Annual average daily traffic
Annual average daily traffic, abbreviated AADT, is a measure used in transportation planning, transportation engineering and retail location selection. Traditionally, it is the total volume of vehicle traffic of a highway or road for a year divided by 365 days. AADT is a useful, measurement of how busy the road is. Newer advances from GPS traffic data providers are now providing AADT counts by side of the road, by day of week and by time of day. One of the most important uses of AADT is for determining funding for the maintenance and improvement of highways. In the United States the amount of federal funding a state will receive is related to the total traffic measured across its highway network; each year on June 15, every state in the United States submits a Highway Performance Monitoring System HPMS report. The HPMS report contains various information regarding the road segments in the state based on a sample of the road segments. In the report, the AADT is converted to vehicle miles traveled.
VMT is the AADT multiplied by the length of the road segment. To determine the amount of traffic a state has, the AADT cannot be summed for all road segments since an AADT is a rate; the VMT is summed and is used as an indicator of the amount of traffic a state has. For federal-funding, formulas are applied to include the VMT and other highway statistics. In the United Kingdom AADT is one of a number of measures of traffic used by local highway authorities, Highways England and the Department for Transport to forecast maintenance needs and expenditure. To measure AADT on individual road segments, traffic data is collected by an automated traffic counter, hiring an observer to record traffic or licensing estimated counts from GPS data providers. There are two different techniques of measuring the AADTs for road segments with automated traffic counters. One technique is called continuous count data collection method; this method includes sensors that are permanently embedded into a road and traffic data is measured for the entire 365 days.
The AADT is the sum of the total traffic for the entire year divided by 365 days. There can be problems with calculating the AADT with this method. For example, if the continuous count equipment is not operating for the full 365 days due to maintenance or repair; because of this issue, seasonal or day-of-week biases might skew the calculated AADT. In 1992, AASHTO released the AASHTO Guidelines for Traffic Data Programs, which identified a way to produce an AADT without seasonal or day-of-week biases by creating an "average of averages." For every month and day-of-week, a Monthly Average Day of Week is calculated. Each day-of-week's MADW is calculated across months to calculate an Annual Average Day of Week; the AADWs are averaged to calculate an AADT. The United States Federal Highway Administration has adopted this method as the preferred method in the. While providing the most accurate AADT, installing and maintaining continuous count stations method is costly. Most public agencies are only able to monitor a small percentage of the roadway using this method.
Most AADTs are generated using short-term data collection methods sometimes known as the coverage count data collection method. Traffic is collected with portable sensors that are attached to the road and record traffic data for 2 – 14 days; these are pneumatic road tubes although other more expensive technology such as radar, laser, or sonar exist. After recording the traffic data, the traffic counts on the same road segment are taken again in another three years. FHWA Traffic Monitoring Guide recommends performing a short count on a road segment at a minimum of every three years. There are many methods used to calculate an AADT from a short-term count, but most methods attempt to remove seasonal and day-of-week biases during the collection period by applying factors created from associated continuous counters. Short counts are taken either by local government, or contractors. For the years when a traffic count is not recorded, the AADT is estimated by applying a factor called the Growth Factor.
Growth Factors are statistically determined from historical data of the road segment. If there is no historical data, Growth Factors from similar road segments are used. Annual average weekday traffic only includes Monday to Friday data. Public holidays are excluded from the AAWT calculation. Average summer daily traffic is a similar measure to the annual average daily traffic. Data collecting methods of the two are the same, however the ASDT data is collected during summer only; the measure is useful in areas where there are significant seasonal traffic volumes carried by a given road. Average daily traffic or ADT, sometimes mean daily traffic, is the average number of vehicles two-way passing a specific point in a 24-hour period measured throughout a year. ADT is not as referred to as the engineering standard of AADT, the standard measurement for vehicle traffic load on a section of road, the basis for most decisions regarding transport planning, or to the environmental hazards of pollution related to road transport.
The 1992 Edition of the AASHTO Guidelines is out of date. The current edition is from 2018; the Gary Davis article was published in Transportation Research Record 1593, 1997. The date shown in the article is the date of an on-line posting. Florida New York State - Traffic Data Viewer - interactive map program graphically displays traffic data Oklahoma Virginia FHWA Traffic Monitoring Guide New Zealand State Highway AADTs Louisiana AADTs
St Paul's, Hammersmith
St Paul's is a Grade II* listed Anglican church at Queen Caroline Street, London W6, adjacent to Hammersmith flyover, only a short walk from Hammersmith tube station. The church dates back to the 17th century; the 2nd Earl of Mulgrave purchased the land in 1629, the main contributor to the building fund was the wealthy merchant Sir Nicholas Crispe, who had lived since 1625 in a house on the riverside in Hammersmith. The foundation stone was laid on 11 March 1630, the chapel of ease was consecrated by Archbishop Laud on 7 June 1631. Hammersmith was developing helped by the arrival of the new Metropolitan Railway. At a public meeting held on 20 January 1880, the decision was taken to rebuild the church on the same site, it was felt that the building was no longer big enough to accommodate the growing population and'The old unsightly structure is not worthy of being the chief witness to God in the midst of such an important Metropolitan Suburb as Hammersmith has now become.' In July 1882 the Duke of Albany laid the foundation stone, the nave of the new church was consecrated on 13 October 1883.
The architects were H. R. Gough. Like St Peter's Church in Hammersmith, St Paul's lost a significant portion of its land, including that with graves, when Hammersmith Flyover and the Great West Road were built in 1957–61. Hammersmith Chess Club used the Church Hall as their home venue from 1970 to 1975, before moving on to Blythe House. In 1983, the church pews were replaced with more flexible seating. In the 2000s, an extension was built onto the western end of the church, incorporating a new hall and kitchen, accompanied by a major restoration programme; the work was done by Bryen & Langley and the extension was opened in 2011. The church has strong ties with the nearby Latymer Upper School, which gathers at the church on its Founder's Day each year; the church is designed in the Early English Gothic Style, with lancet windows, powerful buttresses, a high roof and an imposing tower. The internal dimensions of St Paul's Church are: length 190 ft, width 73 ft, height 63 ft, it was designed to seat 1,400 people.
The walls are of brown Ancaster stone, with Belgian marble used for the clustered columns and wall-linings. There are six bays, formed by the five main columns on each side, with white and blue Bath stone used for the arches and some carved decoration; the most interesting feature inside the church is a bust of King Charles I, sculpted by Hubert Le Sueur and erected by Sir Nicholas Crispe. After the King's execution in 1649, the heart of Crispe, enclosed in a small urn, was placed below this monument; the inscription on the urn reads: In 1898 his body and heart were both moved to a new tomb. The pulpit came from the former church of All-Hallows-the-Great in the City of London. There is a memorial to William Tierney Clark, designer of the first Hammersmith Bridge, in the church; the stained glass windows of the church were made by Bell. Those on the north side depict the life of the apostle of the Church. Sir Nicholas Crispe, merchant Samuel Morland, inventor Richard Honey and George Francis, both killed by troops during the funeral procession of Queen Caroline of Brunswick in 1821.
Alaskan Way Viaduct replacement tunnel
The Alaskan Way Viaduct replacement tunnel known as the SR 99 Tunnel, is a bored highway tunnel in the city of Seattle, United States. The 2-mile, double-decker tunnel carries a section of State Route 99 under Downtown Seattle from SoDo in the south to South Lake Union in the north. Since the 2001 Nisqually earthquake, the replacement of the Alaskan Way Viaduct has been the source of much political controversy demonstrating the Seattle process. Options for replacing the viaduct, which carries 110,000 vehicles per day, included either replacing it with a cut-and-cover tunnel, replacing it with another elevated highway, or eliminating it while modifying other surface streets and public transportation; the current plan emerged in 2009. Construction began in July 2013 using "Bertha", at the time the world's largest-diameter tunnel boring machine. After several delays, tunnel boring was completed in April 2017, the tunnel opened to traffic on February 4, 2019; the SR 99 Tunnel is a single tube that measures 9,270 feet long and 52 feet wide, carrying a double-decker highway, 32 feet wide and has two lanes in each direction.
Each deck has two 11-foot lanes, an 8-foot west shoulder, a 2-foot east shoulder. The decks are designed with banks of two degrees in turns and four-degree grades to facilitate designed speeds of 50 miles per hour. Below the highway decks are utility lines and mechanical spaces for the tunnel's ventilation and fire suppression systems; the tunnel has 15 emergency refuge areas located every 650 feet with escape routes that lead to the north and south portals. Variable message signs and emergency phones are located throughout the entire tunnel; the tunnel is monitored by over 300 security cameras that are fed into a WSDOT traffic control center in Shoreline that can dispatch incident response teams. In the event of a fire, a set of fiber optic cables in the ceiling would sense heat and activate sprinklers. A set of large fans located in the two portal operations buildings would force smoke out through a set of 40-foot ventilation shafts; the tunnel has cell phone and FM radio service, with the latter able to overridden by WSDOT for emergency broadcasts.
The tunnel begins south of Downtown Seattle in the SoDo neighborhood, adjacent to the Port of Seattle's container ship terminal and the city's two outdoor sports stadiums, CenturyLink Field and T-Mobile Park. SR 99 enters the tunnel after passing Royal Brougham Way and a future interchange with Alaskan Way at South Dearborn Street located adjacent to the south maintenance area and ventilation shaft. An additional set of ramps connect to South Royal Brougham Way and the East Frontage Road that terminates a block south at Atlantic Street; the tunnel carries two lanes of southbound traffic on its upper deck and two lanes of northbound traffic on its lower deck, functions as a complete bypass of Downtown Seattle with no intermediate exits. The tunnel travels northwesterly under Pioneer Square and Downtown Seattle following 1st Avenue, it reaches its deepest point at Virginia Street 211 feet below street level, begins its turn north through parts of Belltown and the Denny Triangle. The tunnel emerges at a portal located west of Aurora Avenue and north of Harrison Street, adjacent to a tunnel operations building.
SR 99 continues onto Aurora Avenue and crosses over Mercer Street, while an onramp allows access to the tunnel from 6th Avenue and an offramp carries tunnel traffic to Republican Street in South Lake Union. The SR 99 Tunnel is tolled and has a variable rate that ranges based on time of the day, number of vehicle axles, payment method. Tolls are collected electronically, with a lower rate charged to Good to Go pass users and a higher rate for scanned plates that are sent a toll via mail; as of 2019, the toll rate for two-axle vehicles is set at $1.00 to $2.25 for Good to Go users and $3.00 to $4.25 for pay-by-mail users. Beginning in 2022, the toll rates will increase by three percent annually with approval from the state transportation commission; the Alaskan Way Viaduct is a double-decked elevated freeway that runs along Elliott Bay on the Downtown Seattle waterfront and, until January 11, 2019, when it was permanently closed, carried a section of State Route 99. It first opened to traffic on April 4, 1953, to provide a vehicular bypass of downtown for U.
S. Route 99, the predecessor of SR 99; the viaduct and tunnel cost $18 million to construct and severed the waterfront from the rest of downtown. The viaduct remained the primary north–south highway in Downtown Seattle until the construction of Interstate 5 in the late 1960s. Weekday traffic volumes on the viaduct averaged around 110,000 vehicles per day in the mid-2000s half of equivalent sections on I-5. Calls to replace the viaduct and build a waterfront promenade surfaced as early as the late 1960s and early 1970s, increasing after the halted demolition of the Pike Place Market; the viaduct runs above the surface street, Alaskan Way, from S. Nevada Street in the south to the entrance of Belltown's Battery Street Tunnel in the north, following existing railroad lines; the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake destroyed the designed Cypress Street Viaduct in Oakland, California with the loss of 42 lives. The 2001 Nisqually earthquake damaged the viaduct and its supporting Alaskan Way Seawall and required the Washington State Department of Transportat
Conservative Party (UK)
The Conservative Party the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom. The governing party since 2010, it is the largest in the House of Commons, with 313 Members of Parliament, has 249 members of the House of Lords, 18 members of the European Parliament, 31 Members of the Scottish Parliament, 12 members of the Welsh Assembly, eight members of the London Assembly and 8,916 local councillors; the Conservative Party was founded in 1834 from the Tory Party—the Conservatives' colloquial name is "Tories"—and was one of two dominant political parties in the nineteenth century, along with the Liberal Party. Under Benjamin Disraeli it played a preeminent role in politics at the height of the British Empire. In 1912, the Liberal Unionist Party merged with the party to form the Conservative and Unionist Party. In the 1920s, the Labour Party surpassed the Liberals as the Conservatives' main rivals. Conservative Prime Ministers — notably Winston Churchill and Margaret Thatcher — led governments for 57 years of the twentieth century.
Positioned on the centre-right of British politics, the Conservative Party is ideologically conservative. Different factions have dominated the party at different times, including One Nation Conservatives and liberal conservatives, while its views and policies have changed throughout its history; the party has adopted liberal economic policies—favouring free market economics, limiting state regulation, pursuing privatisation—although in the past has supported protectionism. The party is British unionist, opposing both Irish reunification and Welsh and Scottish independence, supported the maintenance of the British Empire; the party includes those with differing views on the European Union, with Eurosceptic and pro-European wings. In foreign policy, it is for a strong national defence; the Conservatives are a member of the International Democrat Union and the Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe and sit with the European Conservatives and Reformists parliamentary group. The Scottish, Northern Irish and Gibraltan branches of the party are semi-autonomous.
Its support base consists of middle-class voters in rural areas of England, its domination of British politics throughout the twentieth century has led to it being referred to as one of the most successful political parties in the Western world. The Conservative Party was founded in the 1830s. However, some writers trace its origins to the reign of Charles II in the 1670s Exclusion Crisis. Other historians point to a faction, rooted in the 18th century Whig Party, that coalesced around William Pitt the Younger in the 1780s, they were known as "Independent Whigs", "Friends of Mr Pitt", or "Pittites" and never used terms such as "Tory" or "Conservative". Pitt died in 1806. From about 1812 on the name "Tory" was used for a new party that, according to historian Robert Blake, "are the ancestors of Conservatism". Blake adds that Pitt's successors after 1812 "were not in any sense standard-bearer's of true Toryism"; the term "Conservative" was suggested as a title for the party by a magazine article by J. Wilson Croker in the Quarterly Review in 1830.
The name caught on and was adopted under the aegis of Sir Robert Peel around 1834. Peel is acknowledged as the founder of the Conservative Party, which he created with the announcement of the Tamworth Manifesto; the term "Conservative Party" rather than Tory was the dominant usage by 1845. The widening of the electoral franchise in the nineteenth century forced the Conservative Party to popularise its approach under Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby and Benjamin Disraeli, who carried through their own expansion of the franchise with the Reform Act of 1867. In 1886, the party formed an alliance with Spencer Compton Cavendish, Lord Hartington and Joseph Chamberlain's new Liberal Unionist Party and, under the statesmen Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, Lord Salisbury and Arthur Balfour, held power for all but three of the following twenty years before suffering a heavy defeat in 1906 when it split over the issue of free trade. Young Winston Churchill denounced Chamberlain's attack on free trade, helped organize the opposition inside the Unionist/Conservative Party.
Balfour, as party leader, followed Chamberlain's policy introduced protectionist legislation. The high tariff element called itself "Tariff Reformers" and in a major speech in Manchester on May 13, 1904, Churchill warned their takeover of the Unionist/Conservative party would permanently brand it as: A party of great vested interests, banded together in a formidable confederation. Two weeks Churchill crossed the floor and formally joined the Liberal Party. )He rejoined the Conservatives in 1925.) In December, Balfour lost control of his party, as the defections multiplied. He was replaced by Liberal Prime Minister Henry Campbell-Bannerman who called an election in January 1906, which produced a massive Liberal victory with a gain of 214 seats. Liberal Prime Minister H. H. Asquith enacted a great deal of reform legislation, but the Unionists worked hard at grassroots organizing. Two general elections were held in one in January and one in December; the two main parties were now dead equal in seats.
The Unionists had more popular votes but the Liberals kept control with a coalition with the Irish Parliamentary Party. In 1912, the Liberal Unionis
The Independent is a British online newspaper. Established in 1986 as a politically independent national morning newspaper published in London, it was controlled by Tony O'Reilly's Independent News & Media from 1997 until it was sold to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev in 2010; the last printed edition of The Independent was published on Saturday 26 March 2016, leaving only its digital editions. Nicknamed the Indy, it began as a broadsheet, but changed to tabloid format in 2003; until September 2011, the paper described itself on the banner at the top of every newspaper as "free from party political bias, free from proprietorial influence". It tends to take a pro-market stance on economic issues; the daily edition was named National Newspaper of the Year at the 2004 British Press Awards. In June 2015, it had an average daily circulation of just below 58,000, 85 per cent down from its 1990 peak, while the Sunday edition had a circulation of just over 97,000. Launched in 1986, the first issue of The Independent was published on 7 October in broadsheet format.
It was produced by Newspaper Publishing plc and created by Andreas Whittam Smith, Stephen Glover and Matthew Symonds. All three partners were former journalists at The Daily Telegraph who had left the paper towards the end of Lord Hartwell's ownership. Marcus Sieff was the first chairman of Newspaper Publishing, Whittam Smith took control of the paper; the paper was created at a time of a fundamental change in British newspaper publishing. Rupert Murdoch was challenging long-accepted practices of the print unions and defeated them in the Wapping dispute. Production costs could be reduced which, it was said at the time, created openings for more competition; as a result of controversy around Murdoch's move to Wapping, the plant was having to function under siege from sacked print workers picketing outside. The Independent attracted some of the staff from the two Murdoch broadsheets who had chosen not to move to his company's new headquarters. Launched with the advertising slogan "It is. Are you?", challenging both The Guardian for centre-left readers and The Times as the newspaper of record, The Independent reached a circulation of over 400,000 by 1989.
Competing in a moribund market, The Independent sparked a general freshening of newspaper design as well as, within a few years, a price war in the market sector. When The Independent launched The Independent on Sunday in 1990, sales were less than anticipated due to the launch of the Sunday Correspondent four months prior, although this direct rival closed at the end of November 1990; some aspects of production merged with the main paper, although the Sunday paper retained a distinct editorial staff. In the 1990s, The Independent was faced with price cutting by the Murdoch titles, started an advertising campaign accusing The Times and The Daily Telegraph of reflecting the views of their proprietors, Rupert Murdoch and Conrad Black, it featured spoofs of the other papers' mastheads with the words The Rupert Murdoch or The Conrad Black, with The Independent below the main title. Newspaper Publishing had financial problems. A number of other media companies were interested in the paper. Tony O'Reilly's media group and Mirror Group Newspapers had bought a stake of about a third each by mid-1994.
In March 1995, Newspaper Publishing was restructured with a rights issue, splitting the shareholding into O'Reilly's Independent News & Media, MGN, Prisa. In April 1996, there was another refinancing, in March 1998, O'Reilly bought the other shares of the company for £30 million, assumed the company's debt. Brendan Hopkins headed Independent News, Andrew Marr was appointed editor of The Independent, Rosie Boycott became editor of The Independent on Sunday. Marr introduced a dramatic if short-lived redesign which won critical favour but was a commercial failure as a result of a limited promotional budget. Marr admitted his changes had been a mistake in My Trade. Boycott left in April 1998 to join the Daily Express, Marr left in May 1998 becoming the BBC's political editor. Simon Kelner was appointed as the editor. By this time the circulation had fallen below 200,000. Independent News spent to increase circulation, the paper went through several redesigns. While circulation increased, it did not approach the level, achieved in 1989, or restore profitability.
Job cuts and financial controls reduced the quality of the product. Ivan Fallon, on the board since 1995 and a key figure at The Sunday Times, replaced Hopkins as head of Independent News & Media in July 2002. By mid-2004, the newspaper was losing £5 million per year. A gradual improvement meant. In November 2008, following further staff cuts, production was moved to Northcliffe House, in Kensington High Street, the headquarters of Associated Newspapers; the two newspaper groups' editorial and commercial operations remained separate, but they shared services including security, information technology and payroll. On 25 March 2010, Independent News & Media sold the newspaper to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev for a nominal £1 fee and £9.25m over the next 10 months, choosing this option over closing The Independent and The Independent on Sunday, which would have cost £28m and £40m due to long-term contracts. In 2009, Lebedev had bought a controlling stake in the London Evening Standard. Two weeks editor Roger Alton resigned.
In July 2011, The Independent's columnist Johann Hari was stripped of the Orwell Prize he had won in 2008 after claims, to which Hari admitted, of plagiarism and inaccuracy. In January 2012, Chris Blackhurst
New Civil Engineer
New Civil Engineer is the monthly magazine for members of the Institution of Civil Engineers, the UK chartered body that oversees the practice of civil engineering in the UK. First published in May 1972, it is today published by Metropolis. Under its previous publisher, who, as Emap, acquired the title and editorial control from the ICE in 1995, the ICE discussed the magazine's content through an editorial advisory board and a supervisory board. Available in print and online after the appropriate subscription has been taken out, the magazine is aimed at professionals in the civil engineering industry, it contains industry news and analysis, letters from subscribers, a directory of companies, with listings arranged by companies’ areas of work, an appointments section. It occasionally has details of university courses and graduate positions. In 2013 it had a net circulation of more than 50,000 per issue. Two years this had dropped to 42,805, of which some 39,000 related to copies distributed to ICE members.
Printed on a weekly basis the magazine switch to a monthly format in December 2015. New Civil Engineer was a co-founder of the British Construction Industry Awards. In January 2017, Ascential announced its intention to sell 13 titles including New Civil Engineer; the brands were purchased by Metropolis International Ltd in a £23.5m cash deal, announced on 1 June 2017. Official website