Clapham Junction railway station
Clapham Junction railway station is a major railway station and transport hub near St Johns Hill in the south-west of Battersea in the London Borough of Wandsworth. Despite its name, it is not located in Clapham, a district situated some 1.5 kilometres east-south-east of the station, the station is the busiest UK station for interchanges between services. Before the railway came, the area was rural and specialised in growing lavender, the coach road from London to Guildford ran slightly south of the future station site, past The Falcon public house at the crossroads in the valley between St. Johns Hill and Lavender Hill. On 21 May 1838 the London and Southampton Railway became the London and South Western Railway and that was the first railway through the area but it had no station at the present site. The second line, initially from Nine Elms to Richmond, opened on 27 July 1846, Nine Elms was replaced in 1848 as the terminus by Waterloo Bridge station, now Waterloo. The line to Victoria opened by 1860, Clapham Junction opened on 2 March 1863, a joint venture of the L&SWR, the London and South Coast Railway and the West London Extension Railway as an interchange station for their lines.
When the station was built, much of Battersea was the site of heavy industry while Clapham, Side and Clapham Common W. Side, London despite being well away from those park-side streets. Additional station buildings were erected in 1874 and 1876, batterseas slums unfit for human habitation were entirely replaced with council and charitable housing between 1918 and 1975. A £39.5 million planning application from Metro Shopping Fund was withdrawn before governmental planning committee consideration on 20 May 2009, the change would have been at Clapham Junction. On the morning of 12 December 1988 two collisions involving three commuter trains occurred slightly south-west of the station, thirty-five people died and more than 100 were injured. On the morning of 16 December 1991, a bomb ripped through tracks on one of the stations platforms, the Provisional Irish Republican Army claimed responsibility. The station is named Clapham Junction because it is at the junction of rail lines. Latchmere Main Junction connecting the WLL to the Brighton Line at Falcon Junction, West London Extension Junction and Junction for Waterloo, relaid for Eurostar empty-stock moves from the Windsor Lines to the WLL.
Pouparts Junction where the low-level and high-level approaches to Victoria split, each day about 2,000 trains, over half of them stopping, pass through the station, more than through any other station in Europe. At peak times 180 trains per hour pass through of which 117 stop and it is not the busiest station by number of passengers, most of whom pass through. Interchanges make some 40% of the activity and on that basis too it is the busiest station in the UK, in 2011 the station had three entrances, all with staffed ticket offices, though only the south-east entrance is open 24 hours a day. The most heavily used of the three, this leads from St Johns Hill via an indoor shopping centre into a subway some 15 ft wide. The north entrance, which has restricted opening hours, leads from Grant Road to the same subway, the subway is crowded during rush hours, with the ticket barriers at the ends being pinch points
Tramlink is a light rail tram system serving Croydon and surrounding areas in South London, England. It began operation in 2000, the first tram system in London since 1952 and it is owned by London Trams, an arm of Transport for London, and operated by FirstGroup. The Tramlink is the fourth-busiest light rail network in the UK behind Manchester Metrolink and Wear Metro, in 1990 Croydon Council with London Regional Transport put the project to Parliament and the Croydon Tramlink Act 1994 resulted, which gave LRT the power to build and run Tramlink. In 1996 Tramtrack Croydon Limited won a 99-year Private Finance Initiative contract to design, operate, TCL was a partnership comprising FirstGroup, Bombardier Transportation, Sir Robert McAlpine and Amey, and Royal Bank of Scotland and 3i. TCL kept the revenue generated by Tramlink and LRT had to pay compensation to TCL for any changes to the fares, TCL subcontracted operations to CentreWest Buses. One of the leading to its creation was that the London Borough of Croydon has no London Underground service.
There are four routes, Route 1 – Elmers End to Croydon, Route 2 – Beckenham Junction to Croydon, Route 3 – New Addington to Wimbledon, and Route 4 – Therapia Lane to Elmers End. Route 2 runs parallel to the Crystal Palace to Beckenham Junction line of the Southern network between Birkbeck and Beckenham Junction – the National Rail track had been singled some years earlier. At Woodside the old station buildings stand disused, and the platforms have been replaced by accessible low platforms. From Woodside to near Sandilands and from near Sandilands almost to Lloyd Park, Tramlink follows the former Woodside and South Croydon Railway, including the Park Hill tunnels. The section of Route 3 between Wimbledon and West Croydon mostly follows the single-track British Rail route, closed on 31 May 1997 so that it could be converted for Tramlink, a partial obstruction near this point has necessitated the use of interlaced track. A Victorian footbridge beside Waddon New Road was dismantled to make way for the flyover over the West Croydon to Sutton railway line, the footbridge has been re-erected at Corfe Castle station on the Swanage Railway.
In March 2008, TfL announced that it had reached agreement to buy TCL for £98m, the purchase was finalised on 28 June 2008. The background to this purchase relates to the requirement that TfL compensates TCL for the consequences of any changes to the fares, in 2007 that payment was £4m, with an annual increase in rate. In October 2008 TfL introduced a new livery, using the blue and green of the routes on TfL maps, the colour of the cars was changed to green, and the brand name was changed from Croydon Tramlink to simply Tramlink. These refurbishments were completed in early 2009, the tram stops have low platforms,35 cm above rail level. They are unstaffed and have automated ticket machines, in general, access between the platforms involves crossing the tracks by pedestrian level crossing. There are 39 stops, most being 32.2 m long and they are virtually level with the doors and are all wider than 2 m
Hampton is a suburban area on the north bank of the River Thames, in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, which includes Hampton Court Palace. Hampton is served by two stations, including one immediately south of Hampton Court Bridge in East Molesey. Hampton adjoins Bushy Park on two sides and is west of Hampton Wick and Kingston upon Thames, there are long strips of public riverside in Hampton and the Hampton Heated Open Air Pool is one of the few such swimming pools in Greater London. Hampton Ferry provides access across the Thames to the park of Molesey. The most common type of housing in the north of the district is terraced homes, the combined population of the Hamptons was 37,131 at the 2001 census. The name Hampton may come from the Anglo-Saxon words hamm meaning an enclosure in the bend of a river and ton meaning farmstead or settlement. The ten years to 1911 saw the highest percentage of population increase, a further 25% rise took place in the 1920s. Writing between 1870–72 his national gazetteer, John Marius Wilson technically described Hampton Wick as a hamlet, world War I impacted the business, which rebranded as The Thames Riviera, rivalling the hotel in Maidenhead for the name, followed by The Palm Beach and The Casino.
This high precision survey was the forerunner of the Principal Triangulation of Great Britain which commenced in 1791, in the report of the operation Roy gives the locations of the ends of the baseline as Hampton Poor-house and Kings Arbour. The latter lies with the confines of Heathrow Airport and it is certain that the cannons have been disturbed and slightly moved over the intervening years Hampton Academy, an Academy in Hampton Hampton School, an independent school for boys. Lady Eleanor Holles School is an independent school for girls and it is 83rd in the schools league table. The latter two schools achieved 100%5 A*-Cs at GCSE and share a new-for-2000 Millennium Boathouse and Cambridge Boat Race and Womens Oxford v Cambridge Henley Boat Race participants of this century have attended the schools. The church buildings are a significant presence in the many of them being architecturally stand-alone listed buildings in otherwise often quite homogenous 20th century housing estates. The ministers and members provide a range of services for the community, Hampton Youth Project has been an economically and recreationally resourceful youth centre since 1990.
Built in a coach depot on the Nurserylands Estate it offers a wide programme of activities for those aged 11–19. Hampton Station is on the London Waterloo to Shepperton train line, Thames Waters fresh water operations provide a source of local employment. A group of 17 offices and storage premises including warehouse units, the large operational Water Treatment Works, owned by Thames Water, is between the Upper Sunbury Road and the River Thames. It was built in the 1850s after the 1852 Metropolis Water Act made it illegal to take drinking water from the tidal Thames below Teddington Lock because of the amount of sewage in the river
London Borough of Richmond upon Thames
The London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in south-west London, forms part of Outer London and is the only London borough on both sides of the River Thames. It was created in 1965 when three smaller council areas amalgamated under the London Government Act 1963 and it is governed by Richmond upon Thames London Borough Council. The borough is approximately half parkland – large areas of Londons open space fall within the boundaries, including Richmond Park, Kew Gardens, Bushy Park. A neighbouring authority in Surrey achieved the best quality of life in that report, demography is a diverse picture as in all of London, each district should be looked at separately and even those do not reflect all neighbourhoods. Whatever generalisations are used, the texture of London poverty by its minutely localised geography must always be taken into account according to an influential poverty report of 2010. Londons German business and expatriate community is centred on this borough, the above are arranged by post town Parks take up a great deal of the borough and include Richmond Park, Bushy Park, Kew Gardens, and Hampton Court Park.
There are over 100 parks and open spaces within its boundary and 21 miles of river frontage,140 hectares within the borough are designated as part of the Metropolitan Green Belt. The name Richmond upon Thames was coined at that time, it is now commonly but inaccurately used to refer to Richmond only, the boroughs history is reflected in the coat of arms, which was officially granted on 7 May 1966. It is, Ermine a portcullis or within a bordure gules charged with eight fleurs-de-lis or. The crest is, On a wreath argent and gules out of a mural crown gules a swan rousant argent in beak a branch of climbing red roses leaved and entwined about the neck proper. The supporters are, On either side a griffin gules and beaked azure, each supporting an oar proper, the blade of the dark blue. Red and ermine are the royal colours, reflecting Richmonds royal history. The swan represents the River Thames, which flows through the borough, the oars are from the Oxford University Boat Club and the Cambridge University Boat Club, reflecting the fact that the Boat Race between the two universities ends at Mortlake in the borough.
The borough currently has a Conservative-led council which has been the most common administration since its formation, the borough is served by many Transport for London bus routes. The borough is connected to central London and Reading by the National Rail services of South West Trains, the London Undergrounds District line serves Richmond and Kew Gardens stations, both are served by London Overground trains on the North London Line. The other stations are, Barnes Bridge, Hampton, Hampton Wick, North Sheen, St Margarets, Strawberry Hill, Twickenham, Richmond upon Thames is the local education authority for the borough. The borough has a football club, Hampton & Richmond Borough F. C. who play at Beveree Stadium in Hampton. The Twickenham Stadium hosts rugby internationals and the Twickenham Stoop is home to the Harlequins Rugby Team, Richmond Rugby Club are active and share their grounds with London Scottish F. C
British Railways, which from 1965 traded as British Rail, was the operator of most of the rail transport in Great Britain between 1948 and 1997. It was formed from the nationalisation of the Big Four British railway companies and lasted until the privatisation of British Rail. Originally a trading brand of the Railway Executive of the British Transport Commission, the period of nationalisation saw sweeping changes in the national railway network. A process of dieselisation and electrification took place, and by 1968 steam locomotion had been replaced by diesel and electric traction. Passengers replaced freight as the source of business, and one-third of the network was closed by the Beeching Axe of the 1960s in an effort to reduce rail subsidies. On privatisation, responsibility for track and stations was transferred to Railtrack, the British Rail double arrow logo is formed of two interlocked arrows showing the direction of travel on a double track railway and was nicknamed the arrow of indecision.
The rail transport system in Great Britain developed during the 19th century, during World War I the railways were under state control, which continued until 1921. Complete nationalisation had been considered, and the Railways Act 1921 is sometimes considered as a precursor to that, nationalisation was subsequently carried out after World War II, under the Transport Act 1947. This Act made provision for the nationalisation of the network, as part of a policy of nationalising public services by Clement Attlees Labour Government. British Railways came into existence as the name of the Railway Executive of the British Transport Commission on 1 January 1948 when it took over the assets of the Big Four. There were joint railways between the Big Four and a few railways to consider. Excluded from nationalisation were industrial lines like the Oxfordshire Ironstone Railway, the London Underground – publicly owned since 1933 – was nationalised, becoming the London Transport Executive of the British Transport Commission.
The Bicester Military Railway was already run by the government, the electric Liverpool Overhead Railway was excluded from nationalisation. The Railway Executive was conscious that some lines on the network were unprofitable and hard to justify socially, the general financial position of BR became gradually poorer, until an operating loss was recorded in 1955. The Executive itself had abolished in 1953 by the Conservative government. Other changes to the British Transport Commission at the time included the return of road haulage to the private sector. British Railways was divided into regions which were based on the areas the former Big Four operated in, later. Western Region of British Railways, former Great Western Railway lines, London Midland Region of British Railways, former London Midland and Scottish Railway lines in England
Twickenham railway station
Twickenham railway station is in Twickenham in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, and is in Travelcard Zone 5. The station and all trains serving it are operated by South West Trains, the predecessor, a neo-gothic station, was built by the London and Windsor Railway on the west of London Road bridge, opening on 22 August 1848. After the war some platforms were made level for rugby spectators trains which were hand-flagged through the embryonic station and it was not until 28 March 1954 that the present station came into use with three through tracks inconveniently having the two up platforms facing each other. The track at platform 1 is disconnected in one direction and stops at a causeway which allows rugby crowds to reach platforms 2 and 3 without entering the station building. The original station was demolished immediately after closure and there are no remains to be seen, on 4 February 1996, South West Trains operated its first service which ran from Twickenham to London Waterloo, departing at 05,10.
This was the first scheduled privatised train to operate in 48 years, platforms 1 and 2 can be reached by the entrance reserved for match days. With staff attendance platform 3 can be reached across the causeway from the car park,2 to Windsor and Eton Riverside, calling at Whitton, Ashford and all stations. London Buses route 267,281 and school route 681 serve the station, a judicial review was carried out in December 2012 of the planning permissions that had been granted. These reviews are now complete and construction started in 2014, train times and station information for Twickenham railway station from National Rail
Railway electrification in Great Britain
Railway electrification in Great Britain began during the late 19th century. In 2006, 40%—3,062 miles of the British rail network was electrified, according to Network Rail, 64% of the electrified network uses the 25 kV AC overhead system, and 36% uses the 660/750 V DC third-rail system. The first electric railway in Great Britain was Volks Electric Railway in Brighton which opened in 1883, the London Underground began operating electric services using a fourth rail system in 1890 on the City and South London Railway, now part of the Northern line. Main line electrification of suburban lines began in the early years of the 20th century. In 1921 a government committee chose 1,500 V DC overhead to be the national standard, during the interwar period, the Southern Railway adopted the 660 V DC third rail system as its standard and greatly expanded this system across its network of lines south of London. After World War II and the nationalisation of the railways in 1948, in 1956, BR adopted 25 kV AC overhead as standard for all projects outside logical extensions of third-rail systems.
The 25 kV AC network has continued to slowly. In May 2009, Network Rail launched a consultation on large-scale electrification, potentially to include the Great Western Main Line and Midland Main Line, key benefits cited were that electric trains are faster, more reliable and cause less track wear than diesel trains. Since then, electrification of the Great Western Main Line has been approved, electric trains are planned to run to Bristol from 2016, Electrification of the Midland Main Line, several Trans-Pennine routes and the Welsh Valleys has been approved. In Scotland, where transport is devolved to the Scottish Government, Transport Scotland is extending electrification, for example and this is part of a larger plan that sees many major routes in central Scotland electrified, including the main Edinburgh Waverley – Glasgow Queen Street route. In June 2011, Peter Dearman of Network Rail suggested that the network will need to be converted into overhead lines. He stated, Although the top speed is 100 mph, the trains cannot go over 80 mph well, agreeing that conversion would be expensive, he said that the third rail network is at the limit of its power capability, especially as trains become more advanced in technology.
This conversion is a scheme to develop a business case for full conversion of the third rail network. The ORR has stated that on safety grounds, third rail 750V DC has a limited future, British Railways chose this as the national standard for future electrification projects outside of the third rail area in 1956. Following this, a number of lines that were electrified at a different voltage were converted. Work started in the late 1950s, the first major electrification project using 25 kV was the West Coast Main Line. Liverpool Lime Street including newly electrified routes to Manchester via Newton-le-Willows, see Stafford to Manchester Line and Crewe to Manchester Line. Glasgow Central, in 1974, from Weaver Junction using Mark 3A series The Abbey Flyer was electrified 1987-88 by Network SouthEast, Edinburgh Waverley in 1989 In 2003, the Crewe to Kidsgrove section of the Crewe to Derby Line was electrified as a diversionary route for the WCML
Petersham is a place in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames on the east of the bend in the River Thames south of Richmond, which it shares with neighbouring Ham. It provides the foreground of the view from Richmond Hill across Petersham Meadows. Other nearby places include, Isleworth, Mortlake, Petersham appears in Domesday Book as Patricesham. It was held by Chertsey Abbey and its assets were,4 hides,1 church,5 ploughs,1 fishery worth 1000 eels and 1000 lampreys,3 acres of meadow. The village was the birthplace in 1682 of Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll and he went on to found the Royal Bank of Scotland in Edinburgh in 1727, and his face is on the obverse of all of the Royal Banks current banknotes. He died in 1798 and is buried in the churchyard of Petersham Parish Church and his grave in Portland stone, renovated in the 1960s, is now Grade II listed in view of its historical associations. In 1847 Queen Victoria granted Pembroke Lodge in the Petersham part of Richmond Park to John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, Lord Russells grandson, Bertrand Russell, spent some of his childhood there also.
During World War II the GHQ Liaison Regiment established its regimental headquarters nearby at The Richmond Hill Hotel, in the early 19th century, Charles Stanhope, 4th Earl of Harrington, styled Lord Petersham, gave the name to a type of greatcoat. In 1955 Petersham gave its name to HMS Petersham which was a Ham class minesweeper, listed buildings include a watchmans box that served as a village lock-up and dates from 1787. Petersham Road includes an extremely sharp right-angled bend edged by a pair of handsome wrought-iron gates and this is the entrance to Montrose House, one of the most notable houses in Petersham. After a spate of accidents on the bend in the road. The Hon. Algernon Tollemache of Ham House was their leader, but various dents in the brick wall today reveal that motorists are still taken unawares by it. Adjacent to Montrose House and equally as impressive is Rutland Lodge, another interesting house in Petersham is Douglas House, just off the west drive to Ham House. One of its notable inhabitants was Catherine, Duchess of Queensberry.
In 1969 it was bought by the Federal Republic of Germany for use as a German school, new buildings have been erected in the grounds, but the original house and stables have been preserved. Petersham is served by two bus routes, the 65 and 371, both linking the town with Richmond and Kingston upon Thames. It was originally located in Richmond Park, near Petersham Gate, Petersham Parish Church is believed to pre-date the Norman conquest of England as a church at Petersham is mentioned in Domesday Book. All Saints on Bute Avenue was built as a church but was never consecrated and it was built between 1899 and 1909 by Leeds architect John Kelly for Mrs Rachael Warde as a memorial to her parents who had lived at Petersham House
London Buses is the subsidiary of Transport for London that manages bus services within Greater London. Contracts are normally for five years, with two-year extensions available if performance criteria is met, operators provide staff to drive the buses, provide the buses to operate and adhere to set TfL guidelines. Operators are in return paid per mile that each bus runs, London Buses publishes a variety of bus maps. Some are traditional street maps of London marked with bus numbers, in 2002, TfL introduced the first spider maps. The arachnoid form of bus routes radiating from a centre earned them the nickname spider maps, the maps are displayed at most major bus stops, and can be downloaded in PDF format via the Internet from the TfL website. The legal identity of London Buses is London Bus Services Limited, East Thames Buses was the trading name of another wholly owned subsidiary of TfL called, rather confusingly, London Buses Limited. The operating units were sold off in 1994/95, and their purchasers make up the majority of companies awarded bus operating tenders from the current London Buses, after 1994/95, the LBL company lay dormant, passing from LRT to TfL.
It was resurrected when East Thames Buses was formed, separated by a wall from LBSL. The local bus network in London is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world, over 8000 scheduled buses operate on over 700 different routes. Over the year this network carries over 1.8 billion passenger journeys, Buses in the London Buses network accept Travelcards, Oyster card products and contactless debit and credit cards. Cash fares have not been available since 6 July 2014, single journey fares used to be charged in relation to length of journey, but are now charged as single flat fares for any length of journey. Alternatively and monthly passes may be purchased and loaded onto an Oyster card, passengers using contactless payment cards are charged the same fares as on Oyster pay as you go. Unlike Oyster cards, contactless cards have a 7-day fare cap though it only operates on a Monday-Sunday basis. Under 11s can travel free on London buses and trams at any time unaccompanied by an adult, children aged 11 to 15 travel free on buses with an 11–15 Oyster photocard, without an Oyster card or Travelcard, they have to pay the full adult fare.
Visitors can have a special discount added to an ordinary Oyster card at TfLs Travel Information Centres, there are concessions for London residents aged 16 to 18. The Freedom Pass scheme allows Greater London residents over state pension age, people who have concessionary bus passes issued by English local authorities travel free on TfL bus services at any time. Each company has its own operating code, and every bus garage in London has its own garage code, London Buses in fact maintains a close control over both the age and specification of the vehicles. These have been known to tear and get dirty quickly, however there have been improvements with LED Backlights and the SmartBlind system installed on newer vehicles
New Southgate railway station
New Southgate railway station is on the boundary of the London Borough of Barnet and the London Borough of Enfield in north London, and is in Travelcard Zone 4. The station, and all trains serving it, has operated by Great Northern since 14 September 2014. WAGN operated the service from 1997 to 2006, the PERTIS machine remains in situ. The service to Moorgate is operated using class 313 EMUs, the typical off-peak service is three trains an hour to Moorgate, reduced to two after 7,00 pm. Night and weekend trains run every 30 minutes, there are three trains an hour to Welwyn Garden City, reduced to two in the late evenings and at weekends. A few additional trains to and from Kings Cross call in the business peaks. London Buses routes 221,232 and 382 and night route N91 serve the station, train times and station information for New Southgate railway station from National Rail
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London. At 215 miles, it is the longest river entirely in England and it flows through Oxford, Henley-on-Thames and Windsor. The lower reaches of the river are called the Tideway, derived from its tidal reach up to Teddington Lock. It rises at Thames Head in Gloucestershire, and flows into the North Sea via the Thames Estuary, the Thames drains the whole of Greater London. Its tidal section, reaching up to Teddington Lock, includes most of its London stretch and has a rise, in Scotland, the Tay achieves more than double the average discharge from a drainage basin that is 60% smaller. Along its course are 45 navigation locks with accompanying weirs and its catchment area covers a large part of South Eastern and a small part of Western England and the river is fed by 38 named tributaries. The river contains over 80 islands, in 2010, the Thames won the largest environmental award in the world – the $350,000 International Riverprize.
The Thames, from Middle English Temese, is derived from the Brittonic Celtic name for the river, recorded in Latin as Tamesis and yielding modern Welsh Tafwys Thames. It has suggested that it is not of Celtic origin. A place by the river, rather than the river itself, indirect evidence for the antiquity of the name Thames is provided by a Roman potsherd found at Oxford, bearing the inscription Tamesubugus fecit. It is believed that Tamesubugus name was derived from that of the river, tamese was referred to as a place, not a river in the Ravenna Cosmography. The rivers name has always pronounced with a simple t /t/, the Middle English spelling was typically Temese. A similar spelling from 1210, Tamisiam, is found in the Magna Carta, the Thames through Oxford is sometimes called the Isis. Ordnance Survey maps still label the Thames as River Thames or Isis down to Dorchester, richard Coates suggests that while the river was as a whole called the Thames, part of it, where it was too wide to ford, was called *lowonida.
An alternative, and simpler proposal, is that London may be a Germanic word, for merchant seamen, the Thames has long been just the London River. Londoners often refer to it simply as the river in such as south of the river. Thames Valley Police is a body that takes its name from the river. The marks of human activity, in cases dating back to Pre-Roman Britain, are visible at various points along the river