Nadey S. Hakim is a British-Lebanese transplant surgeon and author. With over 30 years as a surgeon, Hakim has performed over 2,000 transplants, he was part of the team of surgeons. Hakim received his MD from Paris Descartes University in 1984, he did his surgical training at Guy's Hospital, received his PhD in small bowel transplantation from University College London. His Gastrointestinal Fellowship was at the Mayo Clinic and his Multi-organ Transplant Fellowship was at the University of Minnesota. Hakim began the first Pancreas Transplant Program in South East England. In 1995, Hakim performed the first pancreas transplant in London at St Mary's Hospital; the world's first hand transplant was performed in September 1998 by a team of surgeons including Hakim, who worked for St Mary's Hospital, London. The operation, done in Lyon, took 14 hours; the patient, Clint Hallam, failed to follow aftercare directions and asked that the hand be removed. Hakim amputated the hand in February 2001 in London.
Hakim took part in the first double arm transplant. He was awarded Honorary Professorships from Lyon University, Ricardo Palma University, Başkent University, University of São Paulo and was visiting professor at several institutions worldwide including Harvard University and the Cleveland Clinic. Hakim was appointed the first recipient of the Max Thorek Professorship of Surgery, he is Adjunct Professor of Transplantation Surgery at Imperial College London. Hakim was appointed as surgical director of the West London Renal and Transplant Centre at Hammersmith Hospital. There, he pioneered a kidney transplant technique using a record breaking 2.5 cm cut. Hakim scheduled a kidney transplant at the Cromwell Hospital, a private hospital, at the same time as a woman needing a kidney and pancreas transplant at the NHS Hammersmith Hospital on October 18, 2013. After his methods were called into question by surgeon Jeremy Crane, he was suspended in September 2014. Hakim was dismissed from his post at Hammersmith Hospital in February 2015 after a disciplinary process.
After a week-long trial, Judge Sarah Goodman ruled in Hakim's favor against Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, deciding that he had been unfairly dismissed because Imperial did not investigate the incident properly. The Employment Judge concluded that the dismissal was unfair because the investigation into the incident was incomplete, it did not set out the full facts and various important matters were not put to Professor Hakim before a decision was made, she further found. The disciplinary panel reached a view without testing whether the facts confirmed or disproved the conclusion and the actual risk to the patient had been overestimated; the Employment Judge referred to the decision as “on the face of it a hard decision to understand an employer making about an employee, productive, not easy to replace, with a long unblemished record of service, for running a risk that did not in fact materialise. At the Remedy Trial, Imperial College Healthcare was ordered to reinstate Hakim and to pay over £100,000 in compensation for loss of income.
He is in addition a Consultant Vascular Access Surgeon at Harefield and the Brompton Hospital NHS Trust seeing NHS patients. Hakim performed the first kidney transplant at the Garki Hospital in Abuja in November 2013. Hakim runs a private practice in Harley Street. Additionally, he is an advisor on transplant issues to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and an examiner for the Royal College of Surgeons of England. Hakim has edited 23 surgical textbooks and served as the 35th World President of the International College of Surgeons, he was awarded the Bailiff Grand Cross Order of St John of Jerusalem in 2010. Hakim is vice president of the Royal Society of Medicine. In January 2016, President Francois Hollande appointed Professor Hakim to the rank of Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur, he was elected Vice President of Conservative Health April 2016. Hakim was appointed Vice-President of the International Medical Sciences Academy. In June 2017 Hakim was appointed as President's Envoy of Imperial College London.
In March 2018, Hakim was appointed as Visiting Professor of Surgery at the University of Belgrade, Serbia. In addition to his surgical role, he was appointed Responsible Officer at the Medicare Francais, a London-based French medical centre. In April 2018, Professor Hakim was appointed as Ambassador to the All-party parliamentary group by the Rt Hon Keith Vaz MP. Hakim has four children. Plays the clarinet and records his music. Portrait sculptor and winner of the Baron's Prize, Medical Art Society 2016. In addition, Hakim reproduced Michelangelo Buonarroti’s David, part of the Madonna del Parto Museum collection; the sculpture had been sold at an auction to Alexander Temerko, a British-Ukrainian businessman, for £90,000, donated to the Carlton Club. He has created a bust of the world renowned Greek composer and multi-instrumentalist Vangelis, after having met him at a function in London sometime during 2016. Vangelis is said to have been surprised that Hakim should want to do this, but was delighted to accept the end result.
Sarr MG, Hakim NS. "Physiology of the Transplanted Intestine".. 1994 Hakim N, Danovitch G. "Transplantation Surgery".. 2001 Hakim N, Stratta R, Gray D. "Pancreas and Islet Transplantation".. 2002 Hakim NS, Papalois
Transplantable organs and tissues
Transplantable organs and tissues may both refer to organs and tissues that are often or transplanted, as well as seldom transplanted organs and tissues and ones on the experimental stage. Heart transplantation is performed on patients with end-stage heart failure or severe coronary artery disease; the most common procedure is to take a working heart from a deceased organ donor and implant it into the patient. The patient's own heart may either be removed or, less left in to support the donor heart, it is possible to take a heart from another species, or implant a man-made artificial one, although the outcome of these two procedures has been less successful in comparison to the far more performed allografts. While lung transplants carry certain associated risks, they can extend life expectancy and enhance the quality of life for end-stage pulmonary patients. While the precise details of surgery will depend on the exact type of transplant, there are many steps which are common to all of these procedures.
Prior to operating on the recipient, the transplant surgeon inspects the donor lung for signs of damage or disease. If the lung or lungs are approved the recipient is connected to an IV line and various monitoring equipment, including pulse oximetry; the patient will be given general anesthesia, a machine will breathe for him or her. It takes about one hour for the pre-operative preparation of the patient. A single lung transplant takes about four to eight hours, while a double lung transplant takes about six to twelve hours to complete. A history of prior chest surgery may require additional time. A heart-lung transplant is a procedure carried out to replace both heart and lungs in a single operation. Due to a shortage of suitable donors, it is a rare procedure; the patient is anesthetised. When the donor organs arrive, they are checked for fitness. In order to avoid removal of recipient organs when donor organs are not viable, it is standard procedure that the patient is not operated on until the donor organs arrive and are judged suitable, despite the time delay this involves.
Once suitable donor organs are present, the surgeon makes an incision starting above and finishing below the sternum, cutting all the way to the bone. The skin edges are retracted to expose the sternum. Using a bone saw, the sternum is cut down the middle. Rib spreaders are inserted in the cut, spread the ribs to give access to the heart and lungs of the patient; the patient is connected to a heart-lung machine, which oxygenates blood. The surgeon removes lungs. Most surgeons endeavour to cut blood vessels as close as possible to the heart to leave room for trimming if the donor heart is of a different size than the original organ; the donor heart and lungs are sewn into place. As the donor organs warm up to body temperature, the lungs begin to inflate; the heart may fibrillate at first - this occurs because the cardiac muscle fibres are not contracting synchronously. Internal paddles can be used to apply a small electric shock to the heart to restore proper rhythm. Once the donor organs are functioning the heart-lung machine is withdrawn, the chest is closed.
Kidney transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney in a patient with end-stage renal disease. Kidney transplantation is classified as deceased-donor or living-donor transplantation depending on the source of the recipient organ. Living-donor renal transplants are further characterized as genetically related or non-related transplants, depending on whether a biological relationship exists between the donor and recipient. Liver transplantation is the replacement of a diseased liver with a healthy liver allograft; the most used technique is orthotopic transplantation, in which the native liver is removed and the donor organ is placed in the same anatomic location as the original liver. Liver transplantation nowadays is a well accepted treatment option for end-stage liver disease and acute liver failure. A pancreas transplant involves implanting a healthy pancreas into a person; because the pancreas performs functions necessary in the digestion process, the recipient's native pancreas is left in place, the donated pancreas attached in a different location.
In the event of rejection of the new pancreas, the recipient could not survive without the native pancreas still in place. The healthy pancreas comes from a donor who has just died or it may be a partial pancreas from a living donor. Whole pancreas transplants from living donors are not possible, again because the pancreas is a necessary organ for digestion. At present, pancreas transplants are performed in persons with insulin-dependent diabetes who have severe complications. Small intestine transplantation is the rarest type of solid organ transplant. Half are pediatric recipients; the most common indications in adults are ischemia, Crohn's disease and desmoid tumor. Higher graft and patient survival rates are seen at the more experienced transplant programs. Within the last few years, 1-year graft and patient survival at more experienced centers have reached 60% to 70% and 65% to 80%, respectively. A face transplant is a still-experimental procedure
Jean-Michel Dubernard is a medical doctor specializing in transplant surgery, as well as a former Deputy in the French National Assembly. Dr. Dubernard is most famous for performing the first successful hand transplant on Clint Hallam on 23 September 1998, the first successful double hand transplant shortly thereafter, assisting Prof. Bernard Devauchelle in performing the first partial face transplant on Isabelle Dinoire on 27 November 2005. Www.handtransplant.org New York Times, December 6, 2005, "A Pioneering Transplant, Now an Ethical Storm" New York Times, December 3, 2005, "Dire Wounds, a New Face, a Glimpse in a Mirror"
Louisville is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Kentucky and the 29th most-populous city in the United States. It is one of two cities in Kentucky designated as first-class, the other being Lexington, the state's second-largest city. Louisville is the historical seat and, since 2003, the nominal seat of Jefferson County, located in the northern region of the state, on the border with Indiana. Louisville, named for King Louis XVI of France, was founded in 1778 by George Rogers Clark, making it one of the oldest cities west of the Appalachian Mountains. Sited beside the Falls of the Ohio, the only major obstruction to river traffic between the upper Ohio River and the Gulf of Mexico, the settlement first grew as a portage site, it was the founding city of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, which grew into a 6,000-mile system across 13 states. Today, the city is known as the home of legendary boxer Muhammad Ali, the Kentucky Derby, Kentucky Fried Chicken, the University of Louisville and its Louisville Cardinals athletic teams, Louisville Slugger baseball bats, three of Kentucky's six Fortune 500 companies, being Humana, Kindred Healthcare and Yum!
Brands. Its main airport is the site of United Parcel Service's worldwide air hub. Since 2003, Louisville's borders have been the same as those of Jefferson County, after a city-county merger; the official name of this consolidated city-county government is the Louisville/Jefferson County Metro Government, abbreviated to Louisville Metro. Despite the merger and renaming, the term "Jefferson County" continues to be used in some contexts in reference to Louisville Metro including the incorporated cities outside the "balance" which make up Louisville proper; the city's total consolidated population as of the 2017 census estimate was 771,158. However, the balance total of 621,349 excludes other incorporated places and semiautonomous towns within the county and is the population listed in most sources and national rankings; the Louisville-Jefferson County, KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area, sometimes referred to as Kentuckiana, includes Louisville-Jefferson County and 12 surrounding counties, seven in Kentucky and five in Southern Indiana.
As of 2017, the MSA had a population of 1,293,953. The history of Louisville spans hundreds of years, has been influenced by the area's geography and location; the rapids at the Falls of the Ohio created a barrier to river travel, as a result, settlements grew up at this stopping point. The first European settlement in the vicinity of modern-day Louisville was on Corn Island in 1778 by Col. George Rogers Clark, credited as the founder of Louisville. Several landmarks in the community are named after him. Two years in 1780, the Virginia General Assembly approved the town charter of Louisville; the city was named in honor of King Louis XVI of France, whose soldiers were aiding Americans in the Revolutionary War. Early residents lived in forts to protect themselves from Indian raids, but moved out by the late 1780s. In 1803, explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark organized their expedition across America in the town of Clarksville, Indiana at the present-day Falls of the Ohio opposite Louisville, Kentucky.
The city's early growth was influenced by the fact that river boats had to be unloaded and moved downriver before reaching the falls. By 1828, the population had grown to 7,000 and Louisville became an incorporated city. Early Louisville was slaves worked in a variety of associated trades; the city was a point of escape for slaves to the north, as Indiana was a free state. During this point in the 1850s, the city was growing and vibrant, but that came with negativity, it was the center of planning, supplies and transportation for numerous campaigns in the Western Theater. By the year 1855, ethnic tension was arising. Nobody knew. On August 6, 1855 "Bloody Monday" happened. By 1861, the civil war broke out. During the Civil War, Louisville was a major stronghold of Union forces, which kept Kentucky in the Union. By the end of the war, Louisville had not been attacked, although skirmishes and battles, including the battles of Perryville and Corydon, took place nearby. After Reconstruction, returning Confederate veterans took political control of the city, leading to the jibe that Louisville joined the Confederacy after the war was over.
The first Kentucky Derby was held on May 1875, at the Louisville Jockey Club track. The Derby was shepherded by Meriwether Lewis Clark, Jr. the grandson of William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, grandnephew of the city's founder George Rogers Clark. Horse racing had a strong tradition in Kentucky, whose Inner Bluegrass Region had been a center of breeding high-quality livestock throughout the 19th century. Ten thousand spectators watched the first Derby. On March 27, 1890, the city was devastated and its downtown nearly destroyed when an F4 tornado tore through as part of the middle Mississippi Valley tornado outbreak. An estimated 74 to 120 people were killed and 200 were injured; the damage cost the city $2.5 million. In 1914, the City of Louisville passed a racially-based zoning residential zoning code, following Baltimore, a handful of cities in the Carolinas; the NAACP challenged the ordinance in two cases. Two weeks after the ordinance enacted, an African-American named Arthur Harris moved into a house on a block designated for whites.
He was found guilty. The second case was planned to create a test case. William Warley, the president of the local chapter
The Poles referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture and are native speakers of the Polish language. The population of self-declared Poles in Poland is estimated at 37,394,000 out of an overall population of 38,538,000, of whom 36,522,000 declared Polish alone. A wide-ranging Polish diaspora exists throughout Europe, the Americas, in Australasia. Today the largest urban concentrations of Poles are within the Warsaw and Silesian metropolitan areas. Poland's history dates back over a thousand years, to c. 930–960 AD, when the Polans – an influential West Slavic tribe in the Greater Poland region, now home to such cities as Poznań, Kalisz and Września – united various Lechitic tribes under what became the Piast dynasty, thus creating the Polish state. The subsequent Christianization of Poland, in 966 CE, marked Poland's advent to the community of Western Christendom. Poles have made important contributions to the world in every major field of human endeavor.
Notable Polish émigrés – many of them forced from their homeland by historic vicissitudes – have included physicists Marie Skłodowska Curie and Joseph Rotblat, mathematician Stanisław Ulam, pianists Fryderyk Chopin and Arthur Rubinstein, actresses Helena Modjeska and Pola Negri, novelist Joseph Conrad, military leaders Tadeusz Kościuszko and Casimir Pulaski, U. S. National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski, politician Rosa Luxemburg, filmmakers Samuel Goldwyn and the Warner Brothers, cartoonist Max Fleischer, cosmeticians Helena Rubinstein and Max Factor. Slavs have been in the territory of modern Poland for over 1500 years, they organized into tribal units, of which the larger ones were known as the Polish tribes. In the 9th and 10th centuries the tribes gave rise to developed regions along the upper Vistula, the Baltic Sea coast and in Greater Poland; the last tribal undertaking resulted in the 10th century in a lasting political structure and state, one of the West Slavic nations. The concept which has become known as the Piast Idea, the chief proponent of, Jan Ludwik Popławski, is based on the statement that the Piast homeland was inhabited by so-called "native" aboriginal Slavs and Slavonic Poles since time immemorial and only was "infiltrated" by "alien" Celts, Baltic peoples and others.
After 1945 the so-called "autochthonous" or "aboriginal" school of Polish prehistory received official backing in Poland and a considerable degree of popular support. According to this view, the Lusatian Culture which archaeologists have identified between the Oder and the Vistula in the early Iron Age, is said to be Slavonic. In contrast, the critics of this theory, such as Marija Gimbutas, regard it as an unproved hypothesis and for them the date and origin of the westward migration of the Slavs is uncharted. Polish people are the sixth largest national group in the European Union. Estimates vary depending on source, though available data suggest a total number of around 60 million people worldwide. There are 38 million Poles in Poland alone. There are Polish minorities in the surrounding countries including, indigenous minorities in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and eastern Lithuania, western Ukraine, western Belarus. There are some smaller indigenous minorities in nearby countries such as Moldova.
There is a Polish minority in Russia which includes indigenous Poles as well as those forcibly deported during and after World War II. The term "Polonia" is used in Poland to refer to people of Polish origin who live outside Polish borders estimated at around 10 to 20 million. There is a notable Polish diaspora in the United States and Canada. France has a historic relationship with Poland and has a large Polish-descendant population. Poles have lived in France since the 18th century. In the early 20th century, over a million Polish people settled in France during world wars, among them Polish émigrés fleeing either Nazi occupation or Soviet rule. In the United States, a significant number of Polish immigrants settled in Chicago, Detroit, New Jersey, New York City, Pittsburgh and New England; the highest concentration of Polish Americans in a single New England municipality is in New Britain, Connecticut. The majority of Polish Canadians have arrived in Canada since World War II; the number of Polish immigrants increased between 1945 and 1970, again after the end of Communism in Poland in 1989.
In Brazil the majority of Polish immigrants settled in Paraná State. Smaller, but significant numbers settled in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Espírito Santo and São Paulo; the city of Curitiba has the second largest Polish diaspora in the world and Polish music and culture are quite common in the region. A recent large migration of Poles took place followi
The Richmond Times-Dispatch is the primary daily newspaper in Richmond, the capital of Virginia and the primary newspaper of record for the state of Virginia. The Times-Dispatch has the second-highest circulation of any Virginia newspaper, after Norfolk's The Virginian-Pilot. In addition to the Richmond area, the Times-Dispatch has substantial readership in Charlottesville and Waynesboro; as the primary paper of the state's capital, the Times-Dispatch serves as a newspaper of record for rural regions of the state that lack large local papers. The Times-Dispatch lists itself as "Virginia's News Leader" on its masthead. Although the Richmond Compiler published in Virginia's capitol beginning in 1815, merged with a newspaper called The Times, the Times and Compiler failed in 1853, despite an attempt of former banker James A. Cowardin and William H. Davis to revive it several years before. In 1850, Cowardin and Davis established a rival newspaper called the Richmond Dispatch, by 1852 the Dispatch bragged of having circulation three times as large as any other daily paper in the city, advertising dominated its front page.
Cowardin began his only term in the Virginia House of Delegates in 1853, but many thought the city's pre-eminent paper the Richmond Examiner. John Hammersley bought half of the newspaper company in 1859, continued as a joint publisher on the masthead until May 5, 1862, when no name appeared. By April 1861, the newspaper announced its circulation was “within a fraction of 13,000.” The newspaper had been staunchly pro-slavery since 1852, called Union soldiers "thieves and cut-throats". Most of its wartime issues are now available online. In 1864, Hammersley brought new presses from England, having run the Union blockade, although he sold half his interest to James W. Lewellen before his dangerous departure; the Richmond Daily Dispatch published its last wartime issue on April 1, 1865. However, it resumed publication on December 9, 1865, establishing a new office at 12th and Main Streets and accepting Henry K. Ellyson as part-owner as well as editor. By 1866, the Dispatch was one of five papers "carrying prestige from ante bellum days" published in Richmond.
Although the newspaper opposed the Ku Klux Klan, the Richmond Dispatch accepted Klan advertising in 1868, as it fought Congressional Reconstruction and the Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1868. However, it accepted the resulting state constitution as well as allowing Negroes on juries and in the legislature. Ellyson served as Richmond's mayor in 1870, selected by Richmond's city council appointed by Governor Gilbert C. Walker. After what some called the "Municipal War" because the prior appointed mayor George Chahoon refused to relinquish his office and mob violence and blockades, the Virginia Supreme Court declared Ellyson the mayor but awaited elections. After skullduggery concerning stolen ballots in the pro-Chahoon Jackson Ward and the election commission declared Ellyson the winner, he refused to serve under the resulting cloud, leading to yet another problematic election won by the Conservative Party candidate; the revived Dispatch opposed former Confederate General William Mahone and his Readjuster Party.
After James Cowardin died in 1882, his son Charles took the helm, the paper stopped supporting Negro rights, instead criticizing Del. John Mercer Langston with racial stereotypes. In 1886, Lewis Ginter founded the Richmond Daily Times. A year lawyer Joseph Bryan bought the Daily Times from Ginter, beginning the paper's long association with the Bryan family. Bryan and Ginter had helped revitalize the Tanner & Delany Engine Company, transforming it into the Richmond Locomotive Works, which had 800 employees by 1893 and built 200 locomotives per year. In 1890, the Daily Times changed its name to the Richmond Times. In 1896, Bryan launched the Evening Leader. In 1899, the evening Richmond News was founded. John L. Williams, owner of the Dispatch, bought the News in 1900. By 1903, it was obvious; that year and Bryan agreed to merge Richmond's main newspapers. The morning papers merged to become the Richmond Times-Dispatch under Bryan's ownership, while the evening papers merged to become The Richmond News Leader under Williams' ownership.
Bryan bought the News Leader in 1908, but died that year.. His son John Stewart Bryan had given up his own legal career in 1900 to become a reporter working for the Dispatch and helped found the Associated Press and became vice-president of the publishing company. Upon his father's death, John Stewart Bryan became owner and publisher of the two papers, but in 1914 sold a controlling interest in the Times-Dispatch to three families, he hired Douglas Southall Freeman as editor of the News Leader in 1915, remained in control until becoming President of the College of William and Mary in 1934. John Stewart Bryan but reacquired the Times-Dispatch in 1940 when the two papers' business interests merged to form Richmond Newspapers, in which Bryan held a 54-percent interest; that conglomeration is now known as Media Genera
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –