Fitzroy Football Club
The Fitzroy Football Club, nicknamed the Lions or the Roys, is an Australian rules football club formed in 1883 to represent the inner-Melbourne suburb of Fitzroy and was a foundation member club of the Victorian Football League on its inception in 1897. The club experienced some early success in the league and was the first club to win a VFL Grand Final, it achieved a total of eight VFL premierships between 1898 and 1944, more three VAFA promotions in 2009, 2012 and 2018. The club ran into financial difficulties in the 1980s after decades of poor on-field performance and was forced to merge its AFL playing operations with the Brisbane Bears at the end of the 1996 season to form the Brisbane Lions. Despite this, the club survived in its own right and the Fitzroy Football Club Ltd came out of administration in late 1998. For a brief time it experimented in partnerships with other semi professional and amateur clubs before incorporating the Fitzroy Reds to play in the Victorian Amateur Football Association.
Fitzroy resumed its original VFL-AFL identity through its continued use of their 1975–1996 VFL-AFL jumper, their theme song and their 1884–1966 home ground at the Brunswick Street Oval. Fitzroy began in the D1 section of the VAFA in 2009, since the club has achieved multiple promotions and the 2018 premiership to be playing in the Premier B division as of the 2019 season, it is notable for being one of only three clubs to have played in the VFA, VFL/AFL and VAFA competitions of Australian rules football. In 2015 Fitzroy fielded its first women's team under the name of Fitzroy-ACU in partnership with the Australian Catholic University. In 2016, Fitzroy-ACU fielded two women's teams in the Victorian Women's Football League VWFL. From 2017, all Fitzroy teams play in the VAFA with the women playing in the VAFA's inaugural women's competition; the Fitzroy Football Club was formed at a meeting at the Brunswick Hotel on 26 September 1883, at a time when Melbourne's population was increasing. The Victorian Football Association made changes to their rules, allowing Fitzroy to join as the seventh club in 1884, playing in the maroon and blue colours of the local Normanby Junior Football Club.
They became one of the most successful clubs, drawing large crowds to their home at the Brunswick Street Oval in Edinburgh Gardens, in the top four and winning the VFA premiership in 1895. Fitzroy's season-by-season records throughout its thirteen seasons at VFA level are given below.. In 1897, Fitzroy were one of the eight clubs who broke away from the VFA to form the Victorian Football League. Despite winning only four games and finishing sixth in the first season, the Maroons, as they were known, won the premiership the following year, winning the VFL's first "Grand Final" against Essendon. Fitzroy was the most successful club in the first 10 years of the VFL, winning four premierships and finishing runners-up on three occasions. Despite internal problems after the 1906 season which led to the players and set the club back for several seasons, the 1913 team won the flag after winning 16 of 18 matches in the home and away season, earning the nickname "Unbeatables". In contrast, the 1916 Fitzroy team only won 2 home and away matches and finished last in a competition reduced by the effects of World War I to four teams.
All four teams qualified for the finals, Fitzroy won their next three games to win one of the strangest VFL premierships. The Maroons won their seventh premiership in 1922, a year season which included four rough games against eventual runners-up Collingwood. However, after this their fortunes waned, they did not make the finals at all from 1925 to 1942. During this time, highlights for the club were individual achievements of their players Haydn Bunton, Sr. A source of controversy, lured to Fitzroy with an illegal £222 payment, subsequently not allowed to play in the 1930 season, Bunton became one of the game's greatest players, winning three Brownlow Medals while at Fitzroy. Brownlow Medals were won by Wilfred Smallhorn and Dinny Ryan, while Jack Moriarty set many goalkicking records, it was during this time. Football was less affected by World War II than it had been in 1916, by 1944 was starting to return to its normal level, it was in this year, under captain-coach Fred Hughson, that the Gorillas won their eighth VFL flag against Richmond in front of a capacity crowd at Junction Oval.
However, it was to be their last senior premiership, as the club, which became known as the Lions in 1957, entered one of the least successful periods any VFL/AFL club has had. The club finished in the bottom three 11 times in the 1960s and 1970s, including three wooden spoons in four years and going winless in 1964, but still continued to produce great individual players, including Brownlow Medallists Allan Ruthven and Kevin Murray. By the mid 1960s, Fitzroy's traditional home ground, the Brunswick Street Oval was in a state of disrepair. However, the ground managers were the Fitzroy Cricket Club; the Football Club had to pay the Cricket Club to use the ground. Despite pressure from the Lions and other VFL clubs, the Cricket Club refused to make the needed upgrades; the Fitzroy City Council, despite repeated requests from the Football Club refused to help rejecting the idea of a $400,000 loan to Fitzroy Football Club, a 40-year lease of the ground so they could make some repairs. The football club put forward various ideas to try and change the situation, i
Carlton Football Club
The Carlton Football Club, nicknamed the Blues, is a professional Australian rules football club based in Melbourne, Victoria. Founded in 1864 in Carlton, an inner suburb of Melbourne, the club competes in the Australian Football League, was one of the competition's eight founding member clubs in 1897; the club's headquarters and training facilities are located in Carlton at Princes Park, its traditional home ground, it plays its home matches at either Docklands Stadium or the Melbourne Cricket Ground. Carlton has been one of the AFL's most successful clubs, having won sixteen senior VFL/AFL premierships, equal with Essendon as the most of any club; the club has fielded a team in the AFL Women's league since its establishment in 2017. Carlton has had a long and successful history, winning the most premierships of any club in the VFL era. Together with fierce rivals Collingwood and Essendon, Carlton was considered to be one of the league's "Big Four" clubs, enjoys a healthy rivalry with all three others.
Since winning its last premiership in 1995, Carlton is experiencing its longest premiership drought, has finished bottom of the ladder the most of any club since the competition became known as the AFL. The Carlton Football Club was formed in July 1864. In the early days, Carlton became strong and having grown a large supporter base, it became a fierce rival to the Melbourne Football Club in early competition, including the South Yarra Challenge Cup, which it won in 1871. Carlton won four premierships during the pre-VFA era in the 1870s. In 1877, Carlton became one of the foundation clubs of the Victorian Football Association, was a comfortable winner of the premiership in the competition's inaugural season. Carlton was one of the first clubs to have a player worthy of the superstar tag: champion player George Coulthard, who played for Carlton between 1876 and 1882, was noted by The Australasian as'The grandest player of the day', he died of tuberculosis in 1883, aged 27. The club won one more VFA premiership, in 1887, but after that during the 1890s, the club went from one of the strongest clubs in the Association to one of the weaker, both on-field and off-field.
In spite of this, the club was invited to join the breakaway Victorian Football League competition in 1897. The club continued to struggle in early seasons of the new competition, finished seventh out of eight teams in each of its first five seasons. Carlton's fortunes improved in 1902; the Board elected the respected former Fitzroy footballer and Australian test cricketer Jack Worrall the secretary of the Carlton Cricket Club, to the same position at the football club. As secretary, Worrall took over the managing of the players, in what is now recognised as the first official coaching role in the VFL. Under Worrall's guidance in the latter part of the 1902 season, Carlton's on-field performances improved, in 1903 he led Carlton to the finals for the first time. Carlton built a strong reputation and financial position, was able to convince many great players to shift to the club from other clubs, or out of retirement. Worrall led the club to its first three VFL premierships, won consecutively, in 1906, 1907 and 1908.
Carlton became the first club in the VFL to win three premierships in a row, its win-loss record of 19–1 in the 1908 season was a record which stood for more than ninety years. N 1Following these premierships, Carlton went through a tumultuous period off-field; some players had become frustrated by low payments and hard training standards, responded by refusing to train or play matches. The club removed Worrall from the coaching role, after significant changes at board level after the 1909 season, Worrall left the club altogether. Many players who had supported Worrall left the club at the end of the season. In 1910, several players were suspected of having taken bribes to fix matches, with two players both found guilty and suspended for 99 matches. Despite this backdrop, Carlton continued its strong on-field form, reaching the 1909 and 1910 Grand Finals, but losing both. Carlton fell out of the finals in 1913, but returned in 1914 under coach Norm Clark, with many inexperienced players, to win back-to-back premierships in 1914 and 1915 VFL seasons.
Most football around the country was suspended during the height of World War I, but Carlton continued to compete in a VFL which featured, at its fewest, only four clubs. Altogether, between Jack Worrall's first Grand Final in 1904 and the peak of World War I in 1916, Carlton won five premierships and contested nine Grand Finals for one of the most successful times in the club's history; the only success which eluded the club was the Championship of Australia. Through the 1920s and the Great Depression of the 1930s, Carlton maintained a strong on-field presence; the club was a frequent finalist. However, premiership success did not follow, the club contested only three Grand Finals for just one premiership during this period, endured the second longest premiership drought in the club's history; the drought was broken with the club's sixth VFL premiership in 1938, when former Subiaco and South Melbourne champion Brighton Diggins was recruited
Richmond Football Club
The Richmond Football Club, nicknamed the Tigers, is a professional Australian rules football club playing in the Australian Football League, the sport's premier competition. Between its inception in Richmond, Melbourne in 1885 and 1907, the club competed in the Victorian Football Association, winning two premierships. Richmond joined the Victorian Football League in 1908 and has since won eleven premierships, most in 2017. Richmond's headquarters and training facilities are located at its original home ground, the Punt Road Oval, which sits adjacent to the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the club's playing home since 1965. Richmond traditionally wears a black guernsey with a yellow sash; the club is coached by Damien Hardwick and its current captain is Trent Cotchin. Five Richmond players have been inducted into the Australian Football Hall of Fame as "Legends" of the sport: Kevin Bartlett, Jack Dyer, Royce Hart, Kevin Sheedy and Ian Stewart. A short-lived football club named Richmond formed in 1860 with Tom Wills, one of the founders of Australian rules football, serving as its inaugural secretary and captain.
Wills' cousin H. C. A. Harrison captained Richmond in the early 1860s before moving to Geelong; this club has no continuity to the present club. A number of teams formed in Richmond during the game's rapid expansion in early 1880s. However, all played at a junior level and it was considered an anomaly that Richmond, one of Melbourne's most prominent suburbs, did not boast a senior side; the wait ended when the Richmond Football Club was formed at the Royal Hotel in Richmond on 20 February 1885. A successful application for immediate admission to the Victorian Football Association followed; the club shared the Punt Road Oval with the Richmond Cricket Club, one of the strongest cricket clubs in Australia, playing on the ground since 1856. At first the team wore blue guernseys and caps with yellow and black stripes in the style of the Richmond Cricket Club; the football club soon adopted black as its official colours. The team was variously called the "Richmondites", the "Wasps" or, most the "Tigers".
During the late 1880s, Richmond struggled to make an impression in the VFA, after a promising season in 1888, the club slipped backwards, in the process losing players to more successful sides. As the local economy slipped into severe depression in the early 1890s and the crowds began to dwindle, some of the VFA's strongest clubs began to agitate for a reform of the competition. Richmond was not considered part of this elite group, which voted as a bloc at VFA meetings. In 1896, Richmond walked off the field in a match against South Melbourne to protest the umpiring, in the season, the Tigers had their half-time score annulled against Essendon when it was discovered that they had too many men on the ground. In the closing three weeks of the season, Richmond's cut of the gate takings amounted to just five pounds, they finished the season with the wooden spoon. In October 1896, the cabal of six strong clubs broke with the association to form the Victorian Football League; as a struggling club with a poor following, Richmond was not invited to join the new league.
Richmond's performances did not improve in the emaciated VFA until the turn of the century. The Tigers were boosted by a significant country recruit in 1901. George "Mallee" Johnson was the first true star player at the club. Richmond leapt to third place and in 1902, with Johnson dominating the ruck, Richmond entered the closing weeks of the season neck and neck with Port Melbourne at the head of the ladder, but Port Melbourne faltered against Williamstown to hand Richmond its first flag. Having missed a potential bonanza from a premiership play-off, the VFA decided to emulate the VFL and introduce a finals series in 1903, a fateful decision for the Tigers. After recruiting the competition's leading goalkicker, Jack Hutchinson, finishing the season as minor premier, Richmond lost both finals and were runner-up; the following season, the club became embroiled in a feud with umpire Allen, whom the Tigers accused of failing to curb field invasions or the dubious tactics of arch-rival North Melbourne.
When the two clubs were scheduled to meet in the 1904 VFA Grand Final, Richmond announced that they wouldn't play with Allen as umpire. The VFA called Richmond's bluff, appointed Allen as umpire for the match, meaning that the Grand Final was scratched and North Melbourne won the premiership on forfeit. Richmond were now at odds with the VFA, matters failed to improve in the next few years; the club was campaigning against violence, ungentlemanly conduct and poor sportsmanship, issues that plagued the VFA to a far greater extent than the rival VFL since the 1896 split. Richmond cultivated links with some VFL clubs by playing. Richmond knew that they were a major asset to the VFA, had built up a large following and played on one of the best grounds in the competition, where they remained unbeaten for five years. In 1905, Richmond confirmed their status with a second premiership, this time overcoming bitter rivals North Melbourne, "Mallee" Johnson had moved to Carlton, but youngster Charlie Ricketts dominated the season and won plaudits among the pressmen, who voted him the best player in the VFA.
However, Ricketts was lost to the VFL and injury hit the club hard. In 1906–07, the Tigers played finals without looking to win the flag; the club earned a rebuke from the VFA for scheduling a practice match against Geelong before the 1907 season went ahead with the commitment and earned further censure. La
A football is a ball inflated with air, used to play one of the various sports known as football. In these games, with some exceptions, goals or points are scored only when the ball enters one of two designated goal-scoring areas; the first balls were made of natural materials, such as an inflated pig bladder put inside a leather cover, which has given rise to the American slang-term "pigskin". Modern balls are designed by teams of engineers to exacting specifications, with rubber or plastic bladders, with plastic covers. Various leagues and games use different balls, though they all have one of the following basic shapes: a sphere: used in association football and Gaelic football a prolate spheroid either with rounded ends: used in the rugby codes and Australian football or with more pointed ends: used in American football and Canadian footballThe precise shape and construction of footballs is specified as part of the rules and regulations; the oldest football still in existence, thought to have been made circa 1550, was discovered in the roof of Stirling Castle, Scotland, in 1981.
The ball is made of a pig's bladder. It has a diameter of between 14–16 cm, weighs 125 g and is on display at the Smith Art Gallery and Museum in Stirling. In the United States and Canada, the term football refers to a ball made of cow hide leather, required in professional and collegiate football. Footballs used in recreation and in organized youth leagues may be made of rubber or plastic materials. Since 1941, Horween Leather Company has been the exclusive supplier of leather for National Football League footballs; the arrangement was established by Arnold Horween, who had played and coached in the NFL. Horween Leather Company supplies leather to Spalding, supplier of balls to the Arena Football League. Leather panels are tanned to a natural brown color, required in professional leagues and collegiate play. At least one manufacturer uses leather, tanned to provide a "tacky" grip in dry or wet conditions. White footballs have been used in games played at night so that the ball can be seen more however, improved artificial lighting conditions have made this no longer necessary.
At most levels of play, white stripes are painted on each end of the ball, halfway around the circumference, to improve nighttime visibility and to differentiate the college football from the pro football. However, the NFL once explored the usage of white-striped footballs – in Super Bowl VIII. In the CFL the stripes traverse the entire circumference of the ball; the UFL used a ball with lime-green stripes. The XFL used a novel color pattern, a black ball with red curved lines in lieu of stripes, for its footballs. A ball with red and blue panels was introduced in the American Indoor Football League in 2005 and used by its successors, as well as the Ultimate Indoor Football League of the early 2010s and the Can-Am Indoor Football League during its lone season in 2017. Footballs used in gridiron-style games have prominent points on both ends; the shape is credited to official Hugh "Shorty" Ray, who introduced the new ball in 1934 as a way to make the forward pass more effective. Law 2 of the game specifies that the ball is an air-filled sphere with a circumference of 68–70 cm, a weight of 410–450 g, inflated to a pressure of 0.6 to 1.1 atmospheres "at sea level", covered in leather or "other suitable material".
The weight specified for a ball is the dry weight, as older balls became heavier in the course of a match played in wet weather. There are a number of different types of football balls depending on the match and turf including: training footballs, match footballs, professional match footballs, beach footballs, street footballs, indoor footballs, turf balls, futsal footballs and mini/skills footballs. Most modern Association footballs are stitched from 32 panels of waterproofed leather or plastic: 12 regular pentagons and 20 regular hexagons; the 32-panel configuration is the spherical polyhedron corresponding to the truncated icosahedron. The first 32-panel ball was marketed by Select in the 1950s in Denmark; this configuration became common throughout Continental Europe in the 1960s, was publicised worldwide by the Adidas Telstar, the official ball of the 1970 World Cup. This design in referenced when describing the truncated icosahedron Archimedean solid, carbon buckyballs, or the root structure of geodesic domes.
The football used in Australian football is similar to a rugby ball but slightly smaller and more rounded at the ends, but more elongated in overall appearance, being longer by comparison with its width than a rugby ball. A regulation football is 720–730 millimetres in circumference, 545–555 mm transverse circumference, inflated to a pressure of 62–76 kPa. In the AFL, the balls are red for day matches and yellow for night matches; the first games of Australian football were played with a round ball, because balls of that shape were more available. In 1860, Australian football pioneer Tom Wills argued that the oval rugby ball travelled further in the air and made for a more exciting game, it became customary in Australian footba
Victorian Football League
The Victorian Football League is the major state-level Australian rules football league in Victoria. The league evolved from the former Victorian Football Association, has been known by its current name since 1996. For historical purposes, the present VFL is sometimes referred to as the VFA/VFL, to distinguish it from the present day Australian Football League, known until 1990 as the Victorian Football League and is sometimes referred to as the VFL/AFL; the VFA was formed in 1877 and is the second-oldest Australian rules football league, replacing the loose affiliation of clubs, the hallmark of the early years of the game. Serving a administrative function, the VFA premiership served as the top level of club competition in Victoria until 1896; the VFA became the secondary level of club competition from 1897 after its eight strongest clubs seceded to form the VFL. From 1897 until 1995, the VFA remained independent from the VFL as Victoria's secondary senior club competition. Although always much less popular than the VFL/AFL, the VFA enjoyed peaks of popularity in the 1940s with a faster-paced rival code of rules, in the 1970s bolstered by playing on Sundays at a time when the VFL was played on Saturdays.
Since 1995, the league has been administered by AFL Victoria, serves as one of the second-tier regional Australian semi-professional competitions which sits underneath the professional Australian Football League. From the 2018 season it will comprise 15 teams from throughout Victoria, nine of which have a continuous VFA heritage. Since 2000, the VFL has served as a reserves competition for the AFL, with some Victorian-based clubs fielding their reserves teams in the VFL and others affiliated such that their reserves player can play in VFL teams. AFL Victoria operates a women's football competition under the Victorian Football League brand, known as the VFL Women's, established in 2016; the Victorian Football Association was founded on 17 May 1877 at the meeting of club secretaries preceding the 1877 season. It was formed out of a desire to provide a formal administrative structure to the governance of the sport, it had the power to impose binding decisions on its members on matters including the Laws of the Game, player eligibility and other disputes, as well as to facilitate intercolonial football.
Decisions were made based on a vote of the Board of Management, composed of two delegates from each senior club, a structure, retained until the late 1980s. It replaced a system under which the secretaries of the senior clubs met at the beginning of each year to decide on matters of mutual interest, but the system was informal and disputes went unresolved; the five foundation senior clubs in the Melbourne metropolitan area were Albert-park, Hotham, Melbourne and St Kilda. Provincial clubs were eligible for senior representation on the Association though most played matches against the metropolitan teams. There was no formal system of promotion and relegation between the senior and junior levels, with it at a club's discretion whether or not it joined the Association as a paying senior member; the affiliation fee for senior clubs was set at one guinea. Through the first decade of the VFA's existence, the structure of the football season did not change from the informal system which had evolved over previous years.
Setting of fixtures was the responsibility of club secretaries rather than the Association itself, in a typical season, a club could play against other VFA teams, non-VFA clubs, at odds against junior teams, in some seasons against intercolonial teams. Prior to the 1888 season, there was no formally endorsed system for awarding a VFA premiership: as had been the case since the early 1870s, the premier club was determined by public and press consensus, which by the mid-1880s was conventionally but informally understood to be the senior club which suffered the fewest losses during the season. Premierships won under this then-informal method are now considered official, consensus was uncontroversial. In 1888, the VFA first took responsibility for the onfield competition, introduced its first formal premiership system by adopting a system of premiership points; the Association's influence over the on-field competition grew, from 1894, the Association assumed responsibility for centrally setting the fixtures and standardising the number of games played by each team.
After the formal introduction of the premiership, the often-changeable collection of senior clubs in the VFA soon became settled at twelve premiership-eligible clubs: Carlton, Fitzroy, Geelong, North Melbourne, Port Melbourne, Richmond, St Kilda, South Melbourne and Williamstown. Three Ballarat-based clubs – Ballarat, Ballarat Imperial and South Ballarat – were voting members of the VFA through this time, but were not involved in the onfield premiership. During the 1890s, there was an off-field power struggle within the VFA between the stronger and weaker clubs, as the stronger clubs sought greater administrative control commensurate with their relative financial contribution to the game; this came to a hea
South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres, it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, fifth largest by population, it has a total of 1.7 million people, its population is the second most centralised in Australia, after Western Australia, with more than 77 percent of South Australians living in the capital, Adelaide, or its environs. Other population centres in the state are small. South Australia shares borders with all of the other mainland states, with the Northern Territory; the state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in greater Metropolitan Adelaide. Most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along River Murray; the state's colonial origins are unique in Australia as a settled, planned British province, rather than as a convict settlement.
Colonial government commenced on 28 December 1836, when the members of the council were sworn in near the Old Gum Tree. As with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages; the South Australian Company established a temporary settlement at Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, five months before Adelaide was founded. The guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield, employed by the New Zealand Company; the goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties and religious tolerance. Although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for numerous cultural festivals; the state's economy is dominated by the agricultural and mining industries. Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity and rock art in the Koonalda Cave on the Nullarbor Plain.
In addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited; the first recorded European sighting of the South Australian coast was in 1627 when the Dutch ship the Gulden Zeepaert, captained by François Thijssen and mapped a section of the coastline as far east as the Nuyts Archipelago. Thijssen named the whole of the country eastward of the Leeuwin "Nuyts Land", after a distinguished passenger on board; the coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders and Nicolas Baudin in 1802, excepting the inlet named the Port Adelaide River, first discovered in 1831 by Captain Collet Barker and accurately charted in 1836–37 by Colonel William Light, leader of the South Australian Colonization Commissioners"First Expedition' and first Surveyor-General of South Australia. The land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales. Although the new colony included two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and only a few intrepid explorers ventured this far west.
It took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. On 15 August 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834, which empowered His Majesty to erect and establish a province or provinces in southern Australia; the act stated that the land between 132° and 141° east longitude and from 26° south latitude to the southern ocean would be allotted to the colony, it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province; the Letters Patent, which used the enabling provisions of the South Australia Act 1834 to fix the boundaries of the Province of South Australia, provided that "nothing in those our Letters Patent shall affect or be construed to affect the rights of any Aboriginal Natives of the said Province to the actual occupation and enjoyment in their own Persons or in the Persons of their Descendants of any Lands therein now occupied or enjoyed by such Natives."
Although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. Survey was required before settlement of the province, the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia appointed William Light as the leader of its'First Expedition', tasked with examining 1500 miles of the South Australian coastline and selecting the best site for the capital, with planning and surveying the site of the city into one-acre Town Sections and its surrounds into 134-acre Country Sections. Eager to commence the establishment of their whale and seal fisheries, the South Australian Company sought, obtained, the Commissioners' permission to send Company ships to South Australia, in advance of the surveys and ahead of the Commissioners' colonists; the Company's settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was temporarily made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island, until
Auskick is a program designed to teach the basic skills of Australian rules football to boys and girls aged between five and 12. A nationwide program in Australia, it has increased participation in the sport amongst children, is employed in many countries across the world, it is known by different names in several countries, such as Kiwikick in New Zealand and Footywild in the South Africa. The program was devised in 1988 and began in the state of Victoria—the traditional home of the sport—under the name Vickick, it was supported by the Australian Football League, the sport's preeminent professional competition, which rolled it out nationally in the 1990s. Under current corporate sponsorship rights the program is named NAB AFL Auskick and is sponsored by the National Australia Bank, while previous sponsors include Simpson, a whitegoods company and earlier, fast food giant McDonald's. Auskick is a national football coaching network, with clinics held weekly run by volunteers; the program attracts over 100,000 primary school aged participants annually and, as such, is the largest grassroots sporting association of its kind in Australia.
Each Auskick session consists of a training session and a game, with the emphasis on developing skills rather than the game result. Some of the major rule differences from Australian rules football are a ban on tackling and the restriction of players to their zone of the field, similar to netball; the AFL is a major supporter of Auskick and star players assist in training events. The AFL invites various branches of the Auskick network to play short games during the half-time breaks of premiership season games at all grounds, with numerous matches played on modified fields simultaneously. In 2007 the program's slogan was "Where Champions Begin", with Jo Silvagni and Robert DiPierdomenico, the 1986 co-Brownlow Medallist as the main ambassadors, they used the kick-to-kick tradition as part of their promotional television campaign, which shows kids from around the country kicking the football to each other to the tune of "Gimme Dat Ding". Parents are involved across the board in activities such as at skills sessions, as coaches and supervisors, helpers and first aid officers.
Throughout the year, there are parent orientation courses as well as coaching courses. The AFL has used the Auskick program the introduce Australian rules football into schools and communities around the country to increase the AFL's profile in areas that traditionally support other football codes such as New South Wales and Queensland; the AFL have been accused of exaggerating their participation figures in their attempts to gain access to Sydney playing fields. Vast increases in AFL participation figures in Sydney were questioned by David Lawson, a Melbourne University academic, in a study commission by the AFL itself, his study found that AFL club participation rates in Sydney had stalled, that the AFL was masking low figures by using short term, non-club affiliated Auskick participants and comparing them to competitive junior club participation numbers in other sports. AFL Auskick