Acintya Atintya Tunggal is the Supreme God of Indonesian Hinduism on the island of Bali. Acintya is equivalent to the metaphysical concept of Brahman of Indian Hinduism, is the Supreme God in traditional wayang theatre. Acintya is known as Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa Sanghyang Widi Wasa. All gods and existence are believed to be the manifestation of the Acintya in Balinese Hinduism. Acintya corresponds to a rather recent trend towards monism in Bali, according to which there is one supreme deity, that all other gods are only manifestations of him. Acintya is emptiness, considered as the origin of the Universe, all other divinities emanating from him, he is associated to the sun god, depicted in human form with flames around him. His nakedness expresses that "his consciousness is no longer carried away by his sense-faculties". Prayers and offerings are not made directly to Acintya, but to the other manifestations of the deity, he is not represented, in which case he is only evoked by an empty throne on top of a pillar, inside Balinese temples.
The introduction of the Padmasana as an altar to the Supreme God, was the result of a 16th-century Hindu reformation movement, led by Dang Hyang Nirartha, the priest of the Gelgel King Batu Renggong, at the time when Islam was spreading from the west through Java. Dang Hyang Nirartha built temples in Bali, added the Padmasana shrines to the temples he visited. Since the end of World War II and the Indonesian War of Independence, the Republic of Indonesia has adopted the political philosophy of Pancasila, which allows for freedom of religion; the statute, requires that the religion in question be monotheistic, i.e. based upon the belief in a single, omnipotent deity. Under this system, six religions are recognised: Islam, Catholicism, Hinduism and on Confucianism. To comply with regulations, Balinese Hindus have felt the need to reinforce the monotheistic component of the faith, thus the more emphasised role of Acintya. To refer to him, they selected the term Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa, which although coined in the 1930s by Protestant missionaries to describe the Christian God, was thought to be well-adapted to describe the Hindu supreme deity.
This is thus the name, now more used by modern Balinese. Bhagavan Brahman Hinduism in Indonesia Hyang
The tiger is the largest species among the Felidae and classified in the genus Panthera. It is most recognizable for its dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside, it is an apex predator preying on ungulates such as deer and bovids. It is territorial and a solitary but social predator, requiring large contiguous areas of habitat, which support its requirements for prey and rearing of its offspring. Tiger cubs stay with their mother for about two years, before they become independent and leave their mother's home range to establish their own; the tiger once ranged from Eastern Anatolia Region in the west to the Amur River basin, in the south from the foothills of the Himalayas to Bali in the Sunda islands. Since the early 20th century, tiger populations have lost at least 93% of their historic range and have been extirpated in Western and Central Asia, from the islands of Java and Bali, in large areas of Southeast and South Asia and China. Today's tiger range is fragmented, stretching from Siberian temperate forests to subtropical and tropical forests on the Indian subcontinent and Sumatra.
The tiger is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 1986. As of 2015, the global wild tiger population was estimated to number between 3,062 and 3,948 mature individuals, down from around 100,000 at the start of the 20th century, with most remaining populations occurring in small pockets isolated from each other. Major reasons for population decline include habitat destruction, habitat fragmentation and poaching. This, coupled with the fact that it lives in some of the more densely populated places on Earth, has caused significant conflicts with humans; the tiger is among the most popular of the world's charismatic megafauna. It featured prominently in ancient mythology and folklore and continues to be depicted in modern films and literature, appearing on many flags, coats of arms and as mascots for sporting teams; the tiger is the national animal of India, Bangladesh and South Korea. The Middle English tigre and Old English tigras derive from Latin tigris; this was a borrowing of Classical Greek τίγρις'tigris', a foreign borrowing of unknown origin meaning'tiger' as well as the river Tigris.
The origin may have been the Persian word tigra meaning'pointed or sharp', the Avestan word tigrhi'arrow' referring to the speed of the tiger's leap, although these words are not known to have any meanings associated with tigers. The generic name Panthera is traceable to the Old French word'pantère', the Latin word panthera, the Ancient Greek word πάνθηρ'panther'; the Sanskrit word पाण्डर pând-ara means'pale yellow, white'. In 1758, Carl Linnaeus described the tiger in his work Systema Naturae and gave it the scientific name Felis tigris. In 1929, the British taxonomist Reginald Innes Pocock subordinated the species under the genus Panthera using the scientific name Panthera tigris; the tiger's closest living relatives were thought to be the Panthera species lion and jaguar. Results of genetic analysis indicate that about 2.88 million years ago, the tiger and the snow leopard lineages diverged from the other Panthera species, that both may be more related to each other than to the lion and jaguar.
P. T. palaeosinensis from the Early Pleistocene of northern China is the most primitive known tiger to date. Fossil remains of Panthera zdanskyi were excavated in Gansu province of northwestern China; this species lived at the beginning of the Pleistocene about two million years ago, is considered to be a sister taxon of the modern tiger. It was about the size of a jaguar and had a different coat pattern. Despite being considered more "primitive", it was functionally and also ecologically similar to the modern tiger. Northwestern China is thought to be the origin of the tiger lineage. Tigers grew in size in response to adaptive radiations of prey species like deer and bovids, which may have occurred in Southeast Asia during the early Pleistocene. Panthera tigris trinilensis lived about 1.2 million years ago and is known from fossils excavated near Trinil in Java. The Wanhsien, Ngandong and Japanese tigers became extinct in prehistoric times. Tigers reached India and northern Asia in the late Pleistocene, reaching eastern Beringia and Sakhalin.
Some fossil skulls are morphologically distinct from lion skulls, which could indicate tiger presence in Alaska during the last glacial period, about 100,000 years ago. Tiger fossils found in the island of Palawan were smaller than mainland tiger fossils due to insular dwarfism. Fossil remains of tigers were excavated in Sri Lanka, Japan, Sarawak dating to the late Pliocene and Early Holocene; the Bornean tiger was present in Borneo between the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene, but may have gone extinct in prehistoric times. The potential tiger range during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene was predicted applying ecological niche modelling based on more than 500 tiger locality records combined with bioclimatic data; the resulting model shows a contiguous tiger range from southern India to Siberia at the Last Glacial Maximum, indicating an unobstructed gene flow between tiger populations in mainland Asia throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. The tiger populations on the Sunda Islands and mainland Asia were separated during interglacial periods.
Results of a phylogeographic study indicate that all living tigers had a common ancestor 72,000–108,000 years ago. The tiger's full genome sequence was published in 2013, it was found to have similar repeat composition to other cat genomes and an appreciably conserved synteny. Following Linnaeus's first descriptions of t
Names of God in Islam
According to a hadith, there are at least 99 Attributes of Allah, known as the ʾasmāʾu llāhi l-ḥusnā. The names are called 99 Attributes of Allah. According to Sahih Bukhari Hadith: Abu Hurairah reported that Allah has ninety-nine Names, i.e. one hundred minus one, whoever believes in their meanings and acts accordingly, will enter Paradise. There's another Sahih Muslim Hadith:Allah's Messenger said, "Allah has ninety-nine Names, one-hundred less one. To count something means to know it by heart; the Qur'an refers to God's Most Beautiful Names in several Surahs. Gerhard Böwering refers to Surah 17 as the locus classicus to which explicit lists of 99 names used to be attached in tafsir. A cluster of more than a dozen Divine epithets which are included in such lists is found in Surah 59. Mystic philosopher Ibn Arabi surmised that the 99 names are "outward signs of the universe's inner mysteries". There is no universal agreement among Muslims as to what counts as a name of God, what does not. Additionally, while some names are only in the Quran, others are only in the hadith, there are some names which appear in both.
Different sources give different lists of the 99 names. The following list is based on the one found in the Jamiʿ at-Tirmidhi. Other hadith, such as those of al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Ibn Majah, al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi or Ibn ʿAsākir, have variant lists. All attribute the original compilation of the list of names to Abu Hurairah.al-Tirmidhi comments on his list: "This hadith is gharib. Various early Muslim exegetes, including Jaʿfar al-Sadiq, Sufyan ibn `Uyaynah, Ibn Hazm, al-Qurtubi, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, have given their own versions of lists of 99 names.ٱ = The waṣla denoting of ٱلْ is "ʾal/ ʾul/ ʾil" depending on the last vowel of the previous word/sentence structure: e.g. سُوْرَةُ ٱلْرَّحْمَـٰنُ Suratu r-Raḥmān. Please note the written Arabic spelling of the names written in Arabic in the table are in the vowelled Classical/ Quranic form with the square bracketed "" variant of the written Arabic forms given in common or modern texts - in media, some long vowels and punctuations are omitted for the easier typing and reading.
There is a tradition in Sufism to the effect the 99 names of God point to a mystical "Most Supreme and Superior Name" (ismu l-ʾAʿẓam. This "Greatest Name of God" is said to be "the one which if He is called by it, He will answer."According to a hadith narrated by Abdullah ibn Masud, some of the names of God have been hidden from mankind. More than 1000 names of God are listed in the Jawshan Kabir invocations; the Arabic names of God are used to form theophoric given names used in Muslim cultures throughout the world, including non-Arabic speaking societies. Because the names of God themselves are reserved to God and their use as a person's given name is considered religiously inappropriate, theophoric names are formed by prefixing the term ˁabd to the name in the case of male names; this distinction is established out of respect for the sanctity of Divine names, which denote attributes that are believed to be possessed in a full and absolute sense only by God, while human beings, being limited creatures, are viewed by Muslims as being endowed with the Divine attributes only in a limited and relative capacity.
The prefixing of the definite article would indicate that the bearer possesses the corresponding attribute in an exclusive sense, a trait reserved to God. Quranic verse 3:26 is cited as evidence against the validity of using Divine names for persons, with the example of Mālik ul-Mulk: "Say: "O God! Lord of Power, You give power to whom You please, You strip off power from whom You please. You endue with honour whom You please, You bring low whom You please. In Your hand is all Good." Verily, over all things You have power." The two parts of the name starting with ˁabd may be written separately or combined as one in the transliterated form. Examples of Muslim theophoric names include: Rahmān, such as Abdul Rahman Al-Sudais - Imam of the Grand Mosque of Makkah, KSA Salām, such as Salam Fayyad - Palestinian politician Jabbār, such as Kareem Abdul-Jabbar - American basketball player Hakīm, such as Sherman "Abdul Hakim" Jackson - American Islamic Studies scholar Ra'ūf, such as Ra'ouf Mus'ad - Egyptian-Sudanese novelist Mālik, such as Mālik bin ʼAnas - classical Sunni Muslim scholars after whom the Maliki school of fiqh was named Abdul Muqtedar as in Muhammad Abdul Muqtedar Khan - Indian-American
Dangun or Dangun Wanggeom was the legendary founder and god-king of Gojoseon, the first Korean kingdom, around present-day Liaoning and the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. He is said to be the "grandson of heaven" and "son of a bear", to have founded the kingdom in 2333 BC; the earliest recorded version of the Dangun legend appears in the 13th-century Samguk Yusa, which cites China's Book of Wei and Korea's lost historical record Gogi. Dangun's ancestry legend begins with his grandfather Hwanin, the "Lord of Heaven". Hwanin had a son, who yearned to live on the earth among the valleys and the mountains. Hwanin permitted Hwanung and 3,000 followers to descend onto Baekdu Mountain, where Hwanung founded the Sinsi. Along with his ministers of clouds and wind, he instituted laws and moral codes and taught humans various arts and agriculture. Legend attributes the development of moxibustion to Dangun. A tiger and a bear prayed to Hwanung. Upon hearing their prayers, Hwanung gave them 20 cloves of garlic and a bundle of mugwort, ordering them to eat only this sacred food and remain out of the sunlight for 100 days.
The tiger left the cave. However, the bear was transformed into a woman; the bear and the tiger are said to represent two tribes that sought the favor of the heavenly prince. The bear-woman made offerings to Hwanung. However, she lacked a husband, soon became sad and prayed beneath a "divine birch" tree to be blessed with a child. Hwanung, moved by her prayers, took her for his wife and soon she gave birth to a son named Dangun Wanggeom. Dangun ascended to the throne, built the walled city of Asadal situated near Pyongyang and called the kingdom Joseon—referred to today as Gojoseon "Old/Ancient Joseon" so as not to be confused with the Joseon, established much later, he moved his capital to Asadal on Mount Paegak or Mount Gunghol. Emperor Dangun's rule is calculated to begin in 2333 BC, based on the description of the Dongguk Tonggam contrary to the 40th year of the reign of the legendary Chinese Emperor Yao. Other sources vary somewhat, but put it during Yao's reign; the Samguk Yusa states Dangun ascended to the throne in the 50th year of Yao's reign, while Annals of the Joseon Dynasty says the first year and Dongguk Tonggam says the 25th year.
Until 1961, the official South Korean era was called the Dangi, which began in 2333 BC. Followers of Daejongism considered October 3 in the Korean calendar as Gaecheonjeol; this day is now a public holiday in South Korea in the Gregorian calendar called "National Foundation Day". North Korea dates Dangun's founding of Gojoseon to the early 30th century BC.15 March in the year 4340 of the Dangun Era is called "Royal Day Festival", the day that the semi-legendary founder Dangun returned to the heavens. The earliest recorded version of the Dangun legend appears in the 13th century Samguk Yusa, which cites China's Book of Wei and Korea's lost history text Gogi; this is the best known and most studied version, but similar versions are recorded in the Jewang Un-gi by the late Goryeo scholar Yi Seunghyu, as well as the Eungje Siju and Sejong Sillok of the early Joseon. Dangun is worshipped today as a deity by the followers of Daejongism. Dangun is the second pattern or hyeong in the International Taekwon-Do Federation form of the Korean martial art taekwondo.
Students learn that the hyeong represents "the holy legendary founder of Korea in the year 2333 BC." Unusually for a hyeong, all the punches in Dan Gun are high section symbolising Dangun scaling a mountain, see Dangun Hyeung. The Dangun myth may reflects the archaic concept of statehood in East Asia. Archaeological studies have not yet supported the myth. A modern Korean historian, Ch'on Kwanu, placed the mythological beginnings into historical context as follows: In the Tangun myth, the story of Hwanung reflects the migration of plain-pottery tribes from the north, the Hwanung people; these people brought with them Neolithic civilization of agriculture and the bear-totem from the southern range of the Altai Mountains via northern China to Manchuria and the Korean peninsula. These people created the first ancient state in the region, called Choson and led by the shaman-king Tangun. In addition, scholars found that most Neolithic Asian tribes in Siberia and Manchuria shared in worship of the bear as a sacred animal.
Thus, the migration routes of civilization is seen as an expression of ethnic worship. North Korea's leader Kim Il-sung insisted that Dangun was not a legend but a real historical person; as consequence, North Korean archaeologists were compelled to locate the purported remains and grave of Dangun. According to a publication by North Korea, the Mausoleum of Dangun is the alleged burial site of the legendary Dangun; the site occupies about 1.8 km² on the slope of Taebaek Mountain in Kangdong, not to be confused with the Taebaek Mountain in South Korea. Dangun's grave is shaped like a pyramid, about 22 m high and 50 m on each side. Many observers and historians outside of North Korea, including South Korea, consider the site controversial. History of Korea List of monarchs of Korea List of people of Korean descent List of national founders Emperor Jimmu Joktan Tang
Caodaism is a monotheistic syncretic religion established in the city of Tây Ninh in southern Vietnam in 1926. The full name of the religion is Đại Đạo Tam Kỳ Phổ Độ. Cao Đài is the supreme deity, believed by Caodaists to have created the universe. Caodaists use the term Đức Cao Đài as the abbreviated name, whose full title is "Cao Đài Tiên Ông Đại Bồ Tát Ma Ha Tát"; the symbol of the faith is the Left Eye of God, representing the yang activity of the male creator, balanced by the yin activity of Mother Goddess, the Queen Mother of the West, the feminine and restorative mother of humanity. Adherents engage in practices such as prayer, veneration of ancestors and vegetarianism with the goal of union with God and freedom from saṃsāra. Estimates of the number of Caodaists in Vietnam vary. An additional number of adherents in the tens of thousands ethnic Vietnamese, live in North America and Australia; the design and coloring of Caodaist temples is quite standard around the world and includes the incorporation of sacred images and colors.
Ngô Văn Chiêu, a district head of the French administration in Cochinchina, was the first to worship and receive messages from Cao Đài in 1921. He received a vision of the Divine Eye, now the symbol for Cao Đài as well as the focus for worship on all Cao Đài altars. Adherents maintain that on Christmas Eve 1925, God identified Himself to the first group of Cao Đài mediums, which included Phạm Công Tắc, Cao Quỳnh Cư, Cao Hoài Sang; these three figures were to play an essential role in the growing religion as the three founding spirit mediums of the Hiệp Thiên Đài or "Palace Uniting Heaven and Earth". Phạm Công Tắc was the head spirit medium or Hộ Pháp, while Cao Quỳnh Cư was the Thượng Phẩm and Cao Hoài Sang was the Thượng Sanh. On 7 Oct 1926, Lê Văn Trung, a leading group of 27 Caodaists, the first disciples of Cao Đài, signed the "Declaration of the Founding of the Cao Đài Religion" and presented it to the French Governor of Cochinchina; the Cao Đài faith brought together a number of once underground sects into a new national religion.
Called the "Great Way of the Third Time of Redemption", it became popular in its first few decades, gathering over a million members and converting a fifth to a fourth of the population of Cochinchina by 1940. In the 1930s, the leader criticized the French colonial regime, though he emphasized dialogue with the French; this stance was controversial, contrasted with the liturgy of dozens of "dissident" branches of Caodaism that followed a more Taoist model. During the First and Second Indochina Wars, members of Cao Đài were active in political and military struggles against both French colonial forces and South Vietnamese Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm, their critique of the communist forces until 1975 was a factor in their repression after the fall of Saigon in 1975, when the incoming communist government banned the practice of Caodaism. In 1997, Caodaism was granted unrestricted practice once again; the official name of the Cao Đài religion is Đại Đạo Tam Kỳ Phổ Độ. Translated directly it means: The Third Great Universal Religious Amnesty..
According to Cao Đài's dogma, this Third Period will be of intense religious activity which will unite God and humanity in ways not yet imagined. Cao Đài states that the Third Amnesty will establish a new great faith for the salvation of living beings before the universal destruction; the primary objective of the Third Amnesty is the unity of all religions, which will bring mankind together in a universal family for universal peace. Caodaism teaches that, throughout human history, God the Father has revealed his truth many times through the mouths of many prophets, but these messages were always either ignored or forgotten due to humanity’s susceptibility to secular desires. Adherents believe. In the nineteenth century, Spiritism became established in Europe; the likes of Madam Blavatsky, Allan Kardec and Victor Hugo championed new religious possibilities. In Vietnam, the age-old traditions of Asian divination and mediumship began to mix with the new traditions of European Spiritism. To highlight this objective of unity, there is a representation of the Divine Covenant of The Third Amnesty inside every Cao Đài Temple.
This Covenant between Heaven and Earth is written and presented to humanity by the Venerable Saints – Victor Hugo, Sun Yat Sen and Trạng Trình Nguyễn Bỉnh Khiêm. Their mission is said to guide humanity into the way of the Third Amnesty; the Covenant is written in French: "Dieu et Humanité Amour et Justice. This translates into English as: "God and Humanity Love and Justice." "Cao Đài" refers to God the Father. Cao Đài Tiên Ông Đại Bồ Tát Ma Ha Tát, as God's full title
Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe. In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient and final cause of all that exists, it is the pervasive, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads; the Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda and as the unchanging, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school.
In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman in each being. In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence. Sanskrit Brahman from a root bṛh- "to swell, grow, enlarge" is a neuter noun to be distinguished from the masculine brahmán—denoting a person associated with Brahman, from Brahmā, the creator God in the Hindu Trinity, the Trimurti. Brahman is thus a gender-neutral concept that implies greater impersonality than masculine or feminine conceptions of the deity. Brahman is referred to as the supreme self. Puligandla states it as "the unchanging reality amidst and beyond the world", while Sinar states Brahman is a concept that "cannot be defined". In Vedic Sanskrit: Brahma, brahman from root bṛh-, means "to be or make firm, solid, promote". Brahmana, from stems brha + Sanskrit -man- from Indo-European root -men- which denotes some manifest form of "definite power, inherent firmness, supporting or fundamental principle".
In Sanskrit usage: Brahma, brahman means the concept of the transcendent and immanent ultimate reality, Supreme Cosmic Spirit in Hinduism. The concept is central to Hindu philosophy Vedanta. Brahm is another variant of Brahman. Brahmā, means the deity or deva Prajāpati Brahmā, he is one of the members of the Hindu trinity and associated with creation, but does not have a cult in present-day India. This is because Brahmā, the creator-god, is long-lived but not eternal i.e. Brahmā gets absorbed back into Purusha at the end of an aeon, is born again at the beginning of a new kalpa; these are distinct from: A brāhmaṇa, is a prose commentary on the Vedic mantras—an integral part of the Vedic literature. A brāhmaṇa, means priest; this usage is found in the Atharva Veda. In neuter plural form, Brahmāṇi. See Vedic priest. Ishvara, in Advaita, is identified as a partial worldly manifestation of the ultimate reality, the attributeless Brahman. In Visishtadvaita and Dvaita, Ishvara has infinite attributes and the source of the impersonal Brahman.
Devas, the expansions of Brahman/God into various forms, each with a certain quality. In the Vedic religion, there were 33 devas, which became exaggerated to 330 million devas. In fact, devas are themselves regarded as more mundane manifestations of the One and the Supreme Brahman; the Sanskrit word for "ten million" means group, 330 million devas meant 33 types of divine manifestations. Brahman is a concept present in Vedic Samhitas, the oldest layer of the Vedas dated to the 2nd millennium BCE. For example, The concept Brahman is referred to in hundreds of hymns in the Vedas. For example, it is found in Rig veda hymns such as 2.2.10, 6.21.8, 10.72.2 and in Atharva veda hymns such as 6.122.5, 10.1.12, 14.1.131. The concept is found in various layers of the Vedic literature; the concept is extensively discussed in the Upanishads embedded in the Vedas, mentioned in the vedāṅga such as the Srauta sutra 1.12.12 and Paraskara Gryhasutra 3.2.10 through 3.4.5. Jan Gonda states that the diverse reference of Brahman in the Vedic literature, starting with Rigveda Samhitas, convey "different senses or different shades of meaning".
There is no one single word in modern Western languages that can render the various shades of meaning of the word Brahman in the Vedic literature, according to Jan Gonda. In verses considered as the most ancient, the Vedic idea of Brahman is the "power immanent in the sound, words and formulas of Vedas". However, states Gonda, the verses suggest that this ancient meaning was never the only meaning, the concept evolved and expanded in ancient India. Barbara Holdrege states that the concept
Ahura Mazda is the creator and sole God of Zoroastrianism. Ahura Mazda is the highest spirit of worship in Zoroastrianism, along with being the first and most invoked spirit in the Yasna; the literal meaning of the word Ahura is "lord", that of Mazda is "wisdom". Ahura Mazda first appeared in the Achaemenid period under Darius I's Behistun Inscription; until Artaxerxes II of Persia, Ahura Mazda was invoked alone. With Artaxerxes II, Ahura Mazda was invoked with Mithra and Anahita. In the Achaemenid period, there are no representations of Ahura Mazda other than the custom for every emperor to have an empty chariot drawn by white horses, to invite Ahura Mazda to accompany the Persian army on battles. Images of Ahura Mazda began in the Parthian period, but were stopped and replaced with stone carved figures in the Sassanid period. "Mazda", or rather the Avestan stem-form Mazdā-, nominative Mazdå, reflects Proto-Iranian *mazdáH. It is taken to be the proper name of the spirit, like its Vedic cognate medhā́, means "intelligence" or "wisdom".
Both the Avestan and Sanskrit words reflect Proto-Indo-Iranian *mazdʰáH, from Proto-Indo-European *mn̥sdʰh₁éh₂ meaning "placing one's mind", hence "wise". The name was rendered as Ahuramazda during the Achaemenid era, Hormazd during the Parthian era, Ohrmazd was used during the Sassanian era; the name may be attested on cuneiform tablets of Assyrian Assurbanipal, in the form Assara Mazaš, though this interpretation is controversial. Though Ahura Mazda was a spirit in the Old Iranian religion, he had not yet been given the title of "uncreated spirit"; this title was given by Zoroaster, who proclaimed Ahura Mazda as the uncreated spirit, wholly wise and good, as well as the creator and upholder of Asha. At the age of 30, Zoroaster received a revelation: while fetching water at dawn for a sacred ritual, he saw the shining figure of the yazata, Vohu Manah, who led Zoroaster to the presence of Ahura Mazda, where he was taught the cardinal principles of the "Good Religion" known as Zoroastrianism.
As a result of this vision, Zoroaster preach the religion. He stated, he further stated that Ahura Mazda created spirits known as yazatas to aid him, who merited devotion. Zoroaster deserved no worship; these "bad" spirits were created by the hostile and evil spirit. The existence of Angra Mainyu was the source of all misery in the universe. Zoroaster claimed that Ahura Mazda was not an omnipotent God, but used the aid of humans in the cosmic struggle against Angra Mainyu. Nonetheless, Ahura Mazda is Angra Mainyu's superior, not his equal. Angra Mainyu and his daevas, which attempt to attract humans away from the path of truth and righteousness, would be destroyed. Whether the Achaemenids were Zoroastrians is a matter of much debate. However, it is known; the representation and invocation of Ahura Mazda can be seen on royal inscriptions written by Achaemenid kings. The most notable of all the inscriptions is the Behistun Inscription written by Darius I which contains many references to Ahura Mazda.
An inscription written in Greek was found in a late Achaemenid temple at Persepolis which invoked Ahura Mazda and two other spirits, most Mithra and Anahita. On the Elamite Persepolis Fortification Tablet 377, Ahura Mazda is invoked along with Mithra and Voruna. Artaxerxes III makes this invocation to the three spirits again in his reign; the early Achaemenid period contained no representation of Ahura Mazda. The winged symbol with a male figure, regarded by European scholars as Ahura Mazda has been shown to represent the royal xvarənah, the personification of royal power and glory. However, it was customary for every emperor from Cyrus until Darius III to have an empty chariot drawn by white horses as a place for Ahura Mazda to accompany the Persian army on battles; the use of images of Ahura Mazda began in the western satraps of the Achaemenid Empire in the late 5th century BCE. Under Artaxerxes II, the first literary reference as well as a statue of Ahura Mazda was built by a Persian governor of Lydia in 365 BCE.
It is known that the reverence for Ahura Mazda, as well as Anahita and Mithra continued with the same traditions during this period. The worship of Ahura Mazda with symbolic images is noticed, but it stopped with the beginning of the Sassanid period. Zoroastrian iconoclasm, which can be traced to the end of the Parthian period and the beginning of the Sassanid put an end to the use of all images of Ahura Mazda in worship. However, Ahura Mazda remained symbolized by a dignified male figure, standing or on horseback, found in Sassanian investiture. During the Sassanid Empire, a heretical form of Zoroastrianism, termed Zurvanism, emerged, it gained adherents throughout the Sassanid Empire, most notably the royal lineage of Sassanian emperors. Under the reign of Shapur I, Zurvanism became a widespread cult. Zurvanism revokes Zoroaster's original message of Ahura Mazda as the uncreated spirit, the "uncreated creator" of all, reduces him to a created spirit, one of two twin sons of Zurvan, their father and the primary spirit.
Zurvanism makes Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu of equal strength and only contrasting spirits. Other than Zurvanism, the Sassanian kings demonstrated their devotion to Ahura Mazda i