In telecommunications, a handshake is an automated process of negotiation between two participants through the exchange of information that establishes the protocols of a communication link at the start of the communication, before full communication begins. The handshaking process takes place in order to establish rules for communication when a computer attempts to communicate with another device. Signals are exchanged between two devices to establish a communication link. For example, when a computer communicates with another device such as a modem, the two devices will signal each other that they are switched on and ready to work, as well as to agree to which protocols are being used. Handshaking can negotiate parameters that are acceptable to equipment and systems at both ends of the communication channel, including information transfer rate, coding alphabet, interrupt procedure, other protocol or hardware features. Handshaking is a technique of communication between two entities. However, within TCP/IP RFCs, the term "handshake" is most used to reference the TCP three-way handshake.
For example, the term "handshake" is not present in RFCs covering FTP or SMTP. One exception is Transport Layer Security, TLS, setup, FTP RFC 4217. In place of the term "handshake", FTP RFC 3659 substitutes the term "conversation" for the passing of commands. A simple handshaking protocol might only involve the receiver sending a message meaning "I received your last message and I am ready for you to send me another one." A more complex handshaking protocol might allow the sender to ask the receiver if it is ready to receive or for the receiver to reply with a negative acknowledgement meaning "I did not receive your last message please resend it". Handshaking facilitates connecting heterogeneous systems or equipment over a communication channel without the need for human intervention to set parameters. Establishing a normal TCP connection requires three separate steps: The first host sends the second host a "synchronize" message with its own sequence number x, which Bob receives. Bob replies with a synchronize-acknowledgment message with its own sequence number y and acknowledgement number x + 1, which Alice receives.
Alice replies with an acknowledgment message with acknowledgement number y + 1, which Bob receives and to which he doesn't need to reply. In this setup, the synchronize messages act as service requests from one server to the other, while the acknowledgement messages return to the requesting server to let it know the message was received. One of the most important factors of three-way handshake is that, in order to exchange the starting sequence number the two sides plan to use, the client first sends a segment with its own initial sequence number x the server responds by sending a segment with its own sequence number y and the acknowledgement number x + 1, the client responds by sending a segment with acknowledgement number y + 1; the reason for the client and server not using the default sequence number such as 0 for establishing connection is to protect against two incarnations of the same connection reusing the same sequence number too soon, which means a segment from an earlier incarnation of a connection might interfere with a incarnation of the connection.
The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is the key Internet standard for email transmission. It includes handshaking to negotiate authentication and maximum message size; when a Transport Layer Security connection starts, the record encapsulates a "control" protocol—the handshake messaging protocol. This protocol is used to exchange all the information required by both sides for the exchange of the actual application data by TLS, it defines the messages containing this information and the order of their exchange. These may vary according to the demands of the server -- i.e.. There are several possible procedures; this initial exchange results in an alert message. The protocol is used to negotiate the secure attributes of a session; the WPA2 standard for wireless uses a four-way handshake defined in IEEE 802.11i-2004. One classic example of handshaking is that of dial-up modems, which negotiate communication parameters for a brief period when a connection is first established, there after use those parameters to provide optimal information transfer over the channel as a function of its quality and capacity.
The "squealing" noises made by some modems with speaker output after a connection is established are in fact the sounds of modems at both ends engaging in a handshaking procedure. This used term describes the use of RTS and CTS signals over a serial interconnection, it is, not quite correct. This flow control mechanism is described in the article on RS-232
Reaching for the Stars Original Soundtrack is the soundtrack for the 2005 Taiwanese drama, Reaching For The Stars, starring Selina Ren, Hebe Tian and Ella Chen of S. H. E, it was released on 28 September 2005 by HIM International Music with a bonus DVD containing four music videos, behind-the-scene footage and a photobook. The track "星光" was nominated for Top 10 Gold Songs at the Hong Kong TVB8 Awards, presented by television station TVB8, in 2005. "星光" - S. H. E "再一次擁有" - Kaira Gong "我比想像中愛你" - J. S "我給你幸福" - Power Station "只是當時" - Ella Chen "摩天輪" - Hebe Tien "管不著" - Selina Ren "星光 流光飛舞版 - 演奏曲" - instrumental "再一次擁有 激情擁抱版 - 演奏曲" - instrumental "星光 夜空燦爛版 - 演奏曲" - instrumental "再一次擁有 怦然心動版 - 演奏曲" - instrumental "只是當時 演奏版" - instrumental "摩天輪 演奏版" - instrumental "管不著 演奏版" - instrumental "星光" MV "管不著" MV "摩天輪" MV "只是當時" MV "星光" MV Behind-the-scene "管不著" MV Behind-the-scene "摩天輪" MV Behind-the-scene "只是當時" MV Behind-the-scene Reaching for the Stars Photobook
Clanculus limbatus, common name the keeled clanculus, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Trochidae, the top snails. The size of the shell varies between 20 mm; the depressed, umbilicate shell has a conoidal shape. It is carinate at its periphery, its color is whitish or yellowish, maculated with brown with a series of blotches at the periphery and beneath the suture, the intervening space unicolored or more or less tessellated. The base of the shell is radiately flamed; the spire is low conical with an smooth apex. The 5 to 6 whorls are convex just below the sutures flattened, at the periphery carinated; the sutures are subcanaliculate. The body whorl scarcely descends anteriorly, above with 6 to 8 spiral granose cinguli, beneath with 7 to 9 similar concentric cinguli; the interstices both above and below are sharply, microscopically striate. The base of the shell is convex; the oblique aperture is tetragonal. The outer lip is four or five-lirate within, the upper fold subdentiform.
The basal margin and marginal rib of the umbilicus is finely plicate. The columella is oblique, nearly straight, its edge reflexed and plicate-dentate, terminating below in a small square denticle, inserted above upon the side of the umbilicus; the umbilicus is rather funnel-shaped. This marine species is endemic to Australia and occurs off South Australia, Tasmania and Western Australia. Philippi, R. A. 1849. Centuria altera Testaceorum novorum. Zeitschrift für Malakozoologie 5: 99-112 Philippi, R. A. 1849. Trochidae. 73-120, pls 36-39 in Küster, H. C.. Systematisches Conchylien-Cabinet von Martini und Chemnitz. Nürnberg: Bauer & Raspe Vol. II. Philippi, R. A. 1852. Trochidae. Pp. 185–232, in Küster, H. C.. Systematisches Conchylien-Cabinet von Martini und Chemnitz. Nürnberg: Bauer & Raspe Vol. 2. Adams, A. 1853. Contributions towards a monograph of the Trochidae, a family of gastropodous Mollusca. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1851: 150-192 Philippi, R. A. 1855. Trochidae. Pp. 249–328 in Küster, H.
C.. Systematisches Conchylien-Cabinet von Martini und Chemnitz. Nürnberg: Bauer & Raspe Vol. 2 Angas, G. F. 1865. On the marine molluscan fauna of the Province of South Australia, with a list of all the species known up to the present time, together with remarks on their habitats and distribution, etc. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1865: 155-"180" Tapparone-Canefri, C. M 1873. Malacologia in "Zoologia del viaggio intorno al globo della regia fregata Magenta durante gli anni 1865–68". Zoologia Magenta 162 pp. 4 pls Fischer, P. 1877. Genres Calcar, Xenophora, Tectarius et Risella. Pp. 115–240 in Keiner, L. C.. Spécies general et iconographie des coquilles vivantes. Paris: J. B. Baillière Vol. 11. Tenison-Woods, J. E. 1879. Census. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 1877: 26-57 Hutton, F. W. 1880. Manual of the New Zealand Mollusca. Wellington: Colonial Museum and Geological Survey Department 224 pp. Harris, G. F. 1897. Catalogue of Tertiary Mollusca in the Department of Geology, British Museum.
The Australasian Tertiary Mollusca. London: British Museum of Natural History Part 1 407 pp. 8 pls Tate, R. & May, W. L. 1901. A revised census of the marine Mollusca of Tasmania. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 26: 344-471 Pritchard, G. B. & Gatliff, J. H. 1902. Catalogue of the marine shells of Victoria. Part V. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 14: 85-138 May, W. L. 1921. A Checklist of the Mollusca of Tasmania. Hobart, Tasmania: Government Printer 114 pp. May, W. L. 1923. An Illustrated Index of Tasmanian Shells. Hobart: Government Printer 100 pp. Iredale, T. 1924. Results from Roy Bell's molluscan collections. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 49: 179-279, pl. 33-36 Cotton, B. C. & Godfrey, F. K. 1934. South Australian Shells. Part 11. South Australian Naturalist 15: 77-92 Cotton, B. C. 1959. South Australian Mollusca. Archaeogastropoda. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia. Adelaide: South Australian Government Printer 449 pp. Macpherson, J. H. & Gabriel, C.
J. 1962. Marine Molluscs of Victoria. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press & National Museum of Victoria 475 pp Macpherson, J. H. 1966. Port Philip Survey 1957-1963. Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria, Melbourne 27: 201-288 Wells, F. E. & Bryce, C. W. 1986. Seashells of Western Australia. Perth: Western Australian Museum 207 pp. Wilson, B. 1993. Australian Marine Shells. Prosobranch Gastropods. Kallaroo, Western Australia: Odyssey Publishing Vol. 1 408 pp. Jansen, P. 1995. A review of the genus Clanculus Montfort, 1810 in Australia, with description of a new subspecies and the introduction of a nomen novum. Vita Marina 43: 39-62 To Biodiversity Heritage Library To World Register of Marine Species "Clanculus limbatus". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 15 January 2019
Street Enterprises was a publishing company that focused on reprints of newspaper comic strips from the United States and the United Kingdom. Operating from 1971–1984, Street Enterprises is most known for the sister publications The Menomonee Falls Gazette and The Menomonee Falls Guardian, as well as for taking over publication of the comics news-zine The Comic Reader; the company was based in Menomonee Falls and was the partnership of publisher Jerry Sinkovec and editor Mike Tiefenbacher, who ran the operation out of a storage trailer. The S and T in "STreet" came from the first letters of the founders' last names. Milwaukee-area comics enthusiasts Sinkovec and Tiefenbacher met through letters printed in comics fanzines. Fans of adventure comic strips, which by the early 1970s had disappeared from American newspapers, they banded together to publish The Menomonee Falls Gazette to keep the genre alive. In the company's early years, they published a selection of 32-page comic one-shots featuring a single character, such as The Cisco Kid, Jungle Jim, Krazy Kat, Prince Valiant, Rip Kirby, Flash Gordon.
The dedicated partners struggled financially from the start, but nonetheless in 1973 took on two more ongoing publications. They began publishing The Menomonee Falls Guardian, which reprinted humor strips, took over the comics news fanzine The Comic Reader, founded in 1961. To raise money, Street Enterprises produced artists' portfolios in 1975 and 1976, but by 1976, the duo were living in their parents' basements. Despite canceling The Guardian in 1976 and The Gazette in 1978, they were able to keep publishing The Comic Reader until 1984, when the company went defunct; the Cisco Kid The Comic Reader Jungle Jim Krazy Kat — 60 daily strips from July 3–Oct. 28, 1933 The Menomonee Falls Gazette The Menomonee Falls Guardian Prince Valiant Street Comix — Rip Kirby and Flash Gordon During the 1980s, Tiefenbacher freelanced as a writer for a number of comics publishers, including DC Comics, Spotlight Comics, Fantagraphics. His most notable contributions were the scripts for a number of "Whatever Happened to...?"
Devonte Daryll Delroy Small is a professional footballer who plays as a midfielder. Born in the United States, he has represented Guyana at international level. Small played for both Lane United and the Portland Timbers U23s while studying at the Oregon State University. After leaving university in the United States, Small moved to Iceland and signed for third division side Reynir Sandgerði, he made six appearances in the league and scored three goals in two appearances in the Icelandic Cup during the 2017 season. As of 1 August 2018. Notes As of matches played 1 August 2018. Devonte Small at Soccerway Devonte Small at Caribbean Football Database Devonte Small at Oregon State University
A Man Escaped or: The Wind Bloweth Where It Listeth is a 1956 French film directed by Robert Bresson. It is based on the memoirs of André Devigny, a member of the French Resistance held in Montluc prison by the occupying Germans during World War II; the protagonist of the film is called Fontaine. Bresson himself was imprisoned by the Germans as a member of the French Resistance; the second part of the title comes from the Bible. The soundtrack uses the Kyrie from Mozart's Great Mass in C minor, K. 427. The film was entered into the 1957 Cannes Film Festival, has been one of Bresson's most renowned works since its initial release. After the establishing shot of Montluc prison, but before the opening credits, the camera rests on a plaque commemorating the 7,000 prisoners who died at the hands of the Nazis. On the way to jail, Fontaine, a member of the French Resistance, seizes an opportunity to escape his German captors when the car carrying him is forced to stop, but he is soon apprehended, beaten for his attempt and taken to the jail.
At first he is incarcerated in a cell on the first floor of the prison, he is able to talk to three French men who are exercising in the courtyard. The men obtain a safety pin for Fontaine; this turns out to be needless as a means to help him with any escape plans he may have, but it allows him at will, to remove the handcuffs which are kept on him 24 hours a day. He gives his word parole to the German magistrate he is brought before, not to escape, is moved to a cell on the top floor without handcuffs. Once in the new cell, Fontaine begins inspecting the door and discovers that the boards are joined together with low-quality wood. Using an iron spoon he deliberately neglects to return after a meal, he begins to chip away at the wood. After weeks of work, he is able to remove three boards from the door, roam the hallway, get back in his cell and restore the appearance of the door. Fontaine is not the only prisoner trying to escape. Orsini makes an attempt, but fails to get far because his rope breaks at the second wall.
Orsini is tossed back in his cell, beaten up by the guards, executed a few days later. Fontaine is not deterred from his plan, he makes hooks from the light fitting in his cell, fashions himself ropes from clothing and bedding and fastens the hooks to the rope with wires taken from his bed. The other prisoners grow somewhat skeptical of his escape plans. After being taken to Gestapo headquarters to be informed that he is sentenced to execution, Fontaine is taken back to jail and put in the same cell. Soon he gets a sixteen-year-old who had joined the German army. Fontaine is not sure whether he can trust Jost and realizes he will either have to kill him or take him with him in the escape. In the end, after Jost admits he too wants to escape, he chooses to trust the boy and tells him the plan. One night, they escape by gaining access to the roof of the building, descending to the courtyard via a rope, killing the German guard there, climbing over two walls, they walk away. François Leterrier – Lieutenant Fontaine Charles Le Clainche – François Jost Roland Monod – Le Pasteur Maurice Beerblock – Blanchet Jacques Ertaud – Orsini Roger Treherne – Terry Jean Paul Delhumeau – Hebrard Jean Philippe Delamarre – Prisoner No, 110 César Gattegno – Le Prisonnier X Jacques Oerlemans – Chief Warder The film is based on the memoirs of André Devigny, who escaped from the Montluc prison in Lyon in 1943, during World War II.
Bresson said in an interview that with A Man Escaped he "wanted to achieve a great purity, a greater asceticism than in Diary of a Country Priest", noting his use of nonprofessional actors. New Yorker Video released the film on Region 1 DVD in 2004. Artificial Eye brought out a Region 2 version in the UK in April 2008; this disc contains a superior audio/video presentation and contains a Dutch documentary, The Road to Bresson, as an extra. Madman Entertainment released a Region 4 Australian DVD in July 2009; this release contains a scholarly audio commentary by Professor Ross Gibson of the Sydney College of the Arts, University of Sydney. Gaumont released a Blu-ray Disc in France on November 2, 2010. A Man Escaped was named by the National Board of Review as one of the best foreign films of 1956, Bresson won Best Director at the 1957 Cannes Film Festival. Today, the work is sometimes considered Bresson's masterpiece. Cunneen, Joseph. Robert Bresson: A Spiritual Style in Film. A&C Black. ISBN 0826416055.