The Malaysian Chinese consist of people of Chinese—particularly Han Chinese—ancestry who were born in or immigrated to Malaysia. The great majority of this group of people are descendants of those who arrived between the early 19th century and the mid-20th century, they are traditionally dominant in the business sector of the Malaysian economy. Malaysian Chinese form the second largest community of Overseas Chinese in the world, after Thailand. Within Malaysia, they represent the second largest ethnic group after the ethnic Malay majority, they are simply referred to as "Chinese" in Malaysia, Orang Cina in Malay, Sinar in Tamil, Huaren or Huaqiao by Chinese themselves. Most of the Chinese in Malaysia are of Min, Yue and Teochew speaking ancestry, different towns and cities in Malaysia may be dominated by different Chinese dialects among Chinese speakers, for example Cantonese in Kuala Lumpur and Hokkien in Penang. Culturally, most Malaysian Chinese have maintained their Chinese heritage, including their various dialects, although the descendants of the earliest Chinese migrants who arrived from the 15th to 17th centuries have assimilated aspects of the Malay culture, they form a distinct subethnic group known as the Peranakan, or Baba-Nyonya.
The Chinese population in Malaysia has been declining percentage-wise since Malayan independence, from 37.6% in 1957 to 24.6% in 2010 and 21.4% in 2015. This is due to a lower birthrate as well as a high level of emigration in recent decades. According to a report by the World Bank, the Malaysian diaspora around the world in 2010 numbered at around a million, with most of them ethnic Chinese, the main reasons for emigrating are better economic and career prospects abroad as well as a sense of social injustice within Malaysia; the large number of emigrants, many of whom are young and educated, resulted in a significant problem of "brain drain" in Malaysia. The first wave of Han Chinese settlers came during the Malacca Empire in the early 15th century; the friendly diplomatic relations between China and Malacca culminated during the reign of Sultan Mansur Syah, who married the Chinese princess Hang Li Po. A senior minister of state and five hundred youths and maids of noble birth accompanied the princess to Malacca.
Admiral Zheng He had brought along 100 bachelors to Malacca. The descendants of this wave, many of whom are of Hokkien ancestry, adapted to the customs of local Malays while retaining parts of their ancestral culture, they are called Baba for their menfolk and Nyonya for the females. They speak a creole termed Baba Malay, a colloquial form of Malay mixed with Hokkien words. Chinese immigrants from the controlled ports of Fujian and Guangdong provinces, were attracted by the prospect of work in the tin mines and rubber plantations as well as the possibility of opening up new farmlands at the beginning of the 19th century until the 1930s in British Malaya. Chinese immigration to British Malaya and Straits Settlements was encouraged by the British and the Malay sultans to work in the mines and plantations; this group was responsible for establishing the many Chinese-medium schools in Malaya and are Chinese-educated. Some such as Koh Lay Huan escaped from China due to rebellious activities against the Qing dynasty.
Some Nationalist refugees fled to Singapore, North Borneo and Malaya after the Nationalists Kuomintang lost the civil war to avoid persecution or execution by the Communist party of China. This period of immigration however ceased by the 1940s, by 1947, most of the Chinese in peninsular Malaya were born locally. A much smaller wave came after the 1990s and they were Mandarin speaking Chinese from northern China; these were foreign spouses married to Malaysian Chinese. Some national sports coaches such as badminton coach Han Jiang could only obtain permanent residency after repeated rejections of their citizenship applications. However, diving coach Huang Qiang managed to obtain his Malaysian citizenship. China is the largest participant in Malaysia's foreign residency scheme called'Malaysia My Second Home'. According to department of statistics Malaysia July 2003, the composition of each dialect are as follows; the largest dialect group are the Min Nan people with a total of about 2.748 million.
The Min Nan dialect group consists of the following subgroups. The Hoklo people from Quanzhou and Zhangzhou is the largest Chinese language group in Malaysia; the first wave of Hoklo chinese settled in Malacca where they are concentrated, with some in Penang. These early settlers are called Peranakan; the second wave of Hoklo Chinese settled in Malaya from the 19th century onwards and dominated the rubber plantation and financial sectors of the Malayan economy and formed the largest language group in many states. The Zhangzhou Hokkien migrated to the northern part of the peninsula including Penang, Perak, Kedah and Terengganu whereas the Quanzhou Hokkien migrated to the southern part of the peninsula, including Selangor and Johor; the Quanzhou Hokkien migrated to larger towns in Sarawak such as Kuching and Sibu. Teochew immigrants from the Chaoshan region of Guangdong in China began to settle in Malaya in large numbers from the 18th century onwards in Province Wellesley part of Penang state as well as in a part of Kedah state found in the Kuala Muda district.
These immigrants were chiefly responsible for setting up pepper plantations in Malaya. More Teochew immigrated to Johor at the encouragement of Temenggong Ibrahim in the 19th century, many new towns were esta
Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – known as the Great Ming Empire – for 276 years following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese. Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng, regimes loyal to the Ming throne – collectively called the Southern Ming – survived until 1683; the Hongwu Emperor attempted to create a society of self-sufficient rural communities ordered in a rigid, immobile system that would guarantee and support a permanent class of soldiers for his dynasty: the empire's standing army exceeded one million troops and the navy's dockyards in Nanjing were the largest in the world. He took great care breaking the power of the court eunuchs and unrelated magnates, enfeoffing his many sons throughout China and attempting to guide these princes through the Huang-Ming Zuxun, a set of published dynastic instructions; this failed when his teenage successor, the Jianwen Emperor, attempted to curtail his uncles' power, prompting the Jingnan Campaign, an uprising that placed the Prince of Yan upon the throne as the Yongle Emperor in 1402.
The Yongle Emperor established Yan as a secondary capital and renamed it Beijing, constructed the Forbidden City, restored the Grand Canal and the primacy of the imperial examinations in official appointments. He rewarded his eunuch supporters and employed them as a counterweight against the Confucian scholar-bureaucrats. One, Zheng He, led seven enormous voyages of exploration into the Indian Ocean as far as Arabia and the eastern coasts of Africa; the rise of new emperors and new factions diminished such extravagances. The imperial navy was allowed to fall into disrepair while forced labor constructed the Liaodong palisade and connected and fortified the Great Wall of China into its modern form. Wide-ranging censuses of the entire empire were conducted decennially, but the desire to avoid labor and taxes and the difficulty of storing and reviewing the enormous archives at Nanjing hampered accurate figures. Estimates for the late-Ming population vary from 160 to 200 million, but necessary revenues were squeezed out of smaller and smaller numbers of farmers as more disappeared from the official records or "donated" their lands to tax-exempt eunuchs or temples.
Haijin laws intended to protect the coasts from "Japanese" pirates instead turned many into smugglers and pirates themselves. By the 16th century, the expansion of European trade – albeit restricted to islands near Guangzhou like Macau – spread the Columbian Exchange of crops and animals into China, introducing chili peppers to Sichuan cuisine and productive corn and potatoes, which diminished famines and spurred population growth; the growth of Portuguese and Dutch trade created new demand for Chinese products and produced a massive influx of Japanese and American silver. This abundance of specie remonetized the Ming economy, whose paper money had suffered repeated hyperinflation and was no longer trusted. While traditional Confucians opposed such a prominent role for commerce and the newly rich it created, the heterodoxy introduced by Wang Yangming permitted a more accommodating attitude. Zhang Juzheng's successful reforms proved devastating when a slowdown in agriculture produced by the Little Ice Age joined changes in Japanese and Spanish policy that cut off the supply of silver now necessary for farmers to be able to pay their taxes.
Combined with crop failure and epidemic, the dynasty collapsed before the rebel leader Li Zicheng, defeated by the Manchu-led Eight Banner armies who founded the Qing dynasty. The Mongol-led Yuan dynasty ruled before the establishment of the Ming dynasty. Explanations for the demise of the Yuan include institutionalized ethnic discrimination against Han Chinese that stirred resentment and rebellion, overtaxation of areas hard-hit by inflation, massive flooding of the Yellow River as a result of the abandonment of irrigation projects. Agriculture and the economy were in shambles, rebellion broke out among the hundreds of thousands of peasants called upon to work on repairing the dykes of the Yellow River. A number of Han Chinese groups revolted, including the Red Turbans in 1351; the Red Turbans were affiliated with a Buddhist secret society. Zhu Yuanzhang was a penniless peasant and Buddhist monk who joined the Red Turbans in 1352. In 1356, Zhu's rebel force captured the city of Nanjing, which he would establish as the capital of the Ming dynasty.
With the Yuan dynasty crumbling, competing rebel groups began fighting for control of the country and thus the right to establish a new dynasty. In 1363, Zhu Yuanzhang eliminated his archrival and leader of the rebel Han faction, Chen Youliang, in the Battle of Lake Poyang, arguably the largest naval battle in history. Known for its ambitious use of fire ships, Zhu's force of 200,000 Ming sailors were able to defeat a Han rebel force over triple their size, claimed to be 650,000-strong; the victory destroyed the last opposing rebel faction, leaving Zhu Yuanzhang in uncontested control of the bountiful Yangtze River Valley and cementing his power in the south. After the dynastic head of the Red Turbans suspiciously died in 1367 while a guest of Zhu, there was no one left, remotely capable of contesting his march to the throne, he made his imperial ambitions known by sending an army toward the Yuan capital Dadu in 1368; the las
The Malacca Sultanate was a Malay sultanate centred in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia. Conventional historical thesis marks c. 1400 as the founding year of the sultanate by a Malay Raja of Singapura, Parameswara known as Iskandar Shah. At the height of the sultanate's power in the 15th century, its capital grew into one of the most important entrepots of its time, with territory covering much of the Malay Peninsula, the Riau Islands and a significant portion of the northern coast of Sumatra in present-day Indonesia; as a bustling international trading port, Malacca emerged as a centre for Islamic learning and dissemination, encouraged the development of the Malay language and arts. It heralded the golden age of Malay sultanates in the archipelago, in which Classical Malay became the lingua franca of the Maritime Southeast Asia and Jawi script became the primary medium for cultural and intellectual exchange, it is through these intellectual and cultural developments, the Malaccan era witnessed the enculturation of a Malay identity, the Malayisation of the region and the subsequent formation of an Alam Melayu.
In the year of 1511, the capital of Malacca fell to the Portuguese Empire, forcing the last Sultan, Mahmud Shah, to retreat to the further reaches of his empire, where his progeny established new ruling dynasties and Perak. The political and cultural legacy of the sultanate remains to this day. For centuries, Malacca has been held up as an exemplar of Malay-Muslim civilisation, it established systems of trade and governance that persisted well into the 19th century, introduced concepts such as daulat – a distinctly Malay notion of sovereignty – that continues to shape contemporary understanding of Malay kingship. The fall of Malacca benefited Brunei when its ports became a new entrepôt as the kingdom emerged as a new Muslim empire in the Malay Archipelago, attracting many Muslim traders who fled from the Portuguese occupation after the ruler of Brunei's conversion to Islam; the series of raids launched by the Chola Empire in the 11th century had weakened the once glorious empire of Srivijaya.
By the end of the 13th century, the fragmented Srivijaya caught the attention of the expansionist Javanese King, Kertanegara of Singhasari. In 1275, he decreed the Pamalayu expedition to overrun Sumatra. By 1288, Singhasari naval expeditionary forces sacked Jambi and Palembang and brought Malayu Dharmasraya—the successor state of Srivijaya, to its knees. In 1293 Singhasari was succeeded by Majapahit ruling the region. According to the Malay Annals, a prince from Palembang named Seri Teri Buana who claimed to be a descendant of Alexander the Great, stayed in the island of Bintan for several years before he set sail and landed on Temasek in 1299; the Orang Laut, famous for their loyal services to Srivijaya made him king of a new kingdom called Singapura. In the 14th century, Singapura developed concurrently with the Pax Mongolica era and rose from a small trading outpost into a centre of international trade with strong ties with the Yuan Dynasty. In an effort to revive the fortune of Malayu in Sumatra, in the 1370s, a Malay ruler of Palembang sent an envoy to the court of the first emperor of the newly established Ming dynasty.
He invited China to resume the tributary system. Learning this diplomatic maneuver King Hayam Wuruk of Majapahit sent an envoy to Nanking, convinced the emperor that Malayu was their vassal, was not an independent country. Subsequently, in 1377—a few years after the death of Gajah Mada, Majapahit sent a punitive naval attack against a rebellion in Palembang, which caused the complete destruction of Srivijaya and caused the diaspora of the Srivijayan princes and nobles. Rebellions against the Javanese rule ensued and attempts were made by the fleeing Malay princes to revive the empire, which left the area of southern Sumatra in chaos and desolation. By the second half of 14th century, Kingdom of Singapura grew wealthy. However, its success alarmed two regional powers at that time, Ayuthaya from the north and Majapahit from the south; as a result, the kingdom's fortified capital was attacked by at least two major foreign invasions before it was sacked by Majapahit in 1398. The fifth and last king, Parameswara fled to the west coast of the Malay Peninsula.
Parameswara fled north to Muar, Ujong Tanah and Biawak Busuk before reaching a fishing village at the mouth of Bertam river. The village belonged to the sea-sakai or orang laut which were left alone by Majapahit forces that not only sacked Singapura but Langkasuka and Pasai; as a result, the village became a safe haven and in the 1370s it began to receive a growing number of refugees running away from Mahapahit's attacks. By the time Parameswara reached Malacca in the early 1400s, the place had a cosmopolitan feel with Buddhists from the north, Hindus from Palembang and Muslims from Pasai. Legend has it that Parameswara saw a mouse deer outwit his hunting dog into the water when he was resting under the Malacca tree, he thought this bode well, remarking,'this place is excellent the mouse deer is formidable. Tradition holds that he named the settlement after the tree he was leaning against while witnessing the portentous event. Today, the mouse deer is part of modern Malacca's coat of arms; the name "Malacca" itself was derived from the fruit-bearing Melaka tree scientifically termed as Phyllanthus emblica.
Another account of the naming origin of Malacca elaborates that
Bukit China is a hillside of historical significance in the capital of Malaysian state of Malacca, Malacca Town. It is located several kilometres to the north from the historical centre of Malacca, but these days, it's surrounded by the modern city on all sides. According to the local tradition, in the mid-15th century, Hang Li Po was sent to be married to the sultan of Malacca, Sultan Mansor Shah, to seal relations between the two countries; the hill, Bukit Cina, a gift from the sultan, was established as their residence. Marine archaeology of a shipwreck suggested royal gifts from China, shipped during Sultan Mansor Shah's reign; the Well of Perigi Raja, next to the Poh San Teng Temple) at the foot of the hill, was constructed by Hang Li Po's followers for her personal use but was an important source of water for much of the town. It was a prime target for opposition forces, which either poisoned it or tried to hold it for their own use, it was reputed never to have dried up during droughts.
Today, the well has acquired the reputation of a wishing well and it is believed that anyone who throws a coin into the well will return to Malacca. Bukit Cina and two adjoining hills today form a Chinese graveyard covering over 250,000 square metres. With over 12,000 graves, some of which date to the Ming Dynasty, it is said to be the largest Chinese graveyard outside China. Admiral Zheng He's Seven Wells lie beside the Poh San Teng Temple; these wells were dug by Admiral Zheng He's expedition force during their stopover in Malacca during the Ming dynasty. Bukit Cina was chosen by Zheng He to be used as the base for his expeditionary force; the Seven Wells are known as the Dragon's wells according to fengshui principles. Some of these wells were bulldozed during the 1950-60s for road building. To-date, only three wells are left intact and they have never been dried in the worst of draught. Zheng He's visit is recorded in verified Chinese history as compared to the fabled lore of Perigi Raja wells.
Zheng He, acting under the orders of the Yongle Emperor, escorted Princess Hang Li Poh to be wed to Sultan Mansor Shah, in the 15th century. As a gift to Hang Li Poh and the Chinese settlers in Bukit Cina, Zheng He dug seven wells, known as the Perigi Raja and mistakenly called "Hang Li Poh's well". Due to the political and racial tension in the country since 2008, several rumours and disagreement regarding the history of the seven wells and the existence of Hang Li Poh herself arose; this has contributed to many accusation being thrown to the local government by various NGOs and the opposition as the culprit of making the Malay history more colourful using it as a propaganda tool to gain support from the Chinese community. However, the accusation by certain parties that the historical details of Zheng He's expedition force puts the Malay kingdom's sovereignty in a bad light, appeared to be questionable as it is well recorded that Zheng He, who voyaged to Malacca several times, did establish a regional headquarters in Malacca in the 15th century to conduct regional diplomatic and entrepot activities in Southeast Asia due to the close relation between the Chinese empire and the kingdom of Malacca as well as the importance of Malacca as an entrepot in Southeast Asia.
Chinese Malaysian Overseas Chinese Hang Li Poh Peranakan De Witt, Dennis. Melaka from the Top. Malaysia: Nutmeg Publishing. ISBN 978-983-43519-2-2. Discovery of Zheng He’s Guan Chang in Melaka
Peranakans are an ethnic group descended from Chinese settlers from the southern provinces who came to the Malay archipelago including British Malaya and Dutch East Indies and southern Thailand in Phuket and Ranong between the 15th and 17th centuries. Members of this community in Malaysia address themselves as Baba Nyonya. Nyonya is the term for the women and Baba for the men, it applies to the Han populations of the British Straits Settlements of Malaya and the Dutch-controlled island of Java and other locations, who have adopted Nusantara customs—partially or in full—to be somewhat assimilated into the local communities. Many were the elites of Singapore, more loyal to the British than to China. Most have lived for generations along the straits of Malacca, they were traders, the middleman of the British and the Chinese, or the Chinese and Malays, or vice versa because they were English educated. Because of this, they always had the ability to speak two or more languages. While the term Peranakan is most used to refer to those of Chinese descent known as Straits Chinese, there are other, comparatively smaller Peranakan communities, such as Indian Hindu Peranakans and Indian Muslim Peranakans and Eurasian Peranakans.
The group has parallels to the Cambodian Hokkien, who are descendants of Hoklo Chinese, the Pashu of Myanmar, a Burmese word for the Peranakan or Straits Chinese who have settled in Myanmar. They maintained their culture despite their native language disappearing a few generations after settlement. In both Malay and Indonesian, the word Peranakan is derived from anak "child" and means "descendant", with no connotation of the ethnicity of descent unless followed by a subsequent qualifying noun, such as for example Peranakan Tionghoa/Cina, Jawi Peranakan, or Peranakan Belanda. Peranakan has the implied connotation of referring to the ancestry of great-grandparents or of more-distant ancestors. Peranakan Chinese refer to themselves as Baba-Nonya; the term Baba is an honorific for Straits Chinese men. It originated as a Hindustani loan-word borrowed by Malay speakers as a term of affection for one's grandparents, became part of the common vernacular. In Penang Hokkien, it is pronounced bā-bā, sometimes written with the phonetic loan characters 峇峇.
Female Straits-Chinese descendants were either called or styled themselves Nyonyas. Nyonya is a Malay and Indonesian honorific used to refer to a foreign married lady, it is a loan word, borrowed from the old Portuguese word for lady donha. Because Malays at that time had a tendency to address all foreign women as nyonya, they used that term for Straits-Chinese women as well, it became more associated with them. In Penang Hokkien, it is pronounced nō͘-niâ, sometimes written with the phonetic loan characters 娘惹. Straits-Chinese were defined as those born or living in the Straits Settlements: a British colonial construct of Penang and Singapore constituted in 1826. Straits Chinese were not considered Baba Nyonya unless they displayed certain Sino-Malay syncretic attributes. Many Peranakans are of Hoklo ancestry, although a sizeable number are of Teochew or Hakka descent including a small minority of Cantonese. Baba Nyonya are a subgroup within Chinese communities. Peranakan families imported brides from China and sent their daughters to China to find husbands.
The language of the Peranakans, Baba Malay or Peranakan Malay, is a creole language related to the Malay language, which contains many Hokkien words. It is a dying language, its contemporary use is limited to members of the older generation, it is common for the Peranakan of the older generation among women to latah in Peranakan Malay when experiencing unanticipated shock. The Peranakan Malay spoken by the Malaccan Peranakans community is based on the Malay language as most of them can only speak little to none of the language of their Chinese forebears. Whereas in the east coast of Peninsula Malaysia, the Peranakans are known to not only speak a Hokkien version of their own but Thai and Kelantanese Malay dialect in Kelantan, Terengganu Malay dialect in Terengganu respectively. Unlike the rest of the Peranakans in Malaysia, Penang Peranakans in comparison are much influenced by a variant of Hokkien dialect known locally as Penang Hokkien. In Indonesia, the Peranakan language is based on Bahasa Indonesia and Javanese language, mixed with elements of Chinese language Hokkien dialect.
Speakers of the Peranakan language can be found scattered along the northern coastline area throughout West Java, Central Java and East Java, in Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Young Peranakans can still speak this creole language, although its use is limited to informal occasions. Today, young Peranakans have lost much of their traditional language. Therefore, that has resulted in a difference in vocabulary between the older and younger generati