The Washington Post
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper published in Washington, D. C. with a particular emphasis on national politics and the federal government. It has the largest circulation in the Washington metropolitan area, its slogan "Democracy Dies in Darkness" began appearing on its masthead in 2017. Daily broadsheet editions are printed for the District of Columbia and Virginia; the newspaper has won 47 Pulitzer Prizes. This includes six separate Pulitzers awarded in 2008, second only to The New York Times' seven awards in 2002 for the highest number awarded to a single newspaper in one year. Post journalists have received 18 Nieman Fellowships and 368 White House News Photographers Association awards. In the early 1970s, in the best-known episode in the newspaper's history, reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein led the American press' investigation into what became known as the Watergate scandal, their reporting in The Washington Post contributed to the resignation of President Richard Nixon.
In years since, the Post's investigations have led to increased review of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. In October 2013, the paper's longtime controlling family, the Graham family, sold the newspaper to Nash Holdings, a holding company established by Jeff Bezos, for $250 million in cash; the Washington Post is regarded as one of the leading daily American newspapers, along with The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, The Wall Street Journal. The Post has distinguished itself through its political reporting on the workings of the White House and other aspects of the U. S. government. Unlike The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post does not print an edition for distribution away from the East Coast. In 2009, the newspaper ceased publication of its National Weekly Edition, which combined stories from the week's print editions, due to shrinking circulation; the majority of its newsprint readership is in the District of Columbia and its suburbs in Maryland and Northern Virginia.
The newspaper is one of a few U. S. newspapers with foreign bureaus, located in Beirut, Beijing, Bogotá, Hong Kong, Jerusalem, London, Mexico City, Nairobi, New Delhi and Tokyo. In November 2009, it announced the closure of its U. S. regional bureaus—Chicago, Los Angeles and New York—as part of an increased focus on "political stories and local news coverage in Washington." The newspaper has local bureaus in Virginia. As of May 2013, its average weekday circulation was 474,767, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, making it the seventh largest newspaper in the country by circulation, behind USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Daily News, the New York Post. While its circulation has been slipping, it has one of the highest market-penetration rates of any metropolitan news daily. For many decades, the Post had its main office at 1150 15th Street NW; this real estate remained with Graham Holdings when the newspaper was sold to Jeff Bezos' Nash Holdings in 2013.
Graham Holdings sold 1150 15th Street for US$159 million in November 2013. The Washington Post continued to lease space at 1150 L Street NW. In May 2014, The Washington Post leased the west tower of One Franklin Square, a high-rise building at 1301 K Street NW in Washington, D. C; the newspaper moved into their new offices December 14, 2015. The Post has its own exclusive zip code, 20071. Arc Publishing is a department of the Post, which provides the publishing system, software for news organizations such as the Chicago Tribune and the Los Angeles Times; the newspaper was founded in 1877 by Stilson Hutchins and in 1880 added a Sunday edition, becoming the city's first newspaper to publish seven days a week. In 1889, Hutchins sold the newspaper to Frank Hatton, a former Postmaster General, Beriah Wilkins, a former Democratic congressman from Ohio. To promote the newspaper, the new owners requested the leader of the United States Marine Band, John Philip Sousa, to compose a march for the newspaper's essay contest awards ceremony.
Sousa composed "The Washington Post". It became the standard music to accompany the two-step, a late 19th-century dance craze, remains one of Sousa's best-known works. In 1893, the newspaper moved to a building at 14th and E streets NW, where it would remain until 1950; this building combined all functions of the newspaper into one headquarters – newsroom, advertising and printing – that ran 24 hours per day. In 1898, during the Spanish–American War, the Post printed Clifford K. Berryman's classic illustration Remember the Maine, which became the battle-cry for American sailors during the War. In 1902, Berryman published another famous cartoon in the Post—Drawing the Line in Mississippi; this cartoon depicts President Theodore Roosevelt showing compassion for a small bear cub and inspired New York store owner Morris Michtom to create the teddy bear. Wilkins acquired Hatton's share of the newspaper in 1894 at Hatton's death. After Wilkins' death in 1903, his sons John and Robert ran the Post for two years before selling it in 1905 to John Roll McLean, owner of the Cincinnati Enquirer.
During the Wilson presidency, the Post was credited with the "most famous newspaper typo" in D. C. history according to Reason magazine. When John McLean died in 1916, he put the newspap
University of New Brunswick
The University of New Brunswick is a public university with two primary campuses in Fredericton and Saint John, New Brunswick. It is the oldest English-language university in Canada, among the oldest public universities in North America. UNB was founded by a group of seven Loyalists who left the United States after the American Revolution. UNB has two main campuses: the original campus, founded in 1785 in Fredericton, a smaller campus which opened in Saint John in 1964. In addition, there are two small satellite health sciences campuses located in Moncton and Bathurst, New Brunswick, two offices in the Caribbean and in Beijing. UNB offers over 75 degrees in fourteen faculties at the undergraduate and graduate levels with a total student enrollment of 11,400 between the two principal campuses. UNB was named the most entrepreneurial university in Canada at the 2014 Startup Canada Awards. In 1783, Loyalist settlers began to build upon the ruins of a former Acadian village called Ste-Anne-des-Pays-Bas.
The new settlement was named Frederick's Town in honour of Prince Frederick, son of King George III and uncle of Queen Victoria. Modelled on the Anglican ideals of older, European institutions, the University of New Brunswick was founded in 1785 as the Academy of Liberal Arts and Sciences; the petition requesting the establishment of the school, titled "The Founders' Petition of 1785," was addressed to Governor Thomas Carleton and was signed by seven Loyalist men: William Paine, William Wanton, George Sproule, Zephaniah Kingsley, Sr. John Coffin, Ward Chipman, Adino Paddock. To his Excellency Thomas Carleton Esquire Governor Captain General, Commander in Chief, of the Province of New Brunswick, the territories thereunto belonging, Vice Admiral Chancellor &c &c &c: — Your memorialists whose names are hereunto subscribed, beg leave to represent, state to your consideration the Necessity and expediency of an early attention to the Establishment in this Infant Province of an Academy, or School of liberal Arts and Sciences.
Your Excellency need not be reminded of the many Peculiarities attending the Settlement of this Country The Settlement of other Provinces has originated in the voluntary Exertions of a few enterprising Individuals and prosecuting their Labor at their Leisure, as they found it convenient, most for their Advantage – Far different is the Situation in which the loyal Adventurers here find themselves – Many of them upon removing had Sons, whose Time of life, former Hopes, call for an immediate attention to their Education – Many publick advantages, many Conveniences would result to Individuals could this be affected within this Province, the Particulars of which it is unnecessary to ennumerate – Your Memorialists do therefore most earnestly request your Excellency will be pleased to grant a Charter for the establishing, founding such an Academy... By an 1800 provincial charter, signed by Jonathan Odell, the Academy of Liberal Arts and Sciences became the College of New Brunswick; the College was succeeded by King's College, granted by royal charter in December 1827.
King's College operated under the control of the Church of England until 1859, when it was made non-sectarian by an act of the provincial legislature that transformed the College into the University of New Brunswick. In 1866, Mary Kingsley Tibbits became the first admitted female student of UNB. In 1906, UNB established a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate responsible for academic policy, a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and other matters; the president, appointed by the board, was to provide a link between the two bodies and to provide institutional leadership. By 1867, the University of New Brunswick had two faculties: Arts and Applied Science, it awarded the degrees of Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Master of Arts, Doctor of Science. The latter was awarded only in the fields of civil engineering, electrical engineering, forestry. At this time, the university had 156 male students, 21 female students, only eleven academic staff, who were all male.
In the 1960s, University policies changed in response to social pressure and the belief that higher education was a key to social justice and economic productivity for individuals and for society. In 1964, a second, smaller campus was established in New Brunswick; the growth of the UNBSJ campus is notable, for the campus began with only 96 students spread throughout various buildings in Saint John's central business district. In 1968, UNBSJ moved to its new home at Tucker Park; the Association of University of New Brunswick Teachers was established in 1954. In 1959, the Faculty of Law moved from Saint John to Fredericton following a report on the status of legal education in Canada by Professor Maxwell Cohen from McGill University. In his report, Cohen stated that the Saint John Law School was only "nominally a faculty of UNB"; this prompted Lord Beaverbrook, as Chancellor, UNB President Colin B. Mackay, to permanently move the Saint John Law School to the UNB Fredericton campus, despite the Dean's objections.
In the fall of 2007, a report commissioned by the provincial government recommended that UNBSJ and the New Brunswick Community College be reformed and consolidated into a new polytechnic post-secondary institute. The proposal came under heavy criticism and led to the several organized protests. Under heavy fire from the public, the Graham government announced that it would set aside the possibility of UNB Saint John losing its status as a univers
Princess Leia Organa of Alderaan is a fictional character in the Star Wars franchise, portrayed in films by Carrie Fisher. Introduced in the original Star Wars film in 1977, Leia is princess of the planet Alderaan, a member of the Imperial Senate and an agent of the Rebel Alliance, she thwarts the sinister Sith Lord Darth Vader and helps bring about the destruction of the Empire's cataclysmic superweapon, the Death Star. In The Empire Strikes Back, Leia commands a Rebel base and evades Vader as she falls in love with the smuggler, Han Solo. In Return of the Jedi, Leia leads the operation to rescue Han from the crime lord Jabba the Hutt, is revealed to be Vader's daughter and the twin sister of Luke Skywalker; the prequel film Revenge of the Sith establishes that the twins' mother is Senator Padmé Amidala of Naboo, who dies after childbirth. Leia is adopted by Queen Breha Organa of Alderaan. In The Force Awakens and The Last Jedi, Leia is the founder and General of the Resistance against the First Order.
She and Han have a son named Ben, who adopted the name Kylo Ren after turning to the dark side of the Force. In the Star Wars Legends series of novels and video games, which are set in an alternate continuity, Leia continues her adventures with Han and Luke after Return of the Jedi, fighting Imperial resurgences and new threats to the galaxy, she becomes the Chief of State of the New Republic and a Jedi Master, is the mother to three children by Han: Jaina and Anakin Solo. One of the more popular Star Wars characters, Leia has been called a 1980s icon, a feminist hero and model for other adventure heroines, she has appeared in many derivative works and merchandising, has been referenced or parodied in several TV shows and films. Her "cinnamon buns" hairstyle from Star Wars and metal bikini from Return of the Jedi have become cultural icons. Leia was created by Star Wars creator George Lucas, who in 1999 explained his early development of the main characters: The first talked about a princess and an old general.
The second version involved a father, his son, his daughter. Now the daughter has become Mark Hamill's character. There was the story of two brothers where I transformed one of them into a sister; the older brother was imprisoned, the young sister had to rescue him and bring him back to their dad. In the rough draft of Star Wars, Leia is the spoiled teenage daughter of King Kayos and Queen Breha of Aquilae, with two brothers and Windy. Leia was at one point "the daughter of Owen Lars and his wife Beru... Luke's cousin–together they visit the grave of his mother, who perished with his father on a planet destroyed by the Death Star." A story synopsis establishes Leia as "Leia Antilles", the daughter of Bail Antilles from the peaceful world of Organa Major. In the fourth draft it was established. Fisher was 19 when she was cast as Princess Leia, with actresses including Amy Irving, Cindy Williams and Jodie Foster up for the role. In 2014, InkTank reported that the extended list of "more than two dozen actresses" who had auditioned for Leia included Glenn Close, Farrah Fawcett, Jessica Lange, Sissy Spacek, Sigourney Weaver, Cybill Shepherd, Jane Seymour, Anjelica Huston, Kim Basinger, Kathleen Turner, Geena Davis and Meryl Streep.
Asked about Streep in 2015, Fisher said, "I've never heard that one. But Jodie Foster was up for it... that one I knew the most. Amy Irving and Jodie, and I got it."The second draft of the Return of the Jedi screenplay contained dialogue in which Obi-Wan tells Luke he has a twin sister. She and their mother were "sent to the protection of friends in a distant system; the mother died shortly thereafter, Luke's sister was adopted by Ben's friends, the governor of Alderaan and his wife." Fisher explained in 1983: "Leia's real father left her mother when she was pregnant, so her mother married this King Organa. I was adopted and grew up set apart from other people because I was a princess."Composer John Williams created a musical leitmotif for Leia which recurs throughout the Star Wars saga. "Princess Leia's Theme" was recorded as a concert suite for the score of the 1977 film. Anthony Breznican of Entertainment Weekly describes Leia as a "diplomat, warrior, undercover agent". Mark Edlitz calls her "a smart, brave diplomat and warrior" in The Huffington Post.
Fisher told Rolling Stone in 1983:There are a lot of people who don't like my character in these movies. She has no family. From the first film, she was just front line and center; the only way they knew to make the character strong was to make her angry. In Return of the Jedi, she gets to be more supportive, more affectionate, she said in 2014: I would rather have played Han Solo. When I first read the script I thought that's the part to be, always sardonic. He's always that. I feel like a lot of the time Leia's either pissed or, thank God, sort of snarky, but I'm much more worried and pissed than Han Solo was, those aren't fun things to play... I had a lot of fun killing Jabba the Hutt, they asked me on the day. No! That's the best time I had as an actor, and the only reason to go into acting is. Introduced in the original 1977 film Star Wars, Princess Leia Organa of Alderaan is a member of the Imperial Senate, she is captured by Darth Vader on board
Return of the Jedi
Return of the Jedi is a 1983 American epic space-opera film directed by Richard Marquand. The screenplay is by Lawrence Kasdan and George Lucas from a story by Lucas, the executive producer, it is the third and final installment in the original Star Wars trilogy, set one year after The Empire Strikes Back. The film stars Mark Hamill, Harrison Ford, Carrie Fisher, Billy Dee Williams, Anthony Daniels, David Prowse, Kenny Baker, Peter Mayhew and Frank Oz. In the film, the Galactic Empire, under the direction of the ruthless Emperor, is constructing a second Death Star in order to crush the Rebel Alliance once and for all. Since the Emperor plans to oversee the final stages of its construction, the Rebel Fleet launches a full-scale attack on the Death Star in order to prevent its completion and kill the Emperor bringing an end to his hold over the galaxy. Meanwhile, Luke Skywalker struggles to bring his father Darth Vader back to the light side of the Force. David Lynch and David Cronenberg were considered to direct the project before Marquand signed on as director.
The production team relied on Lucas' storyboards during pre-production. While writing the shooting script, Kasdan and producer Howard Kazanjian spent two weeks in conference discussing ideas to construct it. Kazanjian's schedule pushed shooting to begin a few weeks early to allow Industrial Light & Magic more time to work on the film's effects in post-production. Filming took place in England and Arizona from January to May 1982. Strict secrecy surrounded the production; the film was released in theaters on May 25, 1983, six years to the day after the release of the first film, receiving positive reviews. The film grossed between $475 million and $572 million worldwide. Several rereleases and revisions to the film followed over the next three decades. 16 years after its original release, it was followed by a prequel trilogy, 32 years a sequel trilogy. In an attempt to rescue Han Solo from crimelord Jabba the Hutt, C-3PO and R2-D2 are sent to Jabba's palace on Tatooine in a trade bargain made by Luke Skywalker.
Disguised as a bounty hunter, Princess Leia infiltrates the palace under the pretense of collecting the bounty on Chewbacca and unfreezes Han, but is caught and enslaved. Luke arrives soon afterward, but after a tense standoff, is sent through a trapdoor to do battle with Jabba's rancor. Jabba sentences Han to death by being fed to the Sarlacc. Having hidden his lightsaber inside R2-D2, Luke frees himself and battles Jabba's guards while Leia uses her chains to strangle Jabba; as the others rendezvous with the Rebel Alliance, Luke returns to Dagobah, where he finds that Yoda is dying. Yoda confirms; the spirit of Obi-Wan Kenobi reveals. The Jedi Masters tell Luke that he must face Vader again to defeat the Empire and become a Jedi Knight; the Rebel Alliance learns that the Empire has been constructing a new Death Star under the supervision of the Emperor himself. As the station is protected by an energy shield, Han leads a strike team to destroy the shield generator on the forest moon of Endor.
Luke and Leia accompany the strike team to Endor in a stolen Imperial shuttle. Luke and his companions encounter a tribe of Ewoks and, after an initial conflict, gain their trust. Luke tells Leia that she is his sister, Vader is their father, that he must confront him. Surrendering to Imperial troops, Luke is brought before Vader, he tries to convince his father to return from the dark side of the Force. Vader takes Luke to the Death Star to meet the Emperor, intent on turning him to the dark side; the Emperor reveals that the Death Star is operational and that the Rebel Fleet will fall into a trap. On Endor, Han's team is captured by Imperial forces, but a counterattack by the Ewoks allows the Rebels to infiltrate the shield generator. Meanwhile, Lando Calrissian leads the Rebel Fleet in the Millennium Falcon, only to find that the Death Star's shield is still active, the Imperial fleet waiting for them; the Emperor tempts Luke to give in to his anger, Luke engages Vader in a lightsaber duel.
Vader senses that Luke has a sister, threatens to turn her to the dark side. Enraged, Luke severs Vader's prosthetic hand; the Emperor entreats Luke to kill Vader and take his place, but Luke refuses, declaring himself a Jedi as his father had been. Furious, the Emperor tortures Luke with Force lightning. Unwilling to let his son die, Vader throws the Emperor down a pit, but is mortally electrocuted in the process. At his last request, Luke removes the redeemed Anakin's mask. After the strike team destroys the shield generator, Lando leads a group of Rebel fighters into the Death Star core and destroys its main reactor; as the Falcon flies out of the Death Star's superstructure and Luke escapes on a shuttle with his father's body, the station explodes. On Endor, Leia reveals to Han that Luke is her brother, they kiss. Luke cremates Anakin's body on a pyre; as the defeat of the Empire is celebrated, Luke sees the spirits of Yoda, Obi-Wan, Anakin watching over him. Mark Hamill as Luke Skywalker: One of the last living Jedi, trained by Obi-Wan and Yoda, a skilled X-wing fighter pilot allied with the Rebellion Harrison Ford as Han Solo: A rogue smuggler, who aids the Rebellion against the Empire.
Han is Luke and Leia's friend, as well as Leia's love interest Carrie Fisher as Leia Organa: The former princess of the destroyed planet Alderaan, part of the Rebellion.
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones
Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones is a 2002 American epic space-opera film directed by George Lucas and written by Lucas and Jonathan Hales. It is the second installment of the Star Wars prequel trilogy, stars Ewan McGregor, Natalie Portman, Hayden Christensen, Ian McDiarmid, Samuel L. Jackson, Christopher Lee, Anthony Daniels, Kenny Baker and Frank Oz. Set ten years after the events in The Phantom Menace, the galaxy is on the brink of civil war, with thousands of planetary systems threatening to secede from the Galactic Republic. After Senator Padmé Amidala evades an assassination attempt, Jedi apprentice Anakin Skywalker becomes her protector, while his mentor Obi-Wan Kenobi investigates the attempt on her life. Soon, the trio witness the onset of a new threat to the Clone Wars. Development of Attack of the Clones began in March 2000, some months after the release of The Phantom Menace. By June 2000, Lucas and Hales completed a draft of the script and principal photography took place from June to September 2000.
The film crew shot at Fox Studios Australia in Sydney, with additional footage filmed in Tunisia and Italy. It was one of the first motion pictures shot on a high-definition digital 24-frame system; the film was released in the United States on May 16, 2002. It received mixed reviews, with some critics hailing it as an improvement over its predecessor The Phantom Menace and others considering it the worst installment of the franchise. Although the visual effects, costume design, musical score, action sequences and McGregor's performance as Obi-Wan Kenobi were all praised, the romance of Padmé and Anakin, the dialogue, the screenplay and the long runtime were all criticized; the film was a financial success. The film was released on VHS and DVD on November 12, 2002 and was released on Blu-ray on September 16, 2011; the third and final film of the prequel trilogy, Revenge of the Sith, was released in 2005. Ten years after the Trade Federation's invasion of Naboo, the Galactic Republic is threatened by the Separatist movement organized by former Jedi Master Count Dooku.
Senator Padmé Amidala comes to Coruscant to vote on a motion to create an army to assist the Jedi against this threat. Narrowly avoiding an assassination attempt upon arrival, she is placed under the protection of Jedi Master Obi-Wan Kenobi and his apprentice, Anakin Skywalker; the two Jedi subdue the assassin, Zam Wesell. The Jedi Council instructs Obi-Wan to find the bounty hunter, while Anakin is tasked to protect Padmé and escort her back to Naboo, where he expresses his romantic feelings for her. Obi-Wan's investigation leads him to the mysterious ocean planet of Kamino, where he discovers an army of clones being produced for the Republic, with bounty hunter Jango Fett serving as their genetic template. Obi-Wan deduces Jango to be the bounty hunter he is seeking, after a fierce battle, places a homing beacon on their ship, the Slave I. Obi-Wan follows Jango and his clone son, Boba Fett, to the rocky planet Geonosis. Meanwhile, Anakin is troubled by visions of his mother, Shmi, in pain and decides to head to Tatooine with Padmé to save her.
Watto reveals that he sold Shmi to Cliegg Lars, who freed and married her. Cliegg tells Anakin that she was abducted by Tusken Raiders weeks earlier and is dead. Determined to find her, Anakin ventures out and finds Shmi at the Tusken campsite, where she dies in his arms. Enraged, Anakin massacres the Tusken tribe, he declares to Padmé that he will find a way to eliminate death. On Geonosis, Obi-Wan discovers a Separatist gathering led by Count Dooku, whom Obi-Wan learns authorized Padmé's assassination and is developing a droid army with Trade Federation Viceroy Nute Gunray. Obi-Wan transmits his findings to the Jedi Council, with knowledge of the droid army, Supreme Chancellor Palpatine is voted emergency powers to send the clone army into battle. Anakin and Padmé are captured by Jango Fett. Dooku sentences the trio to death, but they are saved by a battalion of clone troopers led by Yoda, Mace Windu, other Jedi. Mace beheads Jango during the rescue. Obi-Wan and Anakin intercept Dooku, the three engage in a lightsaber battle.
Dooku injures Obi-Wan and severs Anakin's right arm. Dooku uses Force powers to divert Yoda and flees to Coruscant, where he delivers blueprints for a superweapon to his Sith master, Darth Sidious; as the Jedi acknowledge the beginning of the Clone Wars, Anakin secretly marries Padmé on Naboo. Ewan McGregor as Obi-Wan Kenobi: A Jedi Knight and mentor to his Padawan learner, Anakin Skywalker, who investigates the assassination attempt of Padmé which led him to discover the makings of a Clone Army. Natalie Portman as Senator Padmé Amidala: Former Queen of Naboo, elected the planet's Senator. Hayden Christensen as Anakin Skywalker: Obi-Wan's gifted Padawan apprentice, he is believed to be the "chosen one" of Jedi prophecy destined "to bring balance to the Force." In the 10 years since The Phantom Menace, he has grown powerful but arrogant, believes that Obi-Wan is holding him back. Ian McDiarmid as Chancellor Palpatine: A former Galactic Senator from Naboo, who amasses vast emergency powers upon the outbreak of the Clone Wars.
Christopher Lee as Count Dooku/Darth Tyranus: A former Jedi Master, now leader of the Separatist movement as Darth Tyranus, a suspect in Obi-Wan's investigation. Samuel L. Jackson as Mace Windu: A Jedi Maste
Star Wars Trilogy
The Star Wars Trilogy colloquially referred to as the original trilogy or the classic trilogy, is the first set of three films produced in the Star Wars franchise, an American space opera created by George Lucas. It was produced by Lucasfilm Ltd. and distributed by 20th Century Fox, consists of the original Star Wars film, The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi. The films follow the archetypical hero's journey of Luke Skywalker in his quest to become a Jedi and defeat the evil Empire; the original trilogy was followed by a prequel trilogy between 1999 and 2005, a sequel trilogy between 2015 and 2019. Collectively, they have been referred to as the "Skywalker saga" to distinguish them from spin-off films set within the same universe. In 1971, Lucas wanted to film an adaptation of the Flash Gordon serial, but couldn't obtain the rights, he began developing his own story inspired by the work of Edgar Rice Burroughs. After directing American Graffiti, Lucas wrote a two-page synopsis for his space opera, titled Journal of the Whills.
After United Artists, Universal Studios and Disney rejected the film, 20th Century Fox decided to invest in it. Lucas felt his original story was too difficult to understand, so on April 17, 1973, he began writing a 13-page script titled The Star Wars, sharing strong similarities with Akira Kurosawa's The Hidden Fortress. By 1974, he had expanded the script into the first draft of a screenplay, adding elements such as the Sith and the Death Star. Subsequent drafts evolved into the script of the original film. Lucas negotiated to retain the sequel rights. Tom Pollock Lucas' lawyer writes: "We came to an agreement that George would retain the sequel rights. Not all the that came mind you, and Fox would get a first opportunity and last refusal right to make the movie." Lucas was offered $50,000 to write, another $50,000 to produce, $50,000 to direct the film. American Graffiti cast member Harrison Ford had given up on acting to try to become a carpenter, until Lucas hired him to play Han Solo. Star Wars was released on May 25, 1977.
Its success led Lucas to make it the basis of an elaborate film serial. With the backstory he created for the sequel, Lucas decided that the series would be a trilogy of trilogies, with the original film retitled Star Wars: Episode IV – A New Hope for its 1981 rerelease. Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back was released on May 21, 1980, Episode VI: Return of the Jedi on May 25, 1983; the sequels were self-financed by Lucasfilm, advertised without the episodic number distinction present in their opening crawls. The plot of the original trilogy centers on the Galactic Civil War of the Rebel Alliance trying to free the galaxy from the clutches of the Empire, as well as on Luke Skywalker's quest to become a Jedi and his confrontation with the evil Darth Vader. A Rebel spaceship is intercepted by the Empire above the desert planet of Tatooine. Aboard, the deadliest Imperial warlord Darth Vader and his stormtroopers capture Princess Leia Organa, a secret member of the rebellion. Before her capture, Leia makes sure the droid R2-D2 will escape with stolen Imperial blueprints and a holographic message for the Jedi Knight Obi-Wan Kenobi, living in exile on Tatooine.
Along with C-3PO, R2-D2 falls under the ownership of Luke Skywalker, a farmboy, raised by his aunt and uncle. Luke helps the droids locate Obi-Wan, now a solitary old hermit known as Ben Kenobi, he reveals himself as a friend of Luke's absent father, Anakin Skywalker, Obi-Wan's Jedi apprentice until being murdered by Vader. He tells Luke he must become a Jedi. After discovering his family's homestead has been destroyed by the Empire, they hire the smuggler Han Solo, his Wookiee co-pilot Chewbacca and their space freighter, the Millennium Falcon, they discover that Leia's homeworld of Alderaan has been destroyed, are soon captured by the planet-destroying Death Star. While Obi-Wan disables its tractor beam and Han rescue the captive Princess Leia, they deliver the Death Star plans to the Rebel Alliance with the hope of exploiting a weakness, launch an attack on the Death Star. The first rough draft, titled The Star Wars, introduced "the Force" and the young hero Luke Starkiller. Annikin appeared as a wise Jedi knight.
Between drafts, Lucas read Joseph Campbell's The Hero with a Thousand Faces, was surprised to find that his story "was following classical motifs." The third draft replaced Annikin with Ben Kenobi. Some months Lucas had negotiated a contract that gave him rights to two sequels. Lucas hired Alan Dean Foster, ghostwriting the novelization of the first film, to write them—with the main creative restriction that they could be filmed on a low budget. By 1976, a fourth draft had been prepared for principal photography; the film was titled The Adventures of Luke Starkiller, as taken from the Journal of the Whills, Saga I: The Star Wars. During production, Lucas changed Luke's name to Skywalker and shortened the title to The Star Wars, just Star Wars. At that point, Lucas was not expecting the film to warrant full-scale sequels; the fourth draft of the script underwent subtle changes to become a self-contained story ending with the destruction of the Empire in the Death Star. The intention was that if the film was successful, Lucas could adapt Foster's novels into low-budget sequels.
By that point, Lucas had developed a tentative backstory to aid in developing the saga. Star Wars exceeded all expectations; the success of the film and its merchandise sales led Lucas to make Star Wars the basis of an elaborate film serial, use the profits to finance his filmmaking center, Skyw