Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Early English Text Society
The Early English Text Society is a text publication society founded in 1864, dedicated to the editing and publication of early English texts those only available in manuscript. Most of its volumes contain editions of Old English texts, it is known for being the first to print many important English manuscripts, including Cotton Nero A.x, which contains Pearl, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, other poems. The Society was founded in England in 1864 by Frederick James Furnivall, its stated goal was "on the one hand, to print all, most valuable of the yet unprinted MSS. in English, and, on the other, to re-edit and reprint all, most valuable in printed English books, which from their scarcity or price are not within the reach of the student of moderate means."As of 2016, the Society had published 347 volumes in its Original Series. The Society keeps the majority of its older publications in print, except those which have been superseded by subsequent editions. Volumes are now published on behalf of the Society by Oxford University Press.
The Society emblem is a modified representation of the Anglo-Saxon Alfred Jewel, incorporating a scroll bearing the name of the Society. Notable members of the society when it was formed in 1864 included Furnivall himself, Alfred Tennyson, Warren de la Rue, Richard Chenevix Trench, the Rev. Richard Morris, others. Anne Hudson was the director from 2006 to 2013; the current director is Vincent Gillespie. Aelfric Society, London publisher of Anglo-Saxon texts, 1842–1856 Official website EETS texts at Project Gutenberg List of Early English Text Society publications with brief descriptions
Geoffrey Chaucer was an English poet and author. Considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages, he is best known for The Canterbury Tales. Chaucer has been styled the "Father of English literature" and was the first writer buried in Poets' Corner of Westminster Abbey. Chaucer achieved fame in his lifetime as a philosopher and astronomer, composing the scientific A Treatise on the Astrolabe for his 10-year-old son Lewis, he maintained an active career in the civil service as a bureaucrat and diplomat. Among Chaucer's many other works are The Book of the Duchess, The House of Fame, The Legend of Good Women, Troilus and Criseyde, he is seen as crucial in legitimising the literary use of the Middle English vernacular at a time when the dominant literary languages in England were still French and Latin. Chaucer was born in London sometime around 1343, though the precise date and location remain unknown, his father and grandfather were both London vintners, several previous generations had been merchants in Ipswich.
His family name is derived from the French chausseur, meaning "shoemaker". In 1324, his father John Chaucer was kidnapped by an aunt in the hope of marrying the 12-year-old to her daughter in an attempt to keep property in Ipswich; the aunt was imprisoned and fined £250, equivalent to £200,000 today, which suggests that the family was financially secure. John Chaucer married Agnes Copton who inherited properties in 1349, including 24 shops in London from her uncle Hamo de Copton, described in a will dated 3 April 1354 and listed in the City Hustings Roll as "moneyer", said to be moneyer at the Tower of London. In the City Hustings Roll 110, 5, Ric II, dated June 1380, Chaucer refers to himself as me Galfridum Chaucer, filium Johannis Chaucer, Londonie. While records concerning the lives of his contemporary friends, William Langland and the Pearl Poet, are non-existent, since Chaucer was a public servant, his official life is well documented, with nearly five hundred written items testifying to his career.
The first of the "Chaucer Life Records" appears in 1357, in the household accounts of Elizabeth de Burgh, the Countess of Ulster, when he became the noblewoman's page through his father's connections, a common medieval form of apprenticeship for boys into knighthood or prestige appointments. The countess was married to Lionel, Duke of Clarence, the second surviving son of the king, Edward III, the position brought the teenage Chaucer into the close court circle, where he was to remain for the rest of his life, he worked as a courtier, a diplomat, a civil servant, as well as working for the king from 1389 to 1391 as Clerk of the King's Works. In 1359, in the early stages of the Hundred Years' War, Edward III invaded France and Chaucer travelled with Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, Elizabeth's husband, as part of the English army. In 1360, he was captured during the siege of Rheims. Edward paid £16 for his ransom, a considerable sum, Chaucer was released. After this, Chaucer's life is uncertain, but he seems to have travelled in France and Flanders as a messenger and even going on a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela.
Around 1366, Chaucer married Philippa Roet. She was a lady-in-waiting to Edward III's queen, Philippa of Hainault, a sister of Katherine Swynford, who became the third wife of John of Gaunt, it is uncertain how many children Chaucer and Philippa had, but three or four are most cited. His son, Thomas Chaucer, had an illustrious career, as chief butler to four kings, envoy to France, Speaker of the House of Commons. Thomas's daughter, married the Duke of Suffolk. Thomas's great-grandson, John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln, was the heir to the throne designated by Richard III before he was deposed. Geoffrey's other children included Elizabeth Chaucy, a nun at Barking Abbey, Agnes, an attendant at Henry IV's coronation. Chaucer's "Treatise on the Astrolabe" was written for Lewis. According to tradition, Chaucer studied law in the Inner Temple at this time, he became a member of the royal court of Edward III as a valet de chambre, yeoman, or esquire on 20 June 1367, a position which could entail a wide variety of tasks.
His wife received a pension for court employment. He travelled abroad at least some of them in his role as a valet. In 1368, he may have attended the wedding of Lionel of Antwerp to Violante Visconti, daughter of Galeazzo II Visconti, in Milan. Two other literary stars of the era were in attendance: Petrarch. Around this time, Chaucer is believed to have written The Book of the Duchess in honour of Blanche of Lancaster, the late wife of John of Gaunt, who died in 1369 of the plague. Chaucer travelled to Picardy the next year as part of a military expedition. Numerous scholars such as Skeat and Rowland suggested that, on this Italian trip, he came into contact with Petrarch or Boccaccio, they introduced him to medieval the forms and stories of which he would use later. The purposes of a voyage in 1377 are mysterious, as details within the historical record conflict. Documents suggest it was a mission, along with Jean Froissart, to arrange a marriage between the future King Richard II and a French princess, thereby ending the Hundred Years War.
If this was the purpose of their trip, they seem to have been unsuccessful. In 1378, Richard II sent Chaucer as an envoy to the Visconti and to Sir John Hawkwood, English condottiere in Milan, it has been specu
An exemplum is a moral anecdote, brief or extended, real or fictitious, used to illustrate a point. The word is used to express an action performed by another and used as an example or model; this genre sprang from the above, in classical and Renaissance literature, consisting of lives of famous figures, using these to make a moral point. Collections of Exempla helped medieval preachers to adorn their sermons, to emphasize moral conclusions or illustrate a point of doctrine; the subject matter could be taken from fables, legends, real history, or natural history. Jacques de Vitry's book of exempla, c. 1200, Nicholas Bozon's Les contes moralisés, Odo of Cheriton's Parabolae were famous medieval collections aimed at preachers. Geoffrey Chaucer's The Miller's Prologue and Tale became a vivid satire on this genre. There were notable lay writers of moral tales, such as the 13th century Der Stricker and the 14th century Juan Manuel, Prince of Villena. Examples dealing with historical figures include: Suetonius's De vita Caesarum or Lives of the Twelve Caesars Plutarch's Parallel Lives Jerome's De viris illustribus Petrarch's De viris illustribus Chaucer's The Legend of Good Women Boccaccio's On Famous Women and On the Fates of Illustrious Men Christine de Pizan's The Book of the City of Ladies.
Mirror for Magistrates by various Tudor authors The Norton Anthology of Western Literature includes three exempla, stories that illustrate a general principle or underscore a moral lesson: "The Two City Dwellers and the Country Man" and "The King's Tailor's Apprentice" and "The Cursed Dancers of Colbeck." In "The Two City Dwellers and the Country Man," told by the father, the three traveling companions of the tale's title are on a pilgrimage to Mecca. Near their destination, their provisions are nearly depleted, the two city dwellers attempt to cheat the country man by telling him that whoever of them dreams the most extraordinary dream shall get the last of their bread; as the city dwellers sleep, the country man, alert to their intended deception, eats the half-baked bread before retiring. The city dwellers relate their made-up dreams. One says he was led before God by angels; the other says. The country man says he dreamed the same things that his companions dreamed and, believing them to be forever lost, one to heaven and the other to hell, ate the bread.
The son tells his father the moral of the story: "As it says in the proverb, ‘He who wanted all, lost all.’" He says that the two city dwellers got their just comeuppance. The story says that he wishes they’d been whipped, as the antagonist in another story he has heard, was beaten for his chicanery, his comment is a transition to the next tale, causing the father to ask his son to tell him this story. Thus, the roles of the father and his son are reversed, as the father, the storyteller, becomes the listener, the son, his father's audience, becomes the narrator; the son's story recounts the story of a youth by the name of Nedui. One day while he is away, his master gives the other apprentices bread and honey, but does not save any for Nedui, telling them that Nedui "would not eat honey if he were here." Upon learning that he has been left out, Nedui avenges himself upon his master by telling the eunuch whom the king has set over the apprentices as their supervisor that the tailor is subject to seizures of madness, during which he becomes violent and dangerous.
In fact, Nedui claims, he has killed those who have happened to be near him when he is in the grip of such a fit. To protect himself, Nedui says, he beats the tailor when such a fit comes over him, he tells the eunuch what to look for: "When you see him looking all around and feeling the floor with his hands and getting up from his seat and picking up the chair on which he is seated you will know that he is mad, if you do not protect yourself and your servants, he will beat you on the head with a club." The next day, Nedui hides the tailor's shears, when the master, hunting for them, behaves as Nedui mentioned to the eunuch, the eunuch orders his servants to bind the tailor and beats him himself with a club. His servants beat him until he is unconscious and "half dead." When he regains consciousness, the tailor asks the eunuch what crime he has committed to have deserved such a beating, the eunuch tells him what Nedui told him about the tailor's seizures. "Friend, when have you seen me crazy?" the master asks his apprentice, to which question he receives, from Nedui, the rejoinder: "When have you seen me refuse to eat honey?"
The father tells the son the moral of the story: "The tailor deserved his punishment because if he had kept the precept of Moses, to love his brother as himself, this would not have happened to him." By having the listener tell the narrator the moral of the story, the storyteller shows that the narrative has served its purpose as an exemplum, as the listener, hearing the story, shows that he is able to ascertain the moral that the tale is intended to express. The third exemplum, "The Cursed Dancers of Colbeck," is a prose, rather than narrative. Like a mini-sermon, it preaches against wrong conduct -- in sacrilegious behavior; this tale has an identifiable author, Robert Mannyng, who set down the story in the early fourteenth century. The Norton Anthology's version is translated by Lee Patterson from Middle English Handlyng Synne. To bolster his listener's belief that "most of" his tale is "the gospel
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
The Ten Commandments known as the Decalogue, are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship, which play a fundamental role in Judaism and Christianity. The commandments include instructions to worship only God, to honour one's parents, to keep the sabbath day holy, as well as prohibitions against idolatry, murder, theft and coveting. Different religious groups follow different traditions for numbering them; the Ten Commandments appear twice in the books of Exodus and Deuteronomy. Modern scholarship has found influences in Hittite and Mesopotamian laws and treaties, but is divided over when the Ten Commandments were written and who wrote them. In biblical Hebrew, the Ten Commandments are called עשרת הדברים and in Mishnaic Hebrew עשרת הדברות, both translatable as "the ten words", "the ten sayings", or "the ten matters"; the Tyndale and Coverdale English biblical translations used "ten verses". The Geneva Bible used "tenne commandements", followed by the Bishops' Bible and the Authorized Version as "ten commandments".
Most major English versions use "commandments."The English name "Decalogue" is derived from Greek δεκάλογος, the latter meaning and referring to the Greek translation δέκα λόγους, deka logous, "ten words", found in the Septuagint at Exodus 34:28 and Deuteronomy 10:4. The stone tablets, as opposed to the commandments inscribed on them, are called לוחות הברית, Lukhot HaBrit, meaning "the tablets of the covenant". Different religious traditions divide the seventeen verses of Exodus 20:1–17 and their parallels at Deuteronomy 5:4–21 into ten "commandments" or "sayings" in different ways, shown in the table below; some suggest. All scripture quotes above are from the King James Version. Click on verses at top of columns for other versions. Traditions: LXX: Septuagint followed by Orthodox Christians. P: Philo, same as the Septuagint, but with the prohibitions on killing and adultery reversed. S: Samaritan Pentateuch, with an additional commandment about Mount Gerizim as 10th. T: Jewish Talmud, makes the "prologue" the first "saying" or "matter" and combines the prohibition on worshiping deities other than Yahweh with the prohibition on idolatry.
A: Augustine follows the Talmud in combining verses 3–6, but omits the prologue as a commandment and divides the prohibition on coveting in two and following the word order of Deuteronomy 5:21 rather than Exodus 20:17. C: Catechism of the Catholic Church follows Augustine. L: Lutherans follow Luther's Large Catechism, which follows Augustine but subordinates the prohibition of images to the sovereignty of God in the First Commandment and uses the word order of Exodus 20:17 rather than Deuteronomy 5:21 for the ninth and tenth commandments. R: Reformed Christians follow John Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion, which follows the Septuagint; the biblical narrative of the revelation at Sinai begins in Exodus 19 after the arrival of the children of Israel at Mount Sinai. On the morning of the third day of their encampment, "there were thunders and lightnings, a thick cloud upon the mount, the voice of the trumpet exceeding loud", the people assembled at the base of the mount. After "the LORD came down upon mount Sinai", Moses went up and returned and prepared the people, in Exodus 20 "God spoke" to all the people the words of the covenant, that is, the "ten commandments" as it is written.
Modern biblical scholarship differs as to whether Exodus 19-20 describes the people of Israel as having directly heard all or some of the decalogue, or whether the laws are only passed to them through Moses. The people were afraid to hear more and moved "afar off", Moses responded with "Fear not." He drew near the "thick darkness" where "the presence of the Lord" was to hear the additional statutes and "judgments", all which he "wrote" in the "book of the covenant" which he read to the people the next morning, they agreed to be obedient and do all that the LORD had said. Moses escorted a select group consisting of Aaron and Abihu, "seventy of the elders of Israel" to a location on the mount where they worshipped "afar off" and they "saw the God of Israel" above a "paved work" like clear sapphire stone, and the LORD said unto Moses, Come up to me into the mount, be there: and I will give thee tablets of stone, a law, commandments which I have written. 13 And Moses rose up, his minister Joshua: and Moses went up into the mount of God.
The mount was covered by the cloud for six days, on the seventh day Moses went into the midst of the cloud and was "in the mount forty days and forty nights." And Moses said, "the LORD delivered unto me two tablets of stone written with the finger of God. Before the full forty days expired, the children of Israel collectively decided that something had happened to Moses, compelled Aaron to fashion a golden calf, he "built an altar before it" and the people "worshipped" the calf. After the full forty days and Joshua came down from the mountain with the tablets of stone: "And it came to pass, as soon as he came nigh unto the camp, that he saw the calf, the dancing: and Moses' anger waxed hot, he cast the tablets out of his hands, brak