Kadokawa Shoten Kadokawa Shoten Co. Ltd. is a Japanese publisher and brand company of Kadokawa Corporation based in Tokyo, Japan. It became an internal division of Kadokawa Corporation on October 1, 2013. Kadokawa has published both manga such as Sora no Otoshimono and magazines, such as Newtype magazine. Since its founding, Kadokawa has expanded into the multimedia sector, namely in video games and movies. Kadokawa Shoten was established on November 1945 by Genyoshi Kadokawa; the company's first publication imprint, Kadokawa Bunko, was published in 1949. The company went public on April 2, 1954. In 1975, Haruki Kadokawa became the president of Kadokawa Shoten, following Genyoshi Kadokawa's death. On April 1, 2003, Kadokawa Shoten was renamed to Kadokawa Holdings, transferring the existing publishing businesses to Kadokawa Shoten. On July 1, 2006, the parent company was renamed to Kadokawa Group Holdings and in January 2007, Kadokawa Group Holdings inherited the management and integration businesses within Kadokawa Shoten.
The magazine businesses was transferred to the Kadokawa Magazine Group. The video game divisions of Kadokawa Shoten, ASCII Media Works and Enterbrain were merged into Kadokawa Games. Kadokawa Shoten ceased being a kabushiki gaisha on October 1, 2013 when it was merged with eight other companies to become a brand company of Kadokawa Corporation. Kadokawa Haruki Corporation: Founded in 1976 Haruki Kadokawa as a film production company; the company was merged into Kadokawa Shoten. When Haruki Kadokawa was still on bail following his 1993 arrest, Kadokawa Haruki Corporation was established by Haruki Kadokawa on September 12, 1995 as a publisher. Fujimi Shobo: In 1991, Fujimi Shobo was merged into Kadokawa Shoten, but continued operations as a division of Kadokawa Shoten; the Television): In 1993, it was merged into Kadokawa Shoten. Kadokawa Media Office: In 1993, it was merged into Kadokawa Shoten. Kadokawa J-com media Kadokawa Gakugei Shuppan Publishing: Formerly Hichō Kikaku, it was renamed on April 1, 2003.
Kadokawa Digix Kids Net Asmik Ace Entertainment: In 2006, Sumitomo Corporation purchased the 27.6% common stock of Asmik Ace from Kadokawa Shoten, distributed the 75.3% stock of Asmik Ace into a subsidiary of Sumitomo, leaving Kadokawa Shoten a 20% stake holder. In 2007, Kadokawa's stake of Asmik Ace was transferred to Kadokawa Group Holdings. In 2010, Sumitomo purchased the remaining 20% stake from Kadokawa Group Holdings. Cinema Paradise Taiwan Animate Chara Ani.hack//G. U.: The World Asuka Asuka CIEL Ceil TresTres Comp Ace Comptiq Gundam Ace Kerokero Ace Monthly Ace Next Newtype Shōnen Ace The Sneaker Young Ace Altima Ace Another.hack//Legend of the Twilight Angelic Layer Baka and Test Basquash! Bio Booster Armor Guyver Black Rock Shooter Brain Powerd Cardfight!! Vanguard Chrono Crusade Cloverfield/Kishin Cowboy Bebop Code Geass Cowboy Bebop: Shooting Star Deadman Wonderland Dragon Half Girls Bravo Escaflowne The movie: Girl In Gaya Escaflowne: The Series Eureka Seven Hakkenden Haruhi Suzumiya Highschool of the Dead Hybrid Child Junjo Mistake Junjo Romantica: Pure Romance Kannazuki no Miko Kantai Collection Kemono Friends Kerberos Panzer Cop Legal Drug Love Stage!!
Lucky Star Ludwig II Maoyū Maō Yūsha Marionette Generation Martian Successor Nadesico Mirai Nikki Miyuki-chan in Wonderland Multiple Personality Detective Psycho Neon Genesis Evangelion Nichijou Record of Lodoss War Rental Magica Romeo × Juliet Sekai-ichi Hatsukoi Sgt. Frog Shangri-La Shibuya Fifteen Shirahime-Syo: Snow Goddess Tales Slayers Sora no Otoshimono Steel Angel Kurumi Strider Hiryu Super Lovers Tenchi Muyo! The Kurosagi Corpse Delivery Service The One I Love The Vision of Escaflowne Tokumei Kakarichō Tadano Hitoshi Shin Tokumei Kakarichō Tadano Hitoshi Trinity Blood X Yamada Taro Monogatari Tokyo ESP PublishedAbarenbou Princess Buile Baku Lunar: Silver Star Story Complete Lunar 2: Eternal Blue Complete Sorcerous Stabber Orphen Yōkai Buster: Ruka no Daibōken Lodoss Tou Senki 1995 Hippa Linda 2001 Sora no Otoshimono Forte: Dreamy Season 2011 Steins.
Hepburn romanization is a system for the romanization of Japanese that uses the Latin alphabet to write the Japanese language. It is used by most foreigners learning to spell Japanese in the Latin alphabet and by the Japanese for romanizing personal names, geographical locations, other information such as train tables, road signs, official communications with foreign countries. Based on English writing conventions, consonants correspond to the English pronunciation and vowels approximate the Italian pronunciation; the Hepburn style was developed in the late 19th century by an international commission, formed to develop a unified system of romanization. The commission's romanization scheme was popularized by the wide dissemination of a Japanese–English dictionary by commission member and American missionary James Curtis Hepburn, published in 1886; the "modified Hepburn system" known as the "standard system", was published in 1908 with revisions by Kanō Jigorō and the Society for the Propagation of Romanization.
Although Kunrei romanization is favored by the Japanese government today, Hepburn romanization is still in use and remains the worldwide standard. The Hepburn style is regarded as the best way to render Japanese pronunciation for Westerners. Since it is based on English and Italian pronunciations, people who speak English or Romance languages will be more accurate in pronouncing unfamiliar Japanese words romanized in the Hepburn style compared to Nihon-shiki romanization and Kunrei-shiki romanization. Hepburn is based on English phonology and has competed with the alternative Nihon-shiki romanization, developed in Japan as a replacement of the Japanese script. In 1930 a Special Romanization Study Commission was appointed to compare the two; the Commission decided in favor of a slightly-modified version of Nihon-shiki, proclaimed to be Japan's official romanization for all purposes by a September 21, 1937, cabinet ordinance. The ordinance was temporarily overturned by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers during the Occupation of Japan, but it was reissued with slight revisions in 1954.
In 1972 a revised version of Hepburn was codified as ANSI standard Z39.11-1972. It was proposed in 1989 as a draft for ISO 3602 but rejected in favor of the Kunrei-shiki romanization; the ANSI Z39.11-1972 standard was deprecated on October 6, 1994. As of 1978 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, many other official organizations used Hepburn instead of Kunrei-shiki. In addition The Japan Times, the Japan Travel Bureau, many other private organizations used Hepburn instead of Kunrei-shiki; the National Diet Library used Kunrei-shiki. Although Hepburn is not a government standard, some government agencies mandate it. For example, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs requires the use of Hepburn on passports, the Ministry of Land and Transport requires the use of Hepburn on transport signs, including road signs and railway station signs. In many other areas that it lacks de jure status, Hepburn remains the de facto standard. Signs and notices in city offices and police stations and at shrines and attractions use it.
English-language newspapers and media use the simplified form of Hepburn. Cities and prefectures use it in information for English-speaking residents and visitors, English-language publications by the Japanese Foreign Ministry use simplified Hepburn as well. Official tourism information put out by the government uses it, as do guidebooks, both local and foreign, on Japan. Many students of Japanese as a foreign language learn Hepburn. There are many variants of the Hepburn romanization; the two most common styles are as follows: The Traditional Hepburn, as defined in various editions of Hepburn's dictionary, with the third edition considered authoritative. It is characterized by the rendering of syllabic n as m before the consonants b, m and p: Shimbashi for 新橋. Modified Hepburn known as Revised Hepburn, in which the rendering of syllabic n as m before certain consonants is no longer used: Shinbashi for 新橋; the style was introduced in the third edition of Kenkyūsha's New Japanese-English Dictionary, was adopted by the Library of Congress as one of its ALA-LC romanizations, is the most common version of the system today.
In Japan itself, there are some variants mandated for various uses: Railway Standard, which follows the Hyōjun-shiki Rōmaji. All Japan Rail and other major railways use it for station names. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Tourism Standard, how to spell Roman letters of road signs, which follows the modified Hepburn style, it is used for road signs. Ministry of Foreign Affairs Passport Standard, a permissive standard, which explicitly allows the use of "non-Hepburn romaji" in personal names, notably for passports. In particular, it renders the syllabic n as m before b, m and p, romanizes long o as oh, oo or ou. Details of the variants can be found below; the romanizations set out in the first and second versions of Hepburn's dictionary are of historical interest. Notable differences from the third and versions include: エ and ヱ were written as ye: Yedo ズ and ヅ were written as dzu: kudzu, tsudzuku キャ, キョ, キュ were written as kiya, kiy
Effeminacy is the manifestation of traits in a boy or man that are more associated with feminine nature, mannerism, style, or gender roles rather than with masculine nature, mannerisms, style or roles. It is a term applied to womanly behavior, style and appearance displayed by a boy or man; until the modern period, effeminacy in the Western tradition referred to a complicated intersection of both social and sexual identities associated with women. The ancient Greeks, for example, described whole societies as effeminate if they were characterized by a slavish, deferential, or autocratic political culture. Here, it was the form of sexual relationships, but not the fact of homosexual relations, critical to the sexual dimension of the term, and among early modern partisans of the republican tradition, the term might be applied to those who were preoccupied with "womanly" concerns, such as the accoutrements of appearance, which were associated with trappings of nobility or aristocratic aspirations, such as ostentatious dress, decadence in consumption habits, rigid adherence to the proprieties or manners of social hierarchy.
The reach of this "civic" understanding may be best illustrated in the work of early feminist and republican thinkers such as Mary Wollstonecraft, who described as "effeminate" the behavior of women who refused to embrace a more active presence in public life. Since the 18th century, the civic dimension of gender identity has been eclipsed by the sexual dimension of gender identity, today, effeminacy has been considered a vice, indicative of other negative character traits and involving a pejorative insinuation of homosexual tendencies in boys or men. In other societies, by contrast, effeminate boys or men may be considered a distinct human gender, may have a special social function, as is the case of Two-Spirits in some Native American groups. Furthermore, some see effeminacy to be a characteristic or trait, part of a particular person's gender role and in this sense would not be considered a vice or indicative of any other characteristics. An effeminate boy or man is similar to a fop or a dandy, though these tend to be archaic identities that are taken on by the individual rather than insulting labels.
Effeminate comes from the Latin effeminātus, from ex, "out," and femina which means woman. Another Latin term is mollities, meaning "softness." In ancient Koine Greek, the word for effeminate is κίναιδος kinaidos, or μαλακοί malakoi: a man "whose most salient feature was a "feminine" love of being sexually penetrated by other men.""A cinaedus is a man who cross-dresses or flirts like a girl. Indeed, the word's etymology suggests an indirect sexual act emanating a promiscuous woman; this term has been borrowed from the Greek kinaidos (which may itself have come from a language of Ionian Greecs of Asia Minor signifying a purely effeminate dancer who entertained his audiences with a tympanum or tambourine in his hand, adopted a lascivious style suggestively wiggling his buttocks in such a way as to suggest anal intercourse.... The primary meaning of cinaedus never died out. Contrastingly, a masculine girl would be called a "tomboy", "butch", or "dyke"; the word effete means effeminacy or over-refinement, but comes from the Latin effetus, from ex- and fetus "fruitful".
Greek historian Plutarch recounts that Periander, the tyrant of Ambracia, asked his "boy", "Aren't you pregnant yet?" in the presence of other people, causing the boy to kill him in revenge for being treated as if effeminate or a woman. As part of Greek politician's proof that a member of the prosecution against him, had prostituted himself to another man while young, he attributed fellow prosecutor Demosthenes' nickname Batalos to his "unmanliness and kinaidiā" and commented on his "unmanly and womanish temper" criticising his clothing: "If anyone took those dainty little coats and soft shirts off you... and took them round for the jurors to handle, I think they'd be quite unable to say, if they hadn't been told in advance, whether they had hold of a man's clothing or a woman's."Demosthenes is implicated in passive homosexuality and the prostitution of youth: "There is a certain Aristion, a Plataean... who as a youth was outstandingly good-looking and lived for a long time in Demosthenes' house.
Allegations about the part he was playing there vary, it would be most unseemly for me to talk about it."The late Greek Erôtes, preserved with manuscripts by Lucian, contains a debate "between two men and Callicratidas, over the relative merits of women and boys as vehicles of male sexual pleasure." Callicratidas, "far from being effeminised by his sexual predilection for boys... Callicratidas's inclination renders him hypervirile... Callicratidas's sexual desire for boys makes him more of a man. In contrast, "Charicles' erotic preference for women seems to have had the corresponding effect of effeminising him: when the reader first encounters him, for example, Charicles is described as exhibiting'a skillful use of cosmetics, so as to be attractive to women.'" Over-refinement, fine clothes and other possessions
Radio drama is a dramatised, purely acoustic performance. With no visual component, radio drama depends on dialogue and sound effects to help the listener imagine the characters and story: "It is auditory in the physical dimension but powerful as a visual force in the psychological dimension."Radio drama achieved widespread popularity within a decade of its initial development in the 1920s. By the 1940s, it was a leading international popular entertainment. With the advent of television in the 1950s, radio drama began losing its audience, however, in most countries it remains popular. Recordings of OTR survive today in the audio archives of collectors and museums, as well as several online sites such as Internet Archive. By the 21st century, radio drama had a minimal presence on terrestrial radio in the United States, with much American radio drama being restricted to rebroadcasts of programmes from previous decades. However, other nations still have thriving traditions of radio drama. In the United Kingdom, for example, the BBC produces and broadcasts hundreds of new radio plays each year on Radio 3, Radio 4, Radio 4 Extra.
Like the USA, Australia ABC has abandoned broadcasting drama but in New Zealand RNZ continues to promote and broadcast a variety of drama over its airwaves. Thanks to advances in digital recording and Internet distribution, radio drama experienced a revival around 2010. Podcasting offered the means of inexpensively creating new radio dramas, in addition to the distribution of vintage programs; the terms "audio drama" or "audio theatre" are sometimes used synonymously with "radio drama". Audio drama can be found on CDs, cassette tapes, webcasts as well as broadcast radio; the Roman playwright "Seneca has been claimed as a forerunner of radio drama because his plays were performed by readers as sound plays, not by actors as stage plays. Radio drama traces its roots back to the 1880s: "In 1881 French engineer Clement Ader had filed a patent for ‘improvements of Telephone Equipment in Theatres’". English-language radio drama seems to have started in the United States. A Rural Line on Education, a brief sketch written for radio, aired on Pittsburgh's KDKA in 1921, according to historian Bill Jaker.
Newspaper accounts of the era report on a number of other drama experiments by America's commercial radio stations: KYW broadcast a season of complete operas from Chicago starting in November 1921. In February 1922, entire Broadway musical comedies with the original casts aired from WJZ's Newark studios. Actors Grace George and Herbert Hayes performed an entire play from a San Francisco station in the summer of 1922. An important turning point in radio drama came when Schenectady, New York's WGY, after a successful tryout on August 3, 1922, began weekly studio broadcasts of full-length stage plays in September 1922, using music, sound effects and a regular troupe of actors, The WGY Players. Aware of this series, the director of Cincinnati's WLW began broadcasting one-acts in November; the success of these projects led to imitators at other stations. By the spring of 1923, original dramatic pieces written specially for radio were airing on stations in Cincinnati and Los Angeles; that same year, WLW and WGY sponsored scripting contests, inviting listeners to create original plays to be performed by those stations' dramatic troupes.
Listings in The New York Times and other sources for May 1923 reveal at least 20 dramatic offerings were scheduled, either as in-studio productions or by remote broadcast from local theaters and opera houses. An early British drama broadcast was of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream on 2LO on 25 July 1923Serious study of American radio drama of the 1920s and early 1930s is, at best limited. Unsung pioneers of the art include: WLW's Fred Smith. Elizabeth McLeod's 2005 book on Gosden and Correll's early work is a major exception, as is Richard J. Hand's 2006 study of horror radio, which examines some programs from early 1930s. Another notable early radio drama, one of the first specially written for the medium in the UK, was A Comedy of Danger by Richard Hughes, broadcast by the BBC on January 15, 1924, about a group of people trapped in a Welsh coal mine. One of the earliest and most influential French radio plays was the prize-winning "Marémoto", by Gabriel Germinet and Pierre Cusy, which presents a realistic account of a sinking ship before revealing that the characters are actors rehearsing for a
Psychokinesis, or telekinesis, is an alleged psychic ability allowing a person to influence a physical system without physical interaction. Psychokinesis experiments have been criticized for lack of proper controls and repeatability. There is no convincing evidence that psychokinesis is a real phenomenon, the topic is regarded as pseudoscience. Psychokinesis as an ability is common in popular culture, to the point of becoming a stock superpower; the word "psychokinesis" was coined in 1914 by American author Henry Holt in his book On the Cosmic Relations. The term is a linguistic blend or portmanteau of the Greek language words ψυχή – meaning mind, spirit, or breath – and κίνησις – meaning motion, movement; the American parapsychologist J. B. Rhine coined the term extra-sensory perception to describe receiving information paranormally from an external source. Following this, he used the term psychokinesis in 1934 to describe mentally influencing external objects or events without the use of physical energy.
His initial example of psychokinesis was experiments that were conducted to determine whether a person could influence the outcome of falling dice. The word telekinesis, a portmanteau of the Greek τῆλε – meaning distance – and κίνησις – meaning motion – was first used in 1890 by Russian psychical researcher Alexander N. Aksakof. In parapsychology, fictional universes and New Age beliefs and telekinesis are different: psychokinesis refers to the mental influence of physical systems and objects without the use of any physical energy, while telekinesis refers to the movement and/or levitation of physical objects by purely mental force without any physical intervention. There is a broad scientific consensus that PK research, parapsychology more have not produced a reliable, repeatable demonstration. A panel commissioned in 1988 by the United States National Research Council to study paranormal claims concluded that "despite a 130-year record of scientific research on such matters, our committee could find no scientific justification for the existence of phenomena such as extrasensory perception, mental telepathy or ‘mind over matter’ exercises...
Evaluation of a large body of the best available evidence does not support the contention that these phenomena exist."In 1984, the United States National Academy of Sciences, at the request of the US Army Research Institute, formed a scientific panel to assess the best evidence for psychokinesis. Part of its purpose was to investigate military applications of PK, for example to remotely jam or disrupt enemy weaponry; the panel heard from a variety of military staff who believed in PK and made visits to the PEAR laboratory and two other laboratories that had claimed positive results from micro-PK experiments. The panel criticized macro-PK experiments for being open to deception by conjurors, said that all micro-PK experiments "depart from good scientific practice in a variety of ways", their conclusion, published in a 1987 report, was that there was no scientific evidence for the existence of psychokinesis. Carl Sagan included telekinesis in a long list of "offerings of pseudoscience and superstition" which "it would be foolish to accept without solid scientific data".
Nobel Prize laureate Richard Feynman advocated a similar position. Felix Planer, a professor of electrical engineering, has written that if psychokinesis were real it would be easy to demonstrate by getting subjects to depress a scale on a sensitive balance, raise the temperature of a waterbath which could be measured with an accuracy of a hundredth of a degree centigrade, or affect an element in an electrical circuit such as a resistor, which could be monitored to better than a millionth of an ampere. Planer writes that such experiments are sensitive and easy to monitor but are not utilized by parapsychologists as they "do not hold out the remotest hope of demonstrating a minute trace of PK" because the alleged phenomenon is non-existent. Planer has written that parapsychologists have to fall back on studies that involve only statistics that are unrepeatable, owing their results to poor experimental methods, recording mistakes and faulty statistical mathematics. According to Planer, "All research in medicine and other sciences would become illusionary, if the existence of PK had to be taken seriously.
Planer has no scientific basis. PK hypotheses have been considered in a number of contexts outside parapsychological experiments. C. E. M. Hansel has written that a general objection against the claim for the existence of psychokinesis is that, if it were a real process, its effects would be expected to manifest in situations in everyday life. Science writers Martin Gardner and Terence Hines and the philosopher Theodore Schick have written that if psychokinesis were possible, one would expect casino incomes to be affected, but the earnings are as the laws of chance predict. Psychologist Nicholas Humphrey argues that many experiments in psychology, biology or physics assume that the intentions of the subjects or experimenter do not physically distort the apparatus. Humphrey counts them as implicit replications of PK experiments; the ideas of psychokinesis and telekinesis violate several well-established laws of physics, including the inverse square law, the second law of thermodynamics, the conservati
Manga are comics or graphic novels created in Japan or by creators in the Japanese language, conforming to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century. They have a complex pre-history in earlier Japanese art; the term manga in Japan is a word used to refer to cartooning. "Manga" as a term used outside Japan refers to comics published in Japan. In Japan, people of all ages read manga; the medium includes works in a broad range of genres: action, adventure and commerce, detective, historical, mystery, science fiction and fantasy, erotica and games, suspense, among others. Many manga are translated into other languages. Since the 1950s, manga has become a major part of the Japanese publishing industry. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion, with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books and manga magazines in Japan. Manga have gained a significant worldwide audience. In 2008, in the U. S. and Canada, the manga market was valued at $175 million. Manga represent 38% of the French comics market, equivalent to ten times that of the United States.
In France, the manga market was valued at about €460 million in 2005. In Europe and the Middle East, the market was valued at $250 million in 2012. Manga stories are printed in black-and-white, although some full-color manga exist. In Japan, manga are serialized in large manga magazines containing many stories, each presented in a single episode to be continued in the next issue. Collected chapters are republished in tankōbon volumes but not paperback books. A manga artist works with a few assistants in a small studio and is associated with a creative editor from a commercial publishing company. If a manga series is popular enough, it may be animated during its run. Sometimes manga are drawn centering on existing live-action or animated films. Manga-influenced comics, among original works, exist in other parts of the world in Algeria, Hong Kong and South Korea; the word "manga" comes from the Japanese word 漫画, composed of the two kanji 漫 meaning "whimsical or impromptu" and 画 meaning "pictures".
The same term is the root of the Korean word for the Chinese word. The word first came into common usage in the late 18th century with the publication of such works as Santō Kyōden's picturebook Shiji no yukikai, in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa's Manga hyakujo and the celebrated Hokusai Manga books containing assorted drawings from the sketchbooks of the famous ukiyo-e artist Hokusai. Rakuten Kitazawa first used the word "manga" in the modern sense. In Japanese, "manga" refers to all kinds of cartooning and animation. Among English speakers, "manga" has the stricter meaning of "Japanese comics", in parallel to the usage of "anime" in and outside Japan; the term "ani-manga" is used to describe comics produced from animation cels. The history of manga is said to originate from scrolls dating back to the 12th century, it is believed they represent the basis for the right-to-left reading style. During the Edo period, Toba Ehon embedded the concept of manga; the word itself first came into common usage in 1798, with the publication of works such as Santō Kyōden's picturebook Shiji no yukikai, in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa's Manga hyakujo and the Hokusai Manga books.
Adam L. Kern has suggested that kibyoshi, picture books from the late 18th century, may have been the world's first comic books; these graphical narratives share with modern manga humorous and romantic themes. Some works were mass-produced as serials using woodblock printing. Writers on manga history have described two complementary processes shaping modern manga. One view represented by other writers such as Frederik L. Schodt, Kinko Ito, Adam L. Kern, stress continuity of Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions, including pre-war and pre-Meiji culture and art; the other view, emphasizes events occurring during and after the Allied occupation of Japan, stresses U. S. cultural influences, including U. S. comics and images and themes from U. S. television and cartoons. Regardless of its source, an explosion of artistic creativity occurred in the post-war period, involving manga artists such as Osamu Tezuka and Machiko Hasegawa. Astro Boy became immensely popular in Japan and elsewhere, the anime adaptation of Sazae-san drawing more viewers than any other anime on Japanese television in 2011.
Tezuka and Hasegawa both made stylistic innovations. In Tezuka's "cinematographic" technique, the panels are like a motion picture that reveals details of action bordering on slow motion as well as rapid zooms from distance to close-up shots; this kind of visual dynamism was adopted by manga artists. Hasegawa's focus on daily life and on women's experience came to characterize shōjo manga. Between 1950 and 1969, an large readership for manga emerged in Japan with the solidification of its two main marketing genres, shōnen manga aimed at boys and shōjo manga aimed at girls. In 1969 a group of female manga artists made their shōjo manga debut ("year 24" comes from the Japanese name for the year 1949, the
Tokyopop is an American distributor and publisher of anime, manga and Western manga-style works. The German publishing division produces German translations of licensed Japanese properties and original English-language manga, as well as original German-language manga. Tokyopop's US publishing division publishes works in English. Tokyopop has its US headquarters near LAX in California, its parent company's offices are in Tokyo and its sister company's office is in Hamburg, Germany. Tokyopop was founded in 1997 by Stuart J. Levy. In the late 1990s, the company's headquarters were in Los Angeles. While the company was known as Mixx Entertainment, it sold MixxZine, a manga magazine where popular serials like Sailor Moon were published weekly. Mixxzine became Tokyopop before it was discontinued. Capitalizing on the popularity of Sailor Moon, Mixx created the magazine, Smile, a magazine, half girls’ magazine, half shōjo manga anthology, continued the Sailor Moon story after being discontinued in Mixxzine.
Cultural anthropologist Matt Thorn praised Stu Levy for opening up an untapped market for cartoons with the publication of Sailor Moon. Before Sailor Moon, the belief among entertainment executives was that "girls don't watch cartoons." Due to Sailor Moon’s immense popularity, Tokyopop discontinued the serial from its magazines, released it separately as its first manga graphic novel. They engineered prominent book distribution via retail stores, standardized book trim size, created a basic industry-wide rating system, developed the first-ever retail manga displays and introduced the world of graphic novels to an audience of teenage girls. Together with Diamond, Tokyopop offered retailers free spinner rack displays for Tokyopop manga, thereby increasing the visibility of the medium in bookstores. Tokyopop licensed and distributed Japanese anime. In 1996, Mixx Entertainment acquired the rights to the anime biopic of Japanese poet Kenji Miyazawa, Stu Levy produced and directed the English version of the anime film, entitled “Spring and Chaos.”
The film was directed and scripted by Shoji Kawamori, who created Super Dimensional Fortress Macross and The Vision of Escaflowne. Taste of Cinema ranked “Spring and Chaos” thirteenth in its list of Top “25 Weird Animated Movies That Are Worth Your Time.” From 2000 to 2004, Tokyopop released multiple film and television projects such as Street Fury, which Stu Levy created, GTO, Rave Master, Reign: The Conqueror Tokyopop released English version DVDs for: Initial D, Marmalade Boy, Saint Tail, Samurai Girl: Real Bout High School, Vampire Princess Miyu, Brigadoon, FMW, High School Ghostbusters. In 2002, Tokyopop launched its line of 100% Authentic Manga, printed in the original Japanese right-to-left format and included the original Japanese printed sound effects. In Japan, all published manga is written to read from right to left, but when an English translation was published in the U. S. however, the common practice was to use computer-reversed or mirror images that allowed the books to read from left to right.
This compromised the integrity of the title's original artwork. Tokyopop's decision to release 100% authentic right-to-left manga not only maintained the integrity of the original artwork, but it enabled Tokyopop to release most graphic novel series on a frequency three-to-six times faster than the current industry standard. Tokyopop volumes hit the shelves monthly, bi-monthly or quarterly versus the six months or longer typical of competitors, it allowed Tokyopop to sell books for an industry-leading price point of $9.99 per book, at a time when most competitors charged $12.99 to $16.99 per book. Tokyopop was the first U. S. publisher to adopt such a sweeping policy. While some Japanese manga artists had required that the English versions of their manga be published from right to left, Tokyopop was the first American publisher to unilaterally announce that it would maintain the original format for all of its future manga titles. An "authentic manga" how-to guide was included in each graphic novel to keep readers from accidentally reading the final page first, the authentic manga featured special packaging.
Tokyopop launched their Global Manga publishing program in 2003 via the introduction of its "Rising Stars of Manga" talent competition. The competition called for American manga artists to submit 15-25 page English-language stories of any genre; the top 10 entries, as judged by Tokyopop editors, received cash prizes and were published in an anthology of the winning works. The grand prize winners were given the chance to pitch full-length manga projects to Tokyopop for a chance to become professional manga-ka. Tokyopop launched its first "Rising Stars of Manga" contest on August 15, 2002 and ended it on December 16, 2002, with more than five hundred American artists submitting their 15–25 page, English-language stories; the 5th Rising Stars of Manga competition added the People's Choice award, where the top-20 finalists had their entire entries judged by the fans on the Tokyopop website. “We are pleased to open up the Rising Stars judging to the fans," commented Tokyopop editor Rob Valois. "Since so many people have been vocal on the message boards and at industry conventions, we’re offering them all a chance to shape the future of manga.
I’m excited to see how the fans’ favorite will compare to our own."Tokyopop held eight Rising Stars of Manga competitions between 2002 and 2008, as well as one in the UK in 2005. Several Rising Stars of Manga winners went on t