Doboj is a city located in Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is situated in the northern region of the Republika Srpska; as of 2013, it has a population of 71,441 inhabitants. Doboj is the largest national railway junction and the operational base of the Railways Corporation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is located in Doboj, it is one of the oldest cities in the country and the most important urban center in northern Republika Srpska. Prior to the war in Bosnia the municipality of the same name had a larger surface area; the largest part of the pre-war municipality is part of the Republika Srpska, including the city itself. The southern rural areas are part of the Zenica-Doboj Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the eastern rural part of the municipality is part of the Tuzla Canton in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina; the parts of the pre-war Doboj Municipality that are in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina are the municipalities of Doboj South and Doboj East and the Municipality of Usora.
The northern suburbs of Doboj extend into the Pannonian plains, mark the southern tip of this great Central European plain. The southern and eastern suburbs are spread on the gentle hills which extend to larger Central Bosnian mountain areas. Doboj was continuously inhabited since Neolithic times. Fragments of pottery and decorative art were found on several localities, with the most known site in Makljenovac, south from the city proper, at the confluence of rivers Usora and Bosna. Archeological findings from the paleolithic era were found in the cave at the Vila suburb; the Illyrian tribe of Daesitates settled in this region as early as the twelfth century BC. Daesitates were one of the largest and most important Illyrian tribes residing at the territory of modern Bosnia and Herzegovina, sharing their northern borders with Breuci, another important tribe. Daesitates and Breuci started Great Illyrian Revolt, or in Roman sources, widespread rebellion known as Bellum Batonianum. After the bloody rebellion was subdued, Roman legions settled in the area and built the large military camp and civilian settlement in Makljenovac.
These structures were most built in the early Flavian dynasty era, during Vespasian's rule. The military camp was large and in the shape of near perfect rectangle with large towers at each corner and the main gate in the middle of the central wall and served as the most important defense on the old Roman road from Brod to Sarajevo, demarcating the borders or Roman provinces Dalmatia and Pannonia, it served its role for several centuries with the evidence of Belgian and Spanish cohorts stationed there in second and third century AD. Canabea contained Roman settlers, with evidence of a large bathhouse with a hypocaust and a concubine house for soldiers stationed at nearby Castrum. A large Villa Rustica was located at appropriately named Vila. Fine pieces of religious and practical applications were found at these sites, including figurines of God Mars and fragments of African made Tera sigillata pottery; when South Slavic tribes of Serbs and Croats migrated into this area in sixth and seventh century AD, they have settled on the ruins of previous Roman settlement and lived there continuously until early thirteenth century at which point they used stones and building material from the old Roman Castrum in order the built the stone foundation of fortress Gradina, several kilometers due north, at today's old town Doboj.
Only the walls of former camp and civilian settlement are still visible to visitors today. The first official mention of the city itself is from 1415, as it was written in the charter issued by Dubrovnik to Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, although there are numerous artefacts and objects that have been found and which confirm the fact that the area had been inhabited since the early Stone Age, that the Roman Empire had an army camp and a settlement in the vicinity of the town dating from the first century AD. Following the arrival of the Slavs in the sixth century it became a part of the region/bannate Usora; the Doboj fortress, a royal Kotromanić fortress, was first built in the early thirteenth century and expanded in the early fifteenth century. It was expanded again during the Ottoman Empire in 1490; this newer stone foundation of the fortress was built on previous layers of older foundation made of wood and clay. It was a important obstacle for invaders coming from the north, on, Austrians and Germans.
It was built in the Gotho-Roman style with Romanesque windows. The area saw numerous battles in medieval times and the fortress changed hands between Bosnian and Hungarian armies. Doboj was the site of a major battle between the Hungarians and a Bosnian-Turkish coalition in early August 1415 in which the Hungarians were defeated on the field where the modern city of Doboj lies today; as an important border fortress between the Bosnian Kingdom and Hungary it was frequently attacked recorded as 18 times, in the Austro-Ottoman Wars, fell to the Habsburgs in 1878. During World War I, Doboj was the site of the largest Austro-Hungarian concentration camp. Acco
Derventa is a town and municipality located in Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is situated in the Posavina region, northwest of Doboj; as of 2013, the town has a population of 12,680 inhabitants, while the municipality has 27,404 inhabitants. The Derventa municipality borders with Brod, Modriča, Stanari and Srbac, as well as Croatia across the Sava river, it includes 57 villages in addition to the actual town of Derventa. The town of Derventa lies on the river Ukrina, roads lead from it to Brod, Kotorsko and Srbac; the town has a suburb called Derventski Lug which has grown in recent years due to growth of Municipality. From 1929 to 1939, Derventa was part of the Vrbas Banovina and from 1939 to 1941 of the Banovina of Croatia within the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Aside from the town of Derventa, the following settlements comprise the municipality: According to the 2013 census results, it has a population of 27,404 inhabitants; the most recent census in the country was carried out between 1–15 October 2013.
It was the first census in the country since the Bosnian War. The ethnic composition of the municipality: The following table gives a preview of total number of registred employed people per their core activity: The most popular sport in Derventa is football and the city has a long footballing tradition. Derventa's first football club was formed in 1919 under the name FK Dečko. Several other sports associations formed in Derventa prior to the outbreak of the Second World War; the war caused the dissolution of all previous clubs in Derventa and the formation of FK Tekstilac, who merged with FK Dečko. FK Tekstilac still competes today in the First League of the Republika Srpska and its home ground is Gradski Stadion FK Tekstilac, which has an attendance capacity of around 500 spectators. Derventa's most successful sports team is RK Derventa, which competes in the Premier league of Bosnia and Herzegovina for handball, the nation's top professional handball division. Derventa is known throughout the region for its tradition of handball excellence, creating many great players as well as having a successful club given that it is such a small city.
Zvonimir Grabovac, football player Official website
Mostar is a city and the administrative center of Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Inhabited by 105,797 people, it is the most important city in the Herzegovina region, serving as its cultural and economic capital. Mostar is the fifth-largest city in the country. Mostar was named after the bridge keepers who in the medieval times guarded the Stari Most over the Neretva; the Old Bridge, built by the Ottomans in the 16th century, is one of Bosnia and Herzegovina's most visited landmarks, is considered an exemplary piece of Islamic architecture in the Balkans. Human settlements on the river Neretva, between the Hum Hill and the Velež Mountain, have existed since prehistory, as witnessed by discoveries of fortified enceintes and cemeteries. Evidence of Roman occupation was discovered beneath the present town; as far as medieval Mostar goes, although the Christian basilicas of late antiquity remained in use, few historical sources were preserved and not much is known about this period.
The name of Mostar was first mentioned in a document dating from 1474, taking its name from the bridge-keepers. During this time it was the seat of a kadiluk. Since Mostar was on the trade route between the Adriatic and the mineral-rich regions of central Bosnia, the settlement began to spread to the right bank of the river. Prior to the 1474 the names of two towns appear in medieval historical sources, along with their medieval territories and properties – the towns of Nebojša and Cimski grad. In the early 15th century the county of Večenike covered the site of the present-day Mostar along the right bank of the Neretva, including the sites of Zahum, Ilići, Raštani and Vojno, it was at the center of this area. Mostar is indirectly referred to in a 1454 charter of King Alfonso V of Aragon as Pons, for a bridge had been built there. Prior to 1444, the Nebojša fort was built on the left bank of the Neretva, which belonged to the late medieval county still known as Večenike or Večerić; the earliest documentary reference to Mostar as a settlement dates from 3 April 1452, when Ragusans wrote to their fellow countrymen in the service of Serbian Despot Đorđe Branković to say that Vladislav Hercegović had turned against his father Stjepan and occupied the town of Blagaj and other places, including “Duo Castelli al ponte de Neretua.”.
In 1468 the region came under Ottoman rule and the urbanization of the settlement began. It was named Köprühisar, meaning fortress at the bridge, at the centre of, a cluster of 15 houses. Following the unwritten oriental rule, the town was organized into two distinct areas: čaršija, the crafts and commercial centre of the settlement, mahala or a residential area; the town was fortified between the years 1520 and 1566, the wooden bridge was rebuilt in stone. The stone bridge, the Old Bridge, was erected in 1566 on the orders of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. 28 metres long and 20 metres high became a wonder in its own time. Becoming the city's symbol, the Old Bridge was designed by Mimar Hayruddin, a student and apprentice of Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan. In the late 16th century, Köprühisar was one of the towns of the Sanjak of Herzegovina; the traveler Evliya Çelebi wrote in the 17th century that: the bridge is like a rainbow arch soaring up to the skies, extending from one cliff to the other....
I, a poor and miserable slave of Allah, have passed through 16 countries, but I have never seen such a high bridge. It is thrown from rock to rock as high as the sky. Austria-Hungary took control over Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878 and ruled the country until the aftermath of World War I in 1918, when it became part of the State of Slovenes and Serbs and Yugoslavia. During this period, Mostar was recognized as the unofficial capital of Herzegovina; the first church in the city of Mostar, a Serbian Orthodox Church, was built in 1834 during Ottoman rule. In 1881 the town became the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Mostar-Duvno and in 1939, it became a part of the Banovina of Croatia. During World War II Mostar was an important city in the fascist Independent State of Croatia. After World War II, Mostar developed a production of plastics, bauxite, wine and aluminium products. Several dams were built in the region to harness the hydroelectric power of the Neretva; the city was a major industrial and tourist center and prospered economically during the time of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
After Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence from Yugoslavia in April 1992, the town was besieged by the Yugoslav People's Army, though clashes between the JNA and Croat forces started earlier. The Croats were organized into the Croatian Defence Council and were joined by a sizable number of Bosniaks; the JNA artillery periodically shelled neighbourhoods outside of their control from early April. On 7 June the Croatian Army launched an offensive codenamed Operation Jackal, the objective of, to relieve Mostar and break the JNA siege of Dubrovnik; the offensive was supported by the HVO that attacked the Army of Republika Srpska positions around Mostar. By 12 June the HVO secured the western part of the city and by 21 June the VRS was pushed out from the eastern part. Numerous religious buildings and most of the city's bridges were
Banja Luka or Banjaluka is the second largest city in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the de facto capital of its Republika Srpska entity. It is the traditional centre of the densely-forested Bosanska Krajina region located in northwestern Bosnia. According to the 2013 census, the city proper has a population of 138,963, while its administrative area comprises a total of 180,053 inhabitants; the city is home to the University of Banja Luka as well as numerous state and entity institutions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The city lies on the Vrbas River and is well known in the countries of the former Yugoslavia for being full of tree-lined avenues, boulevards and parks; the name'Banja Luka' was first mentioned in a document dated to 6 February 1494 by Ladislaus II of Hungary. The name is interpreted as the'Ban's meadow', from the words ban, luka; the identity of the ban and the meadow in question remain uncertain, popular etymology combines the modern words banja, or bajna and luka. A different interpretation is suggested by the Hungarian name Lukácsbánya, in English'Luke's Mine', the meaning of the Slovak baňa Luka.
In modern usage, the name is pronounced and declined as one word, written as such. The citizens prefer the form with inflected adjective. Banja Luka covers some 96.2 km2 of land in Bosnia and Herzegovina and is situated on either bank of the Vrbas in the Banja Luka valley, characteristically flat within the otherwise hilly region. Banja Luka's centre lies 163 m above sea level; the source of the Vrbas River is about 90 km to the south at the Vranica mountain. Its tributaries—the Suturlija, the Crkvena, the Vrbanja—flow into the Vrbas at various points in the city. A number of springs can be found nearby; the area around Banja Luka is woodland, although there are mountains a little further from the city. The most notable of these mountains are Manjača, Čemernica, Tisovac; these are all part of the Dinaric Alps mountain range. The city of Banja Luka includes the following settlements: Banja Luka has a moderate humid subtropical climate with mild winters, frequent frosts, warm summers; the warmest month of the year is July, with an average temperature of 22.8 °C.
The coldest month of the year is January, when temperatures average around 1.7 °C. The annual precipitation for the city is about 1,037.2 millimetres. Banja Luka has an average of 104 rainy days a year. Due to the city's high latitude and inland location, it snows in Banja Luka every year. Strong winds come from the northeast. Sometimes, southern winds which bring hot weather are prevalent; the history of inhabitation of the area of Banja Luka dates back to ancient times. There is a substantial evidence of the Roman presence in the region during the first few centuries A. D. including an old fort "Kastel" in the centre of the city. The area of Banja Luka was in the kingdom of Illyria and a part of the Roman province of Illyricum, which split into provinces of Pannonia and Dalmatia of which Castra became a part. Ancient Illyrian maps call the settlement in Banja Luka's present day location as Ad Ladios, a settlement located on the river Vrbas. Slavs settled in the Balkans in the 6th century. Mediaeval fortresses in the vicinity of Banja Luka include Vrbas, župa Zemljanik, Kotor Varoš, Zvečaj, Bočac.
The name "Banja Luka" was first mentioned in a document dated 6 February 1494, by Vladislav II. Banja Luka fell to the Ottomans in 1527, it became the seat of the Sanjak of Bosnia some time prior to 1554, until 1580 when the Bosnia Eyalet was established. Bosnian beylerbeys were seated in Banja Luka until 1639. Ferhad Pasha Sokolović, a relative of Grand Vizier Mehmed-pasha Sokolović, had upon his return to Bosnia in 1574, begun the building of over 200 buildings ranging from artisan and sales shops to wheat warehouses and mosques. Among more important commissions were the Ferhadija and Arnaudija mosques during which construction a plumbing infrastructure was laid that served surrounding residential areas; this stimulated the economic and urban development of Banja Luka, which soon became one of the leading commercial and political centres in Bosnia. It was sanjak centre in Bosna Eyalet. In 1688, the city was burned down by the Austrian army, but it recovered. Periodic intrusions by the Austrian army stimulated military developments in Banja Luka, which made it into a strategic military centre.
Orthodox churches and monasteries near Banja Luka were built in the 19th century. Sephardic Jews and Trappists migrated to the city in the 19th century and contributed to the early industrialisation of the region by building mills, brick factories, textile factories and other important structures; the Trappist monastery built in the 19th century lent its name to the neighbourhood of Trapisti and has left a large legacy in the area through its famous Trappist cheese and its beer production. In 1835 and 1836, during the Ottoman administration, numerous people from the Banja Luka Krajina emigrated to Lešnica and Loznica, the villages around Loznica, to Šabac. For all its leadership to the region however, Banja Luka as a city was not modernised until Austro-Hungarian occupation in the late 19th century that brought westernisation to Banja Luka. Railroads, schools and infrastructure appeared, were developed, which led to a modern city After World War I, the town became the cap
Zenica is the fourth largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the administrative center of the Zenica-Doboj Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located about 70 km north of Sarajevo and is situated on the Bosna river, surrounded by a mountainous and hilly landscape; as of 2013, it has a population of 110,663 inhabitants. Zenica was an important economic and military center during the Banate of Bosnia and the Kingdom of Bosnia, one of the relics from these eras is the Vranduk fortress; the city's old quarter contains several attractions, including the former synagogue, dating from 1906, now part of the City Museum. There is a mosque, an Austrian fountain and an old bey's farm house; the urban part of today's Zenica was formed during several specific periods which can be chronologically dated to the time of Neolithic community, Illyrian old towns ruins, Roman Municipium Bistua Nova, the most important archaeological finding. Ruins of a substantial ancient settlement were found not far from Bilimišće and close by the villages of Putovići and Tišina, with sites like a Villa Rustica, pagan temples among other structures.
Known by the Romans as Bistua Nova, the town became known as Bilino Polje and took its modern name of Zenica from 20 March 1436. During the Middle Ages, the town was important in the governance of the Bosnian Kingdom, in particular under Ban Kulin in the 12th Century. Nearby were the stone fortress of Vranduk, the residence of the Kings of Bosnia at Bobovac and the village of Janjici, where the Did, head of the Bosnian Church resided; the nearby villages of Puhovac and Pojske are the site of several Stećak tombstones, unique to Bosnia and Herzegovina and parts of Croatia and Serbia. During the rule of the Ottoman Empire, changes to the main trade routes sidelined the town in Bosnian affairs, except during a brief period until 1557, when Zenica was the residence of the Ottoman Qadi of Brod. Zenica became a small town with several mosques: Sultan Ahmet's, Osman Chelebi's, Seymen and Jali mosques, a Madrassa, founded in 1737 and several lower primary schools, with interesting Ottoman tombstones, gardens and several stopping inns for caravans.
In one description from the year 1697, Zenica is compared to a delta of the Nile, where melons grow and where the entire landscape is pleasant. It is estimated; the raids of Eugene of Savoy during the Great Turkish War during the 1680s are remembered as dark times which left a lot destruction and caused an exodus of population, but by 1697, Zenica had started to stabilise and to begin to recover its influential position. At the end of the 19th century, during the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, there were investments in capital projects that had wider social and economic importance, were soon to become life and fate of Zenica; those projects include a railway from Bosanski Brod to Zenica built in 1879, a coal mine, paper works, steel factory, a prison. In the beginning of the 20th century, there was an urban boom and the official State Register for the year 1910 shows that in only a few years the number of population had increased to 7,215 inhabitants. An Orthodox Church was built in 1882, two Roman Catholic churches in 1910, a synagogue in 1903, several coaching inns, a hotel, a school, paved roads and more.
The city changed markedly in character during this developmental boom. During the Second World War, the local population signed the Resolution of the Muslims of Zenica in May 1942, formed Muslim militias in the villages of Šerići, Doglodima and other places who joined the Yugoslav Partisans. Zenica managed to escape large-scale reprisals and human casualties. Following the liberation of Zenica by the Partisans in 1945, the town began to grow as the steel industry developed further; the town spread to encompass the former villages of Bilino Polje and Radakovo, new apartment blocks were built to house the new miners and steelworkers. In 1948 the population was only 12,000 people, but by 1961 it had grown to over 30,000. In 1981 the town had over 63,000 people, in the last census taken 1991 Zenica was a city of some 96,027 people; the city has seen a sixfold increase in its population over 50 years. In 1991, the year before the Bosnian War began, Zenica became the headquarters of one of the first private and independent radio stations in Eastern Europe, Radio CD-CEMP.
In the spring of 1993, Zoran Mišetić, a journalist and owner of Radio CD-CEMP, was granted the Belgian Award for Independent Journalism, known as The Pen Of Peace. On 19 April 1993, during the Croat-Bosniak War, 15 civilians were killed and 50 others injured, when a HVO Howitzer grenade landed in the central market place of Zenica; the grenade was fired from the village of Puticevo. A total of six grenades landed, in rounds of three. One round of two at 12.10 pm, one round of two shells at 12.24 pm, a further round of two shells at 12.29 pm. During this period Zenica was isolated from the rest of the world for a half; the city suffered considerable civilian casualties from sniper fire and hunger. Bosnia's fourth-largest city had electricity. Du
Cazin is a city located in Una-Sana Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is situated in northwest Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Bosanska Krajina region, near the border with Croatia; as of 2013, it has a population of 66,149 inhabitants. The municipality is also called Cazinska Krajina; the town of Cazin is located on the main road which connects Velika Kladuša. Cazin has some dating back to the 14th century. Ostrožac castle and Radetina Tower are located in Cazin. From 1929 to 1941, Cazin was part of the Vrbas Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia; the Cazin uprising of 1950, an armed anti-state rebellion of peasants, occurred in Cazin and neighboring Velika Kladuša and Slunj, which were all part of Communist Yugoslavia at the time. The peasants revolted against the forced collectivization and collective farms by the Yugoslav government on the farmers of its country. Following a drought in 1949, the peasants of Yugoslavia were unable to meet unrealistic quotas set by their government and were punished.
The revolt that followed the drought resulted in the killings and persecution of those who organized the uprising, but many innocent civilians. It was the only peasant rebellion in the history of Cold War Europe; the city was defended by the Bosnian Army during the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Aside from the urban area of Cazin, the city administrative area comprises the following settlements: According to the 2013 census, the city of Cazin has a population of 66,149 inhabitants; the ethnic composition of the municipality: Una-Sana Canton Bosanska Krajina BK Krajina Cazin Municipality of Cazin official website
Handball is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team. A standard match consists of two periods of 30 minutes, the team that scores more goals wins. Modern handball is played on a court of 40 with a goal in the middle of each end; the goals are surrounded by a 6-meter zone. The sport is played indoors, but outdoor variants exist in the forms of field handball and Czech handball and beach handball; the game is fast and high-scoring: professional teams now score between 20 and 35 goals each, though lower scores were not uncommon until a few decades ago. Body contact is permitted, the defenders trying to stop the attackers from approaching the goal. No protective equipment is mandated, but players may wear soft protective bands and mouth guards; the game was codified at the end of the 19th century in Denmark. The modern set of rules was published in 1917 in Germany, had several revisions since; the first international games were played under these rules for men in 1925 and for women in 1930.
Men's handball was first played at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin as outdoors, the next time at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich as indoors, has been an Olympic sport since. Women's team handball was added at the 1976 Summer Olympics; the International Handball Federation was formed in 1946 and, as of 2016, has 197 member federations. The sport is most popular in the countries of continental Europe, which have won all medals but one in the men's world championships since 1938. In the women's world championships, only two non-European countries have won the title: South Korea and Brazil; the game enjoys popularity in East Asia, North Africa and parts of South America. There is evidence of ancient Roman women playing a version of handball called expulsim ludere. There are records of handball-like games in medieval France, among the Inuit in Greenland, in the Middle Ages. By the 19th century, there existed similar games of håndbold from Denmark, házená in the Czech Republic, handbol in Ukraine, torball in Germany.
The team handball game of today was codified at the end of the 19th century in northern Europe: in Denmark, Germany and Sweden. The first written set of team handball rules was published in 1906 by the Danish gym teacher and Olympic medalist Holger Nielsen from Ordrup grammar school, north of Copenhagen; the modern set of rules was published on 29 October 1917 by Max Heiser, Karl Schelenz, Erich Konigh from Germany. After 1919 these rules were improved by Karl Schelenz; the first international games were played under these rules, between Germany and Belgium by men in 1925 and between Germany and Austria by women in 1930. In 1926, the Congress of the International Amateur Athletics Federation nominated a committee to draw up international rules for field handball; the International Amateur Handball Federation was formed in 1928 and the International Handball Federation was formed in 1946. Men's field handball was played at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. During the next several decades, indoor handball flourished and evolved in the Scandinavian countries.
The sport re-emerged onto the world stage as team handball for the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich. Women's team handball was added at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal. Due to its popularity in the region, the Eastern European countries that refined the event became the dominant force in the sport when it was reintroduced; the International Handball Federation organised the men's world championship in 1938 and every four years from World War II to 1995. Since the 1995 world championship in Iceland, the competition has been held every two years; the women's world championship has been held since 1957. The IHF organizes women's and men's junior world championships. By July 2009, the IHF listed 166 member federations - 795,000 teams and 19 million players; the rules are laid out in the IHF's set of rules. Two teams of seven players take the field and attempt to score points by putting the game ball into the opposing team's goal. In handling the ball, players are subject to the following restrictions: After receiving the ball, players can pass, keep possession, or shoot the ball.
If possessing the ball, players must dribble, or can take up to three steps for up to three seconds at a time without dribbling. No attacking or defending players other than the defending goalkeeper are allowed to touch the floor of the goal area. A shot or pass in the goal area is valid. Goalkeepers are allowed outside the goal area, but are not allowed to cross the goal area boundary with the ball in their hands; the ball may not be passed back to the goalkeeper. Notable scoring opportunities can occur. For example, an attacking player may catch a pass while launching inside the goal area, shoot or pass before touching the floor. Doubling occurs. Handball is played on a court 40 with a goal in the centre of each end; the goals are surrounded by a near-semicircular area, called the zone or the crease, defined by a line six meters from the goal. A dashed near-semicircular line nine metres f