United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Clark County, Missouri
Clark County is a county located in the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the county's population was 7,139, its county seat is Kahoka. The county was organized December 16, 1836 and named for William Clark, leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition and Governor of Missouri Territory. Clark County is part of the Fort Madison -- IA-IL-MO Micropolitan Statistical Area. Missouri folklorist Margot Ford McMillen wrote that early settlers were attracted by Clark County's good and inexpensive agricultural land. One section was called "Bit Nation" because land was sold there for just twelve and one-half cents an acre. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 512 square miles, of which 505 square miles is land and 7.1 square miles is water. Van Buren County, Iowa Lee County, Iowa Hancock County, Illinois Lewis County Knox County Scotland County U. S. Route 61 U. S. Route 136 Route 27 Route 81 Great River National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2010, there were 7,139 people, 2,966 households, 2,079 families residing in the county.
The population density was 15 people per square mile. There were 3,483 housing units at an average density of 7 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.83% White, 0.07% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.07% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, 0.61% from two or more races. 0.70% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,966 households out of which 30.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.70% were married couples living together, 7.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.90% were non-families. 26.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.95. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.00% under the age of 18, 7.80% from 18 to 24, 25.50% from 25 to 44, 25.00% from 45 to 64, 16.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years.
For every 100 females, there were 97.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,457, the median income for a family was $36,270. Males had a median income of $27,279 versus $19,917 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,988. About 10.80% of families and 14.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.70% of those under age 18 and 12.70% of those age 65 or over. Clark County R-I School District – Kahoka Running Fox Elementary School Black Hawk Elementary School Clark County Middle School Clark County High School Luray School District No. 33 – Luray Luray Elementary School Shiloh Christian School – Kahoka – Nondenominational Christianity Northeast Missouri Library Service The Republican Party controls politics at the local level in Clark County. As of 2018, Republicans hold nine of fourteen of the elected positions in the county. All of Clark County is included in Missouri’s 4th District in the Missouri House of Representatives and is represented by Craig Redmon.
All of Clark County is a part of Missouri’s 18th District in the Missouri Senate and is represented by Brian Munzlinger. All of Clark County is included in Missouri’s 6th Congressional District and is represented by Sam Graves in the U. S. House of Representatives. Former U. S. Senator Hillary Clinton received more votes, a total of 554, than any other candidate from either party in Clark County during the 2008 presidential primary. Alexandria Kahoka Wayland Wyaconda Luray Revere St. Francisville Athens St. Patrick Waterloo Clay Des Moines Folker Grant Jackson Jefferson Lincoln Madison Sweet Home Union Vernon Washington Wyaconda National Register of Historic Places listings in Clark County, Missouri "Guide to Clark County Missouri" records Digitized 1930 Plat Book of Clark County from University of Missouri Division of Special Collections and Rare Books
Lee County, Iowa
Lee County, was established in 1836. As of the 2010 census, the population was 35,862, it has two county seats -- Keokuk. Lee County is part of the Fort Madison -- IA-IL-MO Micropolitan Statistical Area. Fort Madison dates to the War of 1812. Lee County was the location of the Half-Breed Tract, established by treaty in 1824. Allocations of land were made to American Indian descendants of European fathers and Indian mothers at this tract; the land was to be held in common. Some who had an allocation lived in cities. Lee County as a named entity was formed on December 7, 1836, under the jurisdiction of Wisconsin Territory, it would become a part of Iowa Territory when it was formed on July 4, 1838. Large-scale European-American settlement in the area began in 1839, after Congress allowed owners to sell land individually. Members of the Church of Christ fled persecutions in Missouri to settle in Iowa. Nauvoo, across the border in Hancock County, became the main center of Latter-day Saints settlement, but there was a Latter Day Saints stake organized in Lee County under the direction of John Smith, the uncle of Joseph Smith, land, sold to them by Isaac Galland in 1839.
Lee has two county seats -- Keokuk. The latter was established in 1847. Lee County's population grew to about 19,000 in 1850, the first US census, to 37,000 per the 3rd census in 1870, peaking at 44,000 people in 1960, it has continuously decreased since and as of 2010, 35,862 people lived there, comparable to the years between 1860 and 1870. There is no agreement about the derivation of the name "Lee." It has been variously proposed that the county was named for Marsh, Delevan & Lee, of Albany, New York, the'New York Land Company', who owned extensive interests in the Half-Breed Tract in the 1830s. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 539 square miles, of which 518 square miles is land and 21 square miles is water; the lowest point in the state of Iowa is located on the Mississippi River in Keokuk in Lee County, where it flows out of Iowa and into Missouri and Illinois. U. S. Highway 61 U. S. Highway 136 U. S. Highway 218 Iowa Highway 2 Iowa Highway 16 Iowa Highway 27 Lee County is surrounded by Henry County to the north, Des Moines County to the northeast, Henderson County, across the river east, Hancock County, Illinois to the southeast, Clark County, Missouri in the southwest and Van Buren County, Iowa in the west.
As of the census of 2000, there were 38,052 people, 15,161 households, 10,248 families residing in the county. The population density was 74 people per square mile. There were 16,612 housing units at an average density of 32 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.24% White, 2.80% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.39% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.03% from other races, 1.21% from two or more races. 2.37% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 15,161 households out of which 30.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.70% were married couples living together, 10.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.40% were non-families. 28.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.40% under the age of 18, 7.80% from 18 to 24, 26.70% from 25 to 44, 24.60% from 45 to 64, 16.50% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,193, the median income for a family was $42,658. Males had a median income of $32,286 versus $21,821 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,430. About 7.10% of families and 9.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.60% of those under age 18 and 9.60% of those age 65 or over. The 2010 census recorded a population of 35,862 with a population density of 69.3133/sq mi. There were 16,205 housing units. Denmark Argyle Charleston Croton New Boston Pilot Grove Wever The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Lee County.† county seat Cleng Peerson, pioneer settler in Lee County in 1840 Richard Proenneke, subject of books and documentary William Elliott Whitmore and songwriter In recent presidential elections, Lee County had a strong Democratic lean, voting for the party's candidate in every election from 1984 to 2012.
In 2016 however, the county swung hard to vote for Republican Donald Trump by a wide margin, a swing of over 31 points compared to 2012. National Register of Historic Places listings in Lee County, Iowa Lee County Courthouse in use in Fort Madison and oldest courthouse Lee County Courthouse in use in Keokuk a Federal courthouse and post office Lee County government's website
Illinois's 18th congressional district
The 18th Congressional District of Illinois covers central and western Illinois, including all of Jacksonville and Quincy and parts of Bloomington and Springfield. Republican Aaron Schock had represented the district since January 2009, but resigned March 31, 2015. Special elections were called to select Schock's replacement, with a primary on July 7 and the main election on September 10, 2015. Republican State Senator Darin LaHood, son of former Rep. Ray LaHood, won the special election and reelection in 2016 and 2018. Abraham Lincoln served much of the area, it contains most of the territory, represented by future United States Senate Minority Leader Everett Dirksen and longtime House Minority Leader Bob Michel. From 1949 to 2015, the district was represented by someone who either attended or graduated from Bradley University; the district covers parts of McLean, Sangamon and Tazewell counties, all of Adams, Cass, Logan, Mason, McDonough, Morgan, Schuyler and Woodford counties, as of the 2011 redistricting which followed the 2010 census.
All or parts of Bloomington, Jacksonville, Macomb, Normal, Peoria and Springfield are included. The representatives for these districts were elected in the 2012 primary and general elections, the boundaries became effective on January 5, 2013. * Write-in and minor candidate notes: In 1994, write-ins received 955 votes. In 1998, write-ins received 2 votes. In 2008, Green Party candidate Sheldon Schafer received 9,857 votes. In 2010, Schafer received 11,256 votes. Ray LaHood decided not to seek re-election in 2008 and was chosen by Barack Obama to serve as U. S. Secretary of Transportation. Illinois State Representative Aaron Schock of Peoria won the seat for the Republicans in the November 4, 2008 election, his main opponent was Democrat Colleen Callahan, of a radio and television broadcaster. Green Party candidate and educator Sheldon Schafer, of Peoria, was in a distant third place on the ballot; as of January 2017, two former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Illinois's 18th congressional district are alive.
Illinois's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present 2006 election from The Washington Post 18th District census profile, 2006 18th District Fact Sheet from the United States Census Bureau "U. S. Census Bureau - 18th District map". Campaign contributions from OpenSecrets.org
Fort Madison, Iowa
Fort Madison is a city and a county seat of Lee County, United States along with Keokuk. Of Iowa's 99 counties, Lee County is the only one with two county seats; the population was 11,051 at the 2010 census. Located along the Mississippi River in the state's southeast corner, it lies between small bluffs along one of the widest portions of the river. Fort Madison was founded at the location of the first U. S. military fort in the upper Mississippi region. A replica of the fort stands along the river. Sheaffer Pens were made in Fort Madison for many years; the city is the location of the Iowa State Penitentiary—the state's maximum security prison for men. Fort Madison is the Mississippi river station stop for Amtrak's Southwest Chief. Fort Madison has the last remaining double swing-span bridge on the Mississippi River, the Fort Madison Toll Bridge, it has a similar level for trains. The Fort Madison Downtown Commercial Historic District is a collection of well-preserved historic storefronts from the late 19th century.
Along with this is the Park-to-Park Residential Historic District. The Historic Park to Park District is a seven block long, three block wide section of homes that represent the Gothic and Tudor era. With a rich variety of architectural styles like Gothic Revival, Second Empire, Eastlake Stick, Richardson Romanesque, Queen Anne, Tudor. With two of the six parks within the District, it is on the National Historic Registry. The city of Fort Madison was established around the site of the historic Fort Madison, the first permanent U. S. military fortification on the Upper Mississippi. Fort Madison was the site of Black Hawk's first battle against U. S. troops, the only real War of 1812 battle fought west of the Mississippi. It was the location of the first U. S. military cemetery in the upper Midwest. The fort was named for James Madison, fourth President of the United States. Fort Madison was one of three posts established by the U. S. Army to establish control over the newly acquired Louisiana Purchase territories.
Fort Madison was built to control trade and pacify Native Americans in the Upper Mississippi River region. The other two posts were Fort Belle Fontaine near St. Louis, which controlled the mouth of the Missouri, Fort Osage, near what is now Kansas City, which controlled trade with western Native American tribes. A disputed 1804 treaty with the Sauk and affiliated tribes led to the U. S. claim of parts of what is now Iowa. To establish control, the U. S. Army set out to construct a post near the mouth of the Des Moines River, a major trading route into the interior of Iowa. Not finding suitable land near the mouth of the Des Moines, the expedition considered land near Quashquame's Sauk and Meskwaki village at the head of the Des Moines Rapids, a choke point of trade and transportation on the Upper Mississippi below modern Montrose. Again, this land was not considered suitable for a fort; the Army settled on a location several miles upstream at. First called Fort Belleview, this post was soon deemed inadequate.
It was poorly situated at the base of a bluff next to a deep ravine, areas from which enemies could safely fire at the fort. Trade led to resentment among so-called "Indians," the Sauk. Black Hawk lamented over the new fort, disparaged its construction in his autobiography: A number of people went down to see what was going on, myself among them. On our arrival we found; the soldiers were busily engaged in cutting timber, I observed that they took their arms with them when they went to the woods. The whole party acted; the chiefs held a council with the officers, or head men of the party, which I did not attend, but understood from them that the war chief had said that they were building homes for a trader, coming there to live, would sell us goods cheap, that the soldiers were to remain to keep him company. We were pleased at this information and hoped that it was all true, but we were not so credulous as to believe that all these buildings were intended for the accommodation of a trader. Being distrustful of their intentions, we were anxious for them to leave off building and go back down the river.
—Black Hawk, Autobiography Almost from the beginning, the fort was attacked by Sauk and other tribes. U. S. troops were harassed when they left the fort, in April 1809 an attempted storming of the fort was stopped only by threat of cannon fire. During its existence, several improvements were made to the fort, including reinforcing the stockade and making it higher, extending the fort to a nearby bluff to provide cover from below, constructing of additional blockhouses outside the stockade; these improvements could not compensate for the poor location of the fort, it was again attacked in March 1812, was the focus of a coordinated siege in the following September. The September siege was intense, the fort was nearly overrun. Significant damage resulted to fort-related buildings, the attack was only stopped when cannon fire destroyed a fortified Indian position. Black Hawk participated in the siege, claimed to have shot the fort's flag down; as the War of 1812 expanded to the frontier, British-allied Sauk and other tribes began a determined effort to push out the Americans and reclaim control of the upper Mississippi.
Beginning in July 1813, attacks on troops outside the fort led to anot
Abraham Lincoln was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War, its bloodiest war and its greatest moral and political crisis, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, modernized the U. S. economy. Born in Kentucky, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in a poor family. Self-educated, he became Whig Party leader, state legislator and Congressman, he left government to resume his law practice, but angered by the success of Democrats in opening the prairie lands to slavery, reentered politics in 1854. He became a leader in the new Republican Party and gained national attention in 1858 for debating and losing to national Democratic leader Stephen A. Douglas in a Senate campaign, he ran for President in 1860, sweeping the North and winning. Southern pro-slavery elements took his win as proof that the North was rejecting the Constitutional rights of Southern states to practice slavery.
They began the process of seceding from the union. To secure its independence, the new Confederate States of America fired on Fort Sumter, one of the few U. S. forts in the South. Lincoln called up volunteers and militia to restore the Union; as the leader of the moderate faction of the Republican Party, Lincoln confronted Radical Republicans, who demanded harsher treatment of the South. Lincoln fought the factions by pitting them against each other, by distributing political patronage, by appealing to the American people, his Gettysburg Address became an iconic call for nationalism, equal rights and democracy. He suspended habeas corpus, he averted British intervention by defusing the Trent Affair. Lincoln supervised the war effort, including the selection of generals and the naval blockade that shut down the South's trade; as the war progressed, he maneuvered to end slavery, issuing the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. Lincoln managed his own re-election campaign, he sought to reconcile his damaged nation by avoiding retribution against the secessionists.
A few days after the Battle of Appomattox Court House, he was shot by John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confederate sympathizer, on April 14, 1865, died the following day. Abraham Lincoln is remembered as the United States' martyr hero, he is ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents. Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, as the second child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville, Kentucky, he was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk, to its namesake Hingham, Massachusetts, in 1638. Samuel's grandson and great-grandson began the family's westward migration, passing through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincoln's paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Kentucky, in the 1780s. Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786, his children, including eight-year-old Thomas, Abraham's father, witnessed the attack.
Thomas worked at odd jobs in Kentucky and in Tennessee, before settling with members of his family in Hardin County, Kentucky, in the early 1800s. Lincoln's mother, Nancy, is assumed to have been the daughter of Lucy Hanks, although no record documents this. Thomas and Nancy married on June 12, 1806, in Washington County, moved to Elizabethtown, Kentucky, they produced three children: Sarah, born on February 10, 1807. Thomas Lincoln leased farms in Kentucky. Thomas became embroiled in legal disputes, lost all but 200 acres of his land in court disputes over property titles. In 1816, the family moved to Indiana, where the survey process was more reliable and land titles were more secure. Indiana was a "free" territory, they settled in an "unbroken forest" in Hurricane Township, Perry County. In 1860, Lincoln noted that the family's move to Indiana was "partly on account of slavery", but due to land title difficulties. In Kentucky and Indiana, Thomas worked as a farmer and carpenter, he owned farms, town lots and livestock, paid taxes, sat on juries, appraised estates, served on country slave patrols, guarded prisoners.
Thomas and Nancy were members of a Separate Baptists church, which forbade alcohol and slavery. Overcoming financial challenges, Thomas obtained clear title to 80 acres of land in what became known as the Little Pigeon Creek Community. On October 5, 1818, Nancy Lincoln died of milk sickness, leaving 11-year-old Sarah in charge of a household that included her father, 9-year-old Abraham, Dennis Hanks, Nancy's 19-year-old orphaned cousin; those who knew Lincoln recalled that he was distraught over his sister's death on January 20, 1828, while giving birth to a stillborn son. On December 2, 1819, Thomas married Sarah "Sally" Bush Johnston, a widow from Elizabethtown, with three children of her own. Abraham became close to his stepmother, whom he referred t
Military Tract of 1812
On May 6, 1812, an act of Congress was passed 2 Stat. 729 which set aside bounty lands as payment to volunteer soldiers for the War against the British. The land was set aside in western territories that became part of the present states of Arkansas and Illinois. However, lands in Missouri were substituted for those in Michigan, due to a report by the surveyor-general of the United States, Edward Tiffin, which quite misleadingly described the land in Michigan, set aside for this purpose as undesirable. Other acts of Congress, until 1855, continued to address the needs of soldiers wishing to redeem their bounty land warrants and efforts continued to try to provide suitable land area for these soldiers; the term bounty land is somewhat self-explanatory. Tracts of land were given outright by the states, by the federal government as partial compensation for service in times of military conflict; such bounty was occasionally used by the government to incite men to serve in war or conflicts. Bounty land warrants were issued from the colonial period until 1858, when the program was discontinued, five years in 1863, the rights to locate and take possession of bounty lands ceased.
Military land bounties were offered by the United States Government in the early national period to attract men into the Army or to reward soldiers for their services. Warrants were issued to the men for these bounties; the great bulk of early bounty land at the time of the Revolution was in Virginia, as it existed in colonial times. Since Virginia provided the great bulk of fighting men in the Revolution, the first bounty lands were to be located between the Mississippi and Green Rivers in what is now Kentucky. However, this area did not provide enough land, the Virginia Military Tract was established, in what is now the state of Ohio. Continental Army soldiers from Virginia were the only group allowed to settle in the Ohio area, while state soldiers were to use the lands in Kentucky; the United States Military District was a 2,500,000-acre tract in eastern Ohio established by the Federal Government in 1796 for bounties to soldiers from other states. One of the three districts created to meet the warrants given in the War of 1812, "The Tract" was within a triangle of the Illinois Territory between the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.
This area was included with Illinois' territory upon the achievement of statehood in 1818. The Southern Boundary is the confluence of the Illinois and Mississippi rivers, near Grafton 25 miles northwest of downtown St. Louis, MO and about 20 miles upstream from the confluence of the Missouri River and the Mississippi at Hartford; the Northern Boundary, is a line 90 miles north of the Base Line, established with the Fourth Principal Meridian in 1815. This northern boundary line begins 6 miles south of downtown Muscatine, IA at the Mississippi River and extends for 90 miles East to the Illinois River near Hennepin in Putnam County; the Tract’s northern boundary line forms the southern border line of Rock Island County. The Illinois tract, surveyed in 1815-1816, contained more than 5,000,000 acres, of which 3,500,000 acres were deemed fit for cultivation and set aside for military bounties. Comprising 207 entire townships, each six miles square, 61 fractional townships, the tract included present Illinois counties of Adams, Calhoun, Hancock, Knox, McDonough, Peoria, Schuyler and Warren Counties.
It includes part of Henry and Bureau Counties, those parts of Marshall and Putnam which are on the west side of the Illinois River. Soldiers of the War of 1812, who received 160 acres each, were required to locate their warrants by lottery. Most soldiers or their heirs decided, against moving great distances to take up their claims. Instead, they sold their warrants to speculators. One company alone acquired 900,000 acres; such large-scale land holdings aroused frontier hostility against absentee speculators. Squatters settled upon the lands, ignoring rights. Many speculators were unable to realize a quick profit and, faced with ever-increasing taxation, lost their titles or sold their lands at a loss of money; the tract was opened to settlement. Warrants for land were issued by the government. Many of these land grants can be found by searching Illinois Public Land Sales. For an explanation of the way the land in these grants are surveyed, see Public Land Survey System; the General Land Office issued over 17,000 patents in the Illinois Military Tract between October 1817 and January 1819.
No one has determined the number of War of 1812 veterans who moved to their free land in the Illinois, Arkansas or Missouri military tracts. Over 60% of these patents were issued in the Illinois Military Tract. After the organization of the Illinois state government in 1818, the state began to sell these lands for taxes, for a considerable period the principal revenue of the state was derived from this source; the greater portion of these lands thus went into possession of parties who held them under these tax titles. The grantees of the soldiers, who were the original patentees, brought suit for ejectment and much of the court business of pioneer days was given over to tax titles. Final adjustment of the claims was made only after years of litigation, a supreme court decision and much legislation; the white population of Illinois exploded after the War of 1812, exceeding 50,000 in 1820 and 150,000 in 1830. In 1828, the U. S. government liaison, Thomas Forsyth, informed the native Indi