Thomas Bilson was an Anglican Bishop of Worcester and Bishop of Winchester. With Miles Smith, he oversaw the final printing of the King James Bible, he is buried in Westminster Abbey in plot 232 between the tombs of Richard the Second and Edward the Third. On top of his gravestone there is a small rectangular blank brass plate – the original plate was removed to preserve it and is on display on the floor against the wall between the tombs of Richard ll and Edward lll and says the following:— MEORIAE SACRVM / HIC IACET THOMAS BILSON WINTONIENSIS NVPER EPISCOPVS / ET SERENISSIMO PRINCIPI IACOBO MAGNAE BRITTANIAE REGI /POTENTISSIMO A SANCTIORIBVS CONSILIJS QVI QVVM DEO ET / ECCLESIAE AD ANNOS VNDE VIGINTI FIDELITER IN EPISCO / PATV DESERVISSET MORTALITATE SUB CERTA SPE RESVRRECTI: /ONIS EXVIT DECIMO OCTAVO DIE MENSIS IVNIJ ANO DOMINI /M. DC XVI. AETATIS SVAE LXIX. Translation:— Here lies Thomas Bilson bishop of Winchester and counsellor in sacred matters of his serene highness King James of Great Britain who when he had served God and the church for nineteen years in the bishopric laid aside mortality in certain hope of resurrection 18 June 1616 aged 69.
According to the original'Dictionary of the National Biography' Thomas Bilson was the eldest son of Herman Bilson, grandson of Arnold Bilson, whose wife is said to have been a daughter of the Duke of Bavaria. Editions highlight that William Twisse was a nephew. Bilson was educated at the twin foundations of William de Wykeham, Winchester College and New College, Oxford, he began to distinguish himself as a poet until, on receiving ordination, he gave himself wholly to theological studies. He was soon made Prebendary of Winchester, headmaster of the College there until 1579 and Warden from 1581 to 1596, his pupils there included John Owen, Thomas James, whom he influenced in the direction of patristics. In 1596, he was made Bishop of Worcester, where he found Warwick uncomfortably full of recusant Roman Catholics. For appointment in 1597 to the wealthy see of Winchester, he paid a £400 annuity to Elizabeth I; as the Bishop of Winchester, Thomas Bilson would have resided at Winchester Palace, where today in Clink Street, London SE1 – there is only one remaining wall of the palace – with a magnificent rose window measuring thirteen feet across.
However, back in the sixteenth century, Winchester Palace was a splendorous site and would have looked similar to the waterfront house of'Sir Robert De Lesseps' depicted in the film Shakespeare in Love. The 700 acre Bishoprick'see' and jurisdiction of the Bishop of Winchester included an area known as –'The Liberty of Clink' Southwark, Bankside – which in addition to having a prison provided the site of many of the major theatres of the day, namely: — ‘The Rose’ built in 1587 in Rose Lane where Philip Henslowe was the lessee. Southwark on the south bank of the river Thames in London was much a cash generator in those days. In addition to the theatres, Bankside was a ‘red light’ district renowned for its brothels and contained an unconsecrated graveyard for the corpses of women who had worked in them. Far from condemning the brothels, the respective bishops of Winchester, Thomas Bilson included, drew up a set of rules for their regulation and opening hours. In addition to prostitution and pick pockets, the area was renowned for its gambling dens, skittle alleys and bear/bull baiting, most of which were run by Philip Henslowe who married a wealthy widow by the name of Agnes Woodward in 1579 and it is thought that with her money Henslowe had managed to acquire interests in numerous brothels, lodging houses and was involved in dyeing, starch making and wood selling as well as pawnbroking, money lending and theatrical enterprises.
With regard to his relationship with actors and playwrights Henslowe wrote in his diary:—“Should these fellowes come out of my debt I should have no rule over them.” Although Philip Henslowe was undoubtedly the main operational manager and entrepreneur behind many of Southwark’s and the ‘see of Winchester’s’ cash generating entertainment enterprises — all taxes from these activities had to be paid to Thomas Bilson the Bishop of Winchester. Indeed, in the London Public Record Office is an entry relating to William Shakespeare's unpaid tax, carrying the annotation'Ep o Winton' – – which has led historians such as Ian Wilson in his 1993 book'Shakespeare the Evidence' to surmise that William Shakespeare was living within the bishopric'see' of Thomas Bilson the Bishop of Winchester at this time; however somewhat curiously, William Shakespeare's name does not appear in the church wardens' annual lists of those residents registered as having attended compulsory Easter Communion. The church wardens annual lists of residents and the compulsory attendance of Easter Communion – in effect the commencement of the new year within the Julian Calendar – provided the paranoid bureaucratic authorities – fearful of Jesuit and Catholic uprisings with a detailed census as to the political status of its citizens and as a means to assess their military and tax obligations.
William Shakespeare's omission from
London Borough of Richmond upon Thames
The London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in south-west London, forms part of Outer London and is the only London borough on both sides of the River Thames. It was created in 1965 when three smaller council areas amalgamated under the London Government Act 1963, it is divided into nineteen wards. The borough is home to The National Archives; the attractions of Kew Gardens, Hampton Court Palace, Twickenham Stadium and the WWT London Wetlands Centre are within its boundaries and draw domestic and international tourism. The borough is half parkland – large areas of London's open space fall within its boundaries, including Richmond Park, Kew Gardens, Bushy Park and Old Deer Park; the predominant other land use is residential. Most businesses within the borough consist of retail, property improvement/development and professional services. Parts of the borough, including Barnes, Richmond, St Margarets, Cambridge Park and Marble Hill, some areas of Twickenham and much of East Sheen rival Stanmore Hill and Kenley as the highest house-price districts and neighbourhoods in Outer London.
In 2006, research commissioned by a major mortgage lender found that, on the quantitative statistical indices used, the borough had the best quality of life in London and was in the top quarter of local authorities nationwide. A neighbouring authority in Surrey achieved the best quality of life in that report. Demography is a diverse picture as in all of London: each district should be looked at separately and those do not reflect all neighbourhoods. Whatever generalisations are used, "the fine-grained texture of London poverty" by its minutely localised geography must always be taken into account according to an influential poverty report of 2010. Richmond upon Thames has the lowest child poverty rates in London at 20% and contains at least one ward with an above-average level of working-age adults receiving out-of-work benefits but this borough – reflecting the best result – has two standard poverty indices of sixteen in which it is placed in the worst quarter of boroughs. Richmond is one of London's wealthiest boroughs on many measures.
It has the lowest rates of poverty, child poverty, low pay, child obesity and adults without level 3 qualifications of any London borough, according to a 2017 research project by Trust for London. London's German business and expatriate community is centred on this borough, which houses the German School London and most of the capital's German expatriates; the Local Authority divides the borough into fourteen loosely bounded neighbourhoods, or "villages", with which residents broadly identify. Some of the neighbourhoods have the same name as their associated political ward, but the boundaries aren't aligned. There is no direct alignment between these areas and postcode districts, which tend to cover much broader areas, crossing the borough boundaries. Although most addresses in the borough have TW postcodes, some have KT postcodes. Parks take up a great deal of the borough and include Richmond Park, Bushy Park, Kew Gardens, Hampton Court Park. There are over open spaces in Richmond upon Thames and 21 miles of river frontage.
140 hectares within the borough are designated as part of the Metropolitan Green Belt. The borough is home to the National Physical Laboratory and the attractions of Hampton Court Palace, Twickenham Stadium and the WWT London Wetlands Centre that draw domestic and international tourism; the river Thames becomes narrower than at any part of Inner London towards its flow into the borough and becomes non-tidal at Teddington Lock in the borough. The borough was formed in 1965 by the merger of the Municipal Borough of Twickenham from Middlesex with the Municipal Borough of Richmond and the Municipal Borough of Barnes from Surrey; the name "Richmond upon Thames" was coined at that time. The borough's history is reflected in the coat of arms, granted on 7 May 1966, it is: Ermine a portcullis or within a bordure gules charged with eight fleurs-de-lis or. The crest is: On a wreath argent and gules out of a mural crown gules a swan rousant argent in beak a branch of climbing red roses leaved and entwined about the neck proper.
The supporters are: On either side a griffin gules and beaked azure, each supporting an oar proper, the blade of the dexter dark blue and that of the sinister light blue. The portcullis was taken from the arms of the Municipal Borough of Richmond. Red and ermine are the royal livery colours, reflecting Richmond's royal history; the swan represents the River Thames. The oars are from the Oxford University Boat Club and the Cambridge University Boat Club, reflecting the fact that the Boat Race between the two universities ends at Mortlake in the borough. Since its formation, the council has most been led either by the Conservatives or by the Liberal Democrats; the Lib Dems make up the majority in the council. London Heathrow Airport is located a few kilometres west; the borough is served by many Transport for London bus routes. The borough is connected to central London and Reading by the National Rail services of the South Western Railway; the London Underground's District line serves Richmond and Kew Gardens stations: both are served by London Overground tra
St Margarets, London
St Margarets is a suburb in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, about 9 miles west-southwest of central London. It is within the Twickenham post town, it is bounded by the River Thames to the north and south, the River Crane to the north-west. St Margarets does not pass any further south than Twickenham; the area closer to Richmond Bridge is known as East Twickenham and is not regarded as part of St Margarets. St Margarets takes its name from the former St Margaret's House completed in 1827, although an earlier house of the same name stood on the site, it was the country house of Lord Cassilis, Marquess of Ailsa, belonged to the Earl of Kilmorey. Their names can be found including Kilmorey Gardens and Ailsa Road. Many Victorian houses remain in St Margarets. In 1854 the St Margaret's Estate was laid out for building family houses, becoming one of the first garden suburbs. Modern St Margarets dates from the arrival of the railway. There are a range of shops and cafés. Twickenham Studios are in the middle of the area.
Between St Margarets Road and the railway line is a residential estate, "Twickenham Park". The St Margarets Fair is held each July in the principal public space, Moormead Park by the River Crane. A memorial was unveiled in April 2017 to the 6000 Belgian refugees who lived in St Margarets during WW1, it is sited on the banks of the Thames at Warren Gardens, next to the site of the Pelabon Munitions Works. In 1814 the painter J. M. W. Turner built Solus Lodge in Sandycoombe Road; the house survives as Sandycombe Lodge. Gordon House is a Grade II listed Georgian mansion on the river Thames at St Margarets. Like St Margaret's House it was owned by Lord Kilmorey; the house has a Robert Adam wing, added in 1738. For many years, it was used as part of Brunel University. In recent years the house has been redeveloped by Octagon Developments, with the former chapel and coachhouse converted to private homes; the Kilmorey Mausoleum has been moved several times, is now located on the northern edge of St Margarets, near the boundary with Isleworth.
It was built in the 1850s by the 2nd Earl of Kilmorey and contains the bodies of the Earl and his mistress, Priscilla Anne Hoste. Now a Grade II* listed building, it was built to resemble an ancient Egyptian monument, it is jointly maintained by Richmond upon English Heritage. The mausoleum is open to the public; the Roman Catholic Church of St Margaret of Scotland on St Margarets Road was built to a modern design of the architect Austin Winckley and opened in 1969. In 1999 it became a Grade II listed building. There are three main schools in the town: Orleans Park School, St. Stephen’s Primary School and Orleans Primary School; the high street is flourishing with independent businesses. Small businesses elsewhere have suffered in the harsh economic climate, but here, local residents' support may have contributed to an increase in the number of boutique shops opened for business. Neighbouring districts include East Twickenham to the east, Richmond further to the east, Twickenham to the southwest and Isleworth to the northwest, across the River Crane.
Access to the east is restricted by the lack of a fixed river crossing between Richmond Lock and Kew Bridge. Marble Hill House and Marble Hill Park are to the south of St Margarets. St Margarets is cut through by the busy Chertsey Road, which connects central London to the M3 motorway. Much of south St Margarets is in a controlled parking zone, which restricts parking to residents and holders of vouchers. See map of CPZ in south St Margarets The normal service from St Margarets station is four trains per hour to and from Waterloo; the H37 bus between Hounslow and Richmond is the only route through St Margarets. Other nearby bus routes are H22, 33, R68, R70 and 490 coming from central Twickenham along Richmond Road. St Margarets Community Website St Margarets Fair
East Sheen known as Sheen, is an affluent suburb of South London in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. Its long high street has goods stores, convenience services, restaurants, cafés, pubs and suburban supermarkets and is the economic hub for Mortlake of which East Sheen was once a manor; this commercial thoroughfare, well served by public transport, is the Upper Richmond Road West which connects Richmond to Putney. Central to this street is The Triangle, a traffic island with a war memorial and an old milestone dating from 1751, marking the ten-mile distance to Cornhill in the City of London; the main railway station serving the area, Mortlake, is centred 300m north of this. Sheen has a mixture of low-rise and mid-rise buildings and it has parks and open spaces including its share of Richmond Park, accessed via Sheen Gate; the earliest recorded use of the name means shed or shelters. The area was designated separately from Sheen from the 13th century, as the southern manor of Mortlake.
Manor and hamlet statusEast Sheen was a hamlet in the parish of Mortlake: East-Sheen is a pleasant hamlet in this parish, situated on a rising ground above the level of the river. It contains about ninety houses. Here are several handsome villas. Earliest references to the present area of land, rather than references to parts of Mortlake, emerge in the 13th century under its early name of Westhall. One carucate, it was sold in 1473 by Michael Gaynsford and Margaret his wife in the right of Margaret to William Welbeck and haberdasher, of London; the Welbecks held it until selling in 1587. Owners of what remained, the Whitfields and Taylors were not titled, as with Mortlake's manorial owners, nor had an above average size or lavish manor house. Development of the Temple Grove, Palmerston country estate The southern estate of Temple Grove, East Sheen, first belonged to Sir Abraham Cullen, created a baronet in 1661, he died in 1668, his first son Sir John in 1677. His second son Sir Rushout Cullen seems to have sold the estate shortly afterwards to Sir John Temple, attorney-general of Ireland, brother to Sir William Temple and author, earlier of adjoining West Sheen, giving the home his name.
It belonged to the Temples until Henry Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, who would serve as Foreign Secretary and Prime Minister, sold it soon after coming of age in 1805. It was bought by Sir Thomas Bernard, who rebuilt the Jacobean style front of the house shown in a drawing hung in the house of 1611. Sir Thomas sold it about 1811 to Rev. William Pearson who founded the Temple Grove Preparatory School for boys; the school moved in 1907 to Eastbourne and the estate was given over to house and apartment builders. East Sheen was included in the Metropolitan Police District in 1840. Before 1900, Mortlake developed a secular vestry to help administer poor relief, maintain roads and other affairs. From 1892 to 1894 Mortlake formed part of the expanded Municipal Borough of Richmond. In 1894, nearby North Sheen was created as a civil parish, being split off from Mortlake and remaining in the Municipal Borough of Richmond; the remainder of Mortlake was instead transferred to the Barnes Urban District, which became the Municipal Borough of Barnes in 1932.
In 1965 North Sheen was incorporated into Kew which, with the rest of the Municipal Borough of Richmond, joined the Municipal Borough of Twickenham and the Municipal Borough of Barnes to form the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. In the wards of the United Kingdom, Sheen has the largest share of Richmond Park of its surrounding five wards. East Sheen concentrates its commercial area to the main through street: its long high street has transport/furniture/hardware stores, convenience services, restaurants, cafés and pubs and suburban supermarkets and is the economic hub for Mortlake of which East Sheen was once a manor; this wide-footpath street with bus lanes is the Upper Richmond Road West which connects Richmond to Putney. Central to this street is The Triangle, a tree-lined traffic island with a war memorial and an old milestone at the intersection of Upper Richmond Road West with Sheen Lane; the main railway station serving the area, Mortlake, is centred 300m north of this. East Sheen lies in the ecclesiastical parish of Mortlake with East Sheen.
In addition to the Parish Church of St Mary the Virgin the district has two daughter churches: Christ Church, All Saints. Christ Church, situated near the crossroads of Christchurch Road and West Temple Sheen, was built by Arthur Blomfield on land part of a farm at the entrance to Sheen Common in the 1860s, it was planned to be opened in April 1863. The church was completed and consecrated nine months on 13 January 1864. All Saints was built on land bequeathed under the will of Major Shepherd-Cross, MP for Bolton who lived at nearby Palewell Lodge from 1896 until his death in 1913; the church was consecrated on All Saints' Day 1929, a year and two days after the foundation stone was laid by Elizabeth, Duchess of York. East Sheen has three other churches: East Sheen Baptist Church, Parkside Community Church and Christian City Church, which meets at Hampton Works on Sheen Lane. East Sheen ha
Corpus Christi College, Oxford
Corpus Christi College, is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. Founded in 1517, it is the 12th oldest college in Oxford, with a financial endowment of £161 million as of 2017; the college, situated on Merton Street between Merton College and Christ Church, is one of the smallest in Oxford by student population, having around 250 undergraduates and 90 graduates. It is academic by Oxford standards, averaging in the top half of the university's informal ranking system, the Norrington Table, in recent years, coming second in 2009–10; the college's role in the translation of the King James Bible is significant. The college is noted for the pillar sundial in the main quadrangle, known as the Pelican Sundial, erected in 1581. Corpus achieved notability in more recent years by winning University Challenge on 9 May 2005 and once again on 23 February 2009, although the latter win was disqualified; the Visitor of the college is ex officio the Bishop of Winchester Tim Dakin.
Corpus Christi College was founded by Bishop of Winchester and accomplished statesman. After joining the church, Foxe worked as a diplomat for Henry Tudor, he became a close confidant of his and, during Henry's reign as Henry VII, was appointed Keeper of the Privy Seal and promoted up the bishoprics becoming Bishop of Winchester. Throughout this time he was involved in Oxford and Cambridge Universities: he had been Visitor of Magdalen College and of Balliol College, had amended Balliol's statutes for a papal commission, was master of Pembroke College, Cambridge for 12 years and had been involved in the foundation of St John's College, Cambridge, as one of Lady Margaret Beaufort's executors. Foxe began to build from 1513, he bought two halls, two inns and the Bachelor's Garden of Merton College. The college buildings were complete by 1520. Foxe was assisted in his foundation by his friend Hugh Oldham, Bishop of Exeter, Oldham's steward, William Frost. Oldham donated £ 4,000 and land in Chelsea towards the foundation.
For this, he was styled præcipuus benefactor by Foxe, remembered in daily prayers and a scholarship was established for students from Lancashire, where Oldham was born. Frost bequeathed his estate in Mapledurwell to the college, for which he and wife were remembered in a yearly prayer and a scholarship was founded for his descendants. Foxe was granted letters patent for the foundation by Henry VIII in 1516; the college was founded in 1517, when Foxe established the college statutes. These specified that that the college was to contain twenty fellows, twenty students, three lecturers, two priests, two clerks and two choristers; the library of the college was "probably, when completed, the largest and best furnished library in Europe". The scholar Erasmus noted in a letter of 1519 to the first President, John Claymond, that it was a library "inter praecipua decora Britanniae", praised it as a "biblioteca trilinguis" containing, as it did, books in Latin and Hebrew. Founding fellows of the College included Reginald Pole, who would become the last Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury.
In its first hundred years, Corpus hosted leading divines who would lay the foundations of the Anglican Christian identity. John Jewel was Corpus' Reader of Latin, worked to defend a Protestant bent in the Church of England and the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. John Rainolds, elected President in 1598, suggested the idea of the King James Bible and contributed to its text. Richard Hooker, author of the influential Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity, was deputy professor of Hebrew. No one county in England bare three such men in what college soever they were bred, no college in England bred three such men, in what county soever they were born; the important Spanish humanist Juan Luis Vives taught at Corpus during the 1520s while tutor to Mary Tudor Mary I of England. John Keble, a leader of the Oxford Movement, was an undergraduate at Corpus at the start of the 19th century, went on to a fellowship at Oriel and to have a college named after him. Having been founded nearly half a millennium earlier as a college for men only, Corpus Christi was among many of Oxford's men's colleges to admit its first female undergraduate students in 1979.
The main buildings on the main college site are the Main Quad, the West Building, the MBI Al Jaber Auditorium, the Fellows' Building, Gentleman-Commoners' Quad and Thomas Quad. The Main Quad was designed in a late Mediaeval style; the quad was constructed by distinguished builders associated with Henry VIII's Office of Work: master mason William Vertue, master mason William East and carpenter Humphrey Coke. The quad's architecture inspired that of Oglethorpe University; the chapel is just off the Main Quad. Its location is unusual: many colleges had their chapel in their main quad, with some colleges placing them on the first floor to fit them in, its lectern is one of the first bronze eagle lecterns in Oxford. The chapel's altarpiece is a copy of Ruben's Adoration of the Shepherds, a gift from the antiquarian Sir Richard Worsley. On the corner of Merton Street and Magpie Lane, lie the Jackson and Oldham buildings and Kybald Twychen, which all h
Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular receiving of the sacraments. The term is historically used to refer to excommunications from the Catholic Church, but it is used more to refer to similar types of institutional religious exclusionary practices and shunning among other religious groups. For instance, many Protestant denominations, such as the Lutheran Churches, have similar practices of excusing congregants from church communities, while Jehovah's Witnesses, as well as the Churches of Christ, use the term "disfellowship" to refer to their form of excommunication; the Amish have been known to excommunicate members that were either seen or known for breaking rules, or questioning the church. The word excommunication means putting a specific group out of communion. In some denominations, excommunication includes spiritual condemnation of the group.
Excommunication may involve banishment and shaming, depending on the group, the offense that caused excommunication, or the rules or norms of the religious community. The grave act is revoked in response to sincere penance, which may be manifested through public recantation, sometimes through the Sacrament of Confession, piety or through mortification of the flesh. Within the Catholic Church, there are differences between the discipline of the majority Latin Church regarding excommunication and that of the Eastern Catholic Churches. In Latin Catholic canon law, excommunication is a applied censure and thus a "medicinal penalty" intended to invite the person to change behaviour or attitude and return to full communion, it is not an "expiatory penalty" designed to make satisfaction for the wrong done, much less a "vindictive penalty" designed to punish: "excommunication, the gravest penalty of all and the most frequent, is always medicinal", is "not at all vindictive". Excommunication can be either latae ferendae sententiae.
According to Bishop Thomas J. Paprocki, "excommunication does not expel the person from the Catholic Church, but forbids the excommunicated person from engaging in certain activities..." These activities are listed in Canon 1331 §1, prohibit the individual from any ministerial participation in celebrating the sacrifice of the Eucharist or any other ceremonies of worship. Under current Catholic canon law, excommunicates remain bound by ecclesiastical obligations such as attending Mass though they are barred from receiving the Eucharist and from taking an active part in the liturgy. "Excommunicates lose rights, such as the right to the sacraments, but they are still bound to the obligations of the law. They are urged to retain a relationship with the Church, as the goal is to encourage them to repent and return to active participation in its life; these are the only effects for those. For instance, a priest may not refuse Communion publicly to those who are under an automatic excommunication, as long as it has not been declared to have been incurred by them if the priest knows that they have incurred it.
On the other hand, if the priest knows that excommunication has been imposed on someone or that an automatic excommunication has been declared, he is forbidden to administer Holy Communion to that person.. In the Catholic Church, excommunication is resolved by a declaration of repentance, profession of the Creed and an Act of Faith, or renewal of obedience by the excommunicated person and the lifting of the censure by a priest or bishop empowered to do this. "The absolution can be in the internal forum only, or in the external forum, depending on whether scandal would be given if a person were absolved and yet publicly considered unrepentant." Since excommunication excludes from reception of the sacraments, absolution from excommunication is required before absolution can be given from the sin that led to the censure. In many cases, the whole process takes place on a single occasion in the privacy of the confessional. For some more serious wrongdoings, absolution from excommunication is reserved to a bishop, another ordinary, or the Pope.
These can delegate a priest to act on their behalf. Interdict is a censure similar to excommunication, it too excludes from ministerial functions in public worship and from reception of the sacraments, but not from the exercise of governance. In the Eastern Catholic Churches, excommunications is imposed only by decree, never incurred automatically by latae sententiae excommunication. A distinction is made between major excommunication; those on whom minor excommunication has been imposed are excluded from receiving the Eucharist and can be excluded from participating in the Divine Liturgy. They can be excluded from entering a church when divine worship is being celebrated there; the decree of excommunication must indicate the precise effect of the excommunication and, if required, its duration. Those under major excommunication
In Christianity, a minister is a person authorized by a church, or other religious organization, to perform functions such as teaching of beliefs. The term is taken from Latin minister. In the Catholic Church, Oriental Orthodox, Nordic Lutheran, Eastern Orthodox churches, the concept of a priesthood is emphasized. In other Christian denominations, such as the Baptist, Congregationalist, Methodist and Reformed churches, the term "minister" refers to members of the ordained clergy who leads a congregation or participates in a role in a parachurch ministry. With respect to ecclesiastical address, many ministers are styled as "The Reverend"; the Church of England defines the ministry of priests as follows: Priests are called to be servants and shepherds among the people to whom they are sent. With their Bishop and fellow ministers, they are to proclaim the word of the Lord and to watch for the signs of God's new creation, they are to be messengers and stewards of the Lord. Formed by the word, they are to call their hearers to repentance and to declare in Christ's name the absolution and forgiveness of their sins.
With all God's people, they are to tell the story of God's love. They are to baptize new disciples in the name of the Father, of the Son, of the Holy Spirit, to walk with them in the way of Christ, nurturing them in the faith, they are to unfold the Scriptures, to preach the word in season and out of season, to declare the mighty acts of God. They are to preside at the Lord's table and lead his people in worship, offering with them a spiritual sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving, they are to bless the people in God's name. They are to resist evil, support the weak, defend the poor, intercede for all in need, they prepare the dying for their death. Guided by the Spirit, they are to discern and foster the gifts of all God's people, that the whole Church may be built up in unity and faith. Ministers may perform some or all of the following duties: assist in co-ordinating volunteers and church community groups assist in any general administrative service conduct marriage ceremonies and memorial services, participate in the ordination of other clergy, confirming young people as members of a local church encourage local church endeavors engage in welfare and community services activities of communities establish new local churches keep records as required by civil or church law plan and conduct services of public worship preach pray and encourage others to be theocentric preside over sacraments of the church.
Such as: the Lord's Supper known as the Lord's Table, or Holy Communion, the Baptism of adults or children provide leadership to the congregation, parish or church community, this may be done as part of a team with lay people in roles such as elders refer people to community support services, psychologists or doctors research and study religion and theology supervise prayer and discussion groups and seminars, provide religious instruction teach on spiritual and theological subjects train leaders for church and youth leadership work on developing relationships and networks within the religious community provide pastoral care in various contexts provide personal support to people in crises, such as illness and family breakdown visit the sick and elderly to counsel and comfort them and their families administer Last Rites when designated to do so the first style of ministering is the player coach style. In this style, the pastor is a "participant in all the processes that the church uses to reach people and see them transformed the second style of ministering is the delegating style, in which the minister develops members of the church to point that they can be trusted the third style of ministering is the directing style where the minister gives specific instructions and supervises the congregation the last and fourth style of ministering is the combination style, which a minister allows directional ministering from a pastoral staff member mention prayer of salvation to those interested in becoming a believer Depending on the denomination the requirements for ministry vary.
All denominations require. In regards to training, denominations vary in their requirements, from those that emphasize natural gifts to those that require advanced tertiary education qualifications, for example, from a seminary, theological college or university. One of the clearest references is found in 1 Timothy 3:1-16, which outlines the requirements of a bishop: This is a true saying, if a man desire the office of a bishop, he desireth a good work. A bishop must be blameless, the husband of one wife, sober, of good behaviour, given to hospitality, apt to teach.