Zero Order Phase. In the same year he made a guest solo appearance on Kataklysm's album Prevail. On December 10, 2018, O'Brien was arrested in Tampa for burglary on a house in the 4700 block of Windflower Circle near the Northdale Golf and Country and for assaulting a responding deputy. Reports showed that around 6:57 p.m. he entered a home without permission from its two occupants, who remain unidentified. After one occupant told him to leave, O'Brien pushed a woman to the ground, left the house and hid in the property's backyard until police arrived. A responding deputy gave him orders; the deputy tased him, taking him into custody afterward. He was booked into the Hillsborough County Sheriff's Office on charges of burglary with assault or battery and aggravated assault on a law enforcement officer, was being held without bail; the burglarized home is in the same area of a golf course where a house fire broke out about the same time at 16311 Norwood Dr. where O'Brien was renting.
It was not clear if the fire was connected to his arrest. At O'Brien's court appearance on the morning of December
Tomb of the Mutilated
Tomb of the Mutilated is the third studio album by American death metal band Cannibal Corpse. It was released in 1992 through Metal Blade Records and is the last album recorded with the band's original lineup, as founding guitarist Bob Rusay was fired after the album's release; the album was banned in Germany, due to the extreme nature of the lyrics. Because the liner notes on Butchered at Birth feature quotations from American serial killer Albert Fish, he is incorrectly credited with being the voice at the beginning of "Addicted to Vaginal Skin". However, the taped confession heard at the beginning of the song most belongs to the "Genesee River Killer" Arthur Shawcross; the song "Hammer Smashed Face" was featured during the band's cameo appearance in the film Ace Ventura: Pet Detective, downloadable content for the Rock Band video game series. The song "I Cum Blood" is featured in the video game Grand Theft Auto IV: The Lost and Damned. Esteemed reviewers Jack Murray and Connur Joyce have both stated their belief that Tomb of the Mutilated is a high-concept album concerned with extreme necrophilia and sadism.
Murray said "It's a clever idea concerning the rape and murder of a young girl with a large knife, continuing to rape the corpse until orgasm. This theme is present in the last four tracks on the album", while Joyce announced in Finnish metal magazine Mutilate, "The album has heavy connotations throughout. It's linked; the explicit nature in which Barnes grunts his way through the morbid lyrics demonstrates the theme running through the album, to say the deteriorating mental state of the protagonist." Chris Barnes stated on page 71 of the June 2008 issue of Decibel Magazine that "Entrails Ripped from a Virgin's Cunt was based on two brothers, one of whom was semi-retarded, who were serving life. They captured some girl, the semi-retarded brother was talked into putting a coat hanger up her pussy to pull out her intestines; that story freaked me out." It is unknown who Barnes was referring to. Reviewers praised the album. Heavy metal webzine Kicked in the Face stated, "I loved every second of it.
This is a must have for any Cannibal Corpse fan.... It would be hard to pick out the good or the bad tracks on this one because, they're all pretty damn good."Metal Storm announced "the music here is a little more complex and better elaborated, the effort is shown in songs like'Hammer Smashed Face' with maddening and unforgettable riffs, a crushing bass playing, fast drumming, and'I Cum Blood' showing incredible pulsations... a high-quality album in general one of the greatest albums in Cannibal Corpse history and maybe in Death Metal history too". In 2005, Tomb of the Mutilated was ranked number 278 in Rock Hard magazine's book of The 500 Greatest Rock & Metal Albums of All Time. All vocal arrangements by Chris Barnes. Cannibal CorpseChris Barnes – vocals Bob Rusay – lead guitar Jack Owen – rhythm guitar Alex Webster – bass Paul Mazurkiewicz – drums Pat O'Brien – lead guitar on live bonus track George "Corpsegrinder" Fisher – vocals on live bonus trackProductionProduced and mixed by Scott Burns
Butchered at Birth
Butchered at Birth is the second studio album by American death metal band Cannibal Corpse. It was released in 1991 through Metal Blade Records. Though the album was banned, it was not given a censored re-release or new artwork; the album was banned in Germany due to sound. The first pressings of the compact disc were wrapped in white butcher paper stamped with the band logo and album title in red ink. Butchered at Birth′s cover drew a complaint from the Ontario Provincial Police in Canada, which led to stores being told not to sell the album to people younger than 20 years old.“Rancid Amputation” was given a lounge music rearrangement by Andrew Hansen of the Australian comedy team The Chaser in July 2006 when the band came under controversy due to their lyrical content prior to touring in Australia. Before performing the song, Hansen told the audience that it's "the music that's the problem, not the lyrics", thus performing the song in a lounge style. Butchered at Birth was the Cannibal Corpse album to establish their trademark, death metal style, as many say that their first album, Eaten Back to Life, had more thrash elements to it.
Chris Barnes' vocals became noticeably lower, as this is the first time fans experienced his associated "inhuman" grunting. People credit Barnes with the sound change, as the album's producer and where it was produced is the same as Eaten Back to Life. All lyrics written by Chris Barnes. All music written by Cannibal Corpse. Cannibal Corpse Chris Barnes – vocals Jack Owen – rhythm guitar Bob Rusay - lead guitar Alex Webster – bass Paul Mazurkiewicz – drums Pat O'Brien - lead guitar on live bonus track George "Corpsegrinder" Fisher - vocals on live bonus trackAdditional Musicians Glen Benton – backing vocals on "Vomit the Soul"