HSBC Building, the Bund
The HSBC Building is a six-floor neo-classical building in the Bund area of Shanghai, China. It served as the headquarters of the Shanghai branch of The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation from 1923 to 1955, houses the Shanghai Pudong Development Bank; the building is situated at the Bund. Designed by the British architecture firm Palmer & Turner Architects and Surveyors, construction of the building lasted from 5 May 1921 to 23 June 1923; the HSBC Building has been called "the most luxurious building from the Suez Canal to the Bering Strait". The building has a floor area of 23,415 m², was, at the time, the largest bank building in the Far East, second largest in the world, after the Bank of Scotland building in Edinburgh; the building exterior adopted a strict neo-classicist design, with a tripartite vertical and horizontal division. In the centre is a dome, the base decorated with a triangular structure in imitation of Greek temples. Below that are six Ionic columns penetrating from the second to the fourth storey.
The main structure is five storeys, the central section seven storeys, with one and a half storey for the basement. The main structure has a steel lattice with brick filling, a granite exterior; the interior was luxuriously decorated, using materials such as monel. The whole building was fitted with air-conditioning; the main trading hall has four columns hewn from whole blocks of marble, at the time unique in Asia. Behind the main building is a subsidiary building which houses bank offices and vaults. On 4 March 1865, HSBC opened its Shanghai branch on the ground floor of the Central Hotel on the corner of the Bund with Nanjing Road. By 1874, HSBC's business had grown so much; the bank purchased the Foreign Club, a three-storey building at number 12, the Bund, south of the Customs House, for 60,000 taels of silver. In 1912, the bank made further acquisitions at number 10 and number 11, the Bund, began construction of the new building. Construction began on 5 May 1921, with the dome capped off on 23 June 1923.
According to contemporary press reports, at the time of construction the bank hired feng shui masters to select the time and direction of the first excavation. In accordance with Chinese tradition, coins from around the world were buried in the foundations. Specially minted coins were placed in dark recesses of the building to ward off spirits; the construction took 25 months, the completed building occupied 1.3 hectares, with an area of 23,415 m². The architect's firm, Palmer & Turner designed numerous other buildings on the Bund including the Yokohama Specie Building, Yangtze Insurance Building, Bank of China Building. During the Second World War, the HSBC building was occupied by the Japanese Yokohama Specie Bank. HSBC moved back at the end of the war; the Communists took over Shanghai in 1949. HSBC continued to operate in the relative freedom of the early years of the People's Republic. However, in 1955 the political situation led the bank to scale down its operations in Shanghai; the building was handed over to the government, HSBC rented separate offices nearby.
In that year, the Shanghai Municipal Government moved into the building. The building's name was changed to "The People's Government of the Municipality of Shanghai Building", or "Municipal Government Building" for short; the subsidiary building housed the Municipal Archives from 1956. In 1990, the Municipal Government began moving civic institutions out of the Bund in favour of commercial institutions. HSBC made contact with the Municipal Government on repurchasing the building, but negotiations failed due to price reasons. In 1995, the Municipal Government moved out of the building, the Shanghai Pudong Development Bank obtained the lease to the building. During renovations, spectacular murals were uncovered in the building. HSBC's Chinese office is headquartered at HSBC Building, Shanghai IFC; the bank commissioned two bronze lions from the United Kingdom at the time of construction, to be placed outside the front doors flanking the entrance staircase. They were cast by J W Singer & Sons in the English town of Frome, to a design by Henry Poole RA.
One of the lions is depicted roaring, to symbolise protection, the other is calm, symbolises security. Affectionately nicknamed Stephen and Stitt. An in-joke: Stephen's was said to be the louder character, Stitt the quieter man; these lions were the inspiration for a second and much larger pair to a new design by Shanghai-based British sculptor W W Wagstaff that were commissioned for the bank's new Headquarters in Hong Kong, opened in 1935. This second pair of lions was cast in Shanghai. During the wartime occupation of Shanghai, the lions were removed by the Japanese to be melted down for their valuable bronze, but they escaped this fate and were restored after the end of the war, they were removed once again during the Cultural Revolution. The Shanghai Artefact Administration Board stored the lions in the warehouse of the Shanghai Comedy Troupe. In 1980, they were handed over to the Shanghai Museum. In 1997, when the Pudong Development Bank moved into the building, replicas were made and placed in front of the building.
Near the ceiling of the octagonal entrance hall of the bank building were eight mosaic murals. The dome was decorated with frescos depicting the twelve signs of the zodiac, as
Tomorrow Square is the eighth-tallest building in Shanghai, China. It is located in the Puxi district, close to People's Square, it has 55 floors. This multi-purpose building contains a 342-room JW Marriott hotel, 255 executive apartment units, it was completed on 1 October 2003. Starting from a square base, the all-concrete Tomorrow Square tower transforms itself into a diagonal square as it rises to a peak. Engineers of the exterior vertical support system were faced with a unique challenge as a result of this unusual shape, they chose flat slabs for beam and slab construction for the office floors. A combination of sheer walls and frame action stabilizes the slender tower laterally against wind and earthquake forces; the foundations are 80-metre-long bored piles supporting a column mat. List of tallest buildings in Shanghai JW Marriott Hotel Shanghai Marriott Executive Apartments "Tomorrow Square". CTBUH Skyscraper Center. Tomorrow Square at Emporis "Tomorrow Square". SkyscraperPage
Ciros Plaza, or Ciro's Plaza, is a commercial office building located at 388 Nanjing Road West in Shanghai, China. List of tallest buildings in Shanghai Official website
The Shanghai Tower is a 632-metre, 128-story megatall skyscraper in Lujiazui, Shanghai. It shares the record of having the world's highest observation deck within a building or structure at 562 m, the world's second-fastest elevators at a top speed of 20.5 metres per second. It is the world's second-tallest building by height to architectural top. However, the title of the world's fastest elevator now belongs to the Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre, with a top speed of 21 metres per second achieved in 2017. Designed by international design firm Gensler and owned by the Shanghai city government, it is the tallest of the world's first triple-adjacent supertall buildings in Pudong, the other two being the Jin Mao Tower and the Shanghai World Financial Centre, its tiered construction, designed for high energy efficiency, provides nine separate zones divided between office and leisure use. Construction work on the tower began in November 2008 and topped out on 3 August 2013; the exterior was completed in summer 2015, work was considered complete in September 2015.
Although the building was scheduled to open to the public in November 2014, the actual public-use date slipped considerably. The observation deck was opened to visitors in July 2016. Since April 26, 2017, the sightseeing deck on the 118th floor has been open to the public. Planning models for the Lujiazui financial district dating back to 1993 show plans for a close group of three supertall skyscrapers; the first of these, the Jin Mao Tower, was completed in 1999. The Shanghai Tower is owned by Yeti Construction and Development, a consortium of state-owned development companies which includes Shanghai Chengtou Corp. Shanghai Lujiazui Finance & Trade Zone Development Co. and Shanghai Construction Group. Funding for the tower's construction was obtained from shareholders, bank loans and Shanghai's municipal government; the tower had an estimated construction cost of US$2.4 billion. The Shanghai Tower was designed by the American architectural firm Gensler, with Shanghainese architect Jun Xia leading the design team.
The tower takes the form of nine cylindrical buildings stacked atop each other, totalling 128 floors, all enclosed by the inner layer of the glass facade. Between that and the outer layer, which twists as it rises, nine indoor zones provide public space for visitors; each of these nine areas has its own atrium, featuring gardens, cafés, restaurants and retail space, providing panoramic views of the city. Both layers of the façade are transparent, retail and event spaces are provided at the tower's base; the transparent façade is a unique design feature, because most buildings have only a single façade using reflective glass to reduce heat absorption, but the Shanghai Tower's double layer of glass eliminates the need for either layer to be opaqued. The tower is able to accommodate as many as 16,000 people on a daily basis; the Shanghai Tower joins the Jin Mao Tower and SWFC to form the world's first adjacent grouping of three supertall buildings. Its 258-room hotel, located between the 84th and 110th floors, is to be operated by Jin Jiang International Hotels as the Shanghai Tower J-Hotel, at the time of its completion it will be the highest hotel in the world.
The tower will incorporate a museum. The tower's sub-levels provide parking spaces for 1,800 vehicles; the vertical transportation system for Shanghai Tower was designed by an American consultant, Edgett Williams Consulting Group, with principal Steve Edgett as primary consultant. Working with Gensler’s design and technical teams to create a efficient core, Edgett created an elevator system in which office floors are served via four sky lobbies each served by double-deck shuttle elevators. Access to the hotel is through a fifth sky lobby at levels 101/102; each two-level sky lobby serves as a community centre for that zone of the building, with such amenities as food and beverage and conference rooms. Local zones are served by single deck elevators throughout the tower, the observation deck at the top of the tower is served by three ultra-high speed shuttle elevators which travel at 18 metres per second, the highest speed yet employed for commercial building use; these three shuttle elevators are supplemented by three fireman’s elevators which will increase the visitor throughput to the observation deck at peak usage periods.
In the event of a fire or other emergency, the building’s shuttle elevators are designed to evacuate occupants from specially-designed refuge floors located at regular intervals throughout the height of the tower. In September 2011, Mitsubishi Electric Corp. announced that it had won a bid to construct the Shanghai Tower's elevator system. Mitsubishi supplied all of the tower's 149 elevators, including three high-speed models capable of travelling at 1,080 metres per minute; when they were installed, they were the world's fastest single-deck elevators and double-deck elevators. A 10 May 2016 Mitsubishi press release stated that one of the three shuttle elevators had been installed to travel 1230 metres/minute – the equivalent of 73.8 kilometres per hour, the highest speed attained by a passenger elevator installed in a functioning building. The building broke the record for the world's furthest-travelling single elevator, at 578.5 metres
Hang Seng Bank Tower
Hang Seng Bank Tower is the headquarters of Hang Seng Bank in Shanghai. Built in 1998, the 46 story, 203 m high tower is located in Lujiazui, Shanghai; until 2010, it was known as "HSBC Tower" due to being the headquarters of HSBC Bank Company Limited. HSBC Bank' s headquarters moved to Shanghai IFC in 2010, it was known as the Shanghai Sen Mao International Building. HSBC Building
Jin Mao Tower
The Jin Mao Tower known as the Jinmao Building or Jinmao Tower, is an 88-story landmark skyscraper in Lujiazui, Shanghai, China. It is one of the tallest buildings in the world, it contains a shopping mall and the Grand Hyatt Shanghai hotel, which at the time of completion was the highest hotel in the world. Along with the Oriental Pearl Tower, the Shanghai World Financial Center and the Shanghai Tower it is part of the Lujiazui skyline seen from the Bund, it was the tallest building in China from its completion in 1999 until 2007, when it was surpassed by the Shanghai World Financial Center, located close by. The Shanghai Tower, a 121-story building located next to these two buildings, surpassed the height of both these buildings in 2015, creating the world's first trio of adjacent supertall skyscrapers; the building is located on a 24,000 m2 plot of land near the Lujiazui metro station and was built at an estimated cost of US$530 million. It was designed by the Chicago firm of Owings & Merrill.
Its postmodern form, whose complexity rises as it ascends, draws on traditional Chinese architecture such as the tiered pagoda stepping back to create a rhythmic pattern as it rises. Like the Petronas Towers in Malaysia, the building's proportions revolve around the number 8, associated with prosperity in Chinese culture; the 88 floors are divided into 16 segments, each of, 1/8 shorter than the 16-story base. The tower is built around an octagon-shaped concrete shear wall core surrounded by 8 exterior composite supercolumns and 8 exterior steel columns. Three sets of 8 two-story high outrigger trusses connect the columns to the core at six of the floors to provide additional support; the foundations rest on 1,062 high-capacity steel piles driven 83.5 m deep in the ground to compensate for poor upper-strata soil conditions. At the time of construction, these were the longest steel piles used for a land-based building; the piles are capped by a 4 m-thick concrete raft 19.6 m underground. The basement's surrounding slurry wall is 36 m high and 568 m long.
It is composed of 20,500 m3 of reinforced concrete. The building employs an advanced structural engineering system of wind and earthquake engineering which fortify it against typhoon winds of up to 200 km/h and earthquakes of up to 7 on the Richter scale; the steel shafts have shear joints that act as shock absorbers to cushion the lateral forces imposed by winds and quakes. The swimming pool on the 57th floor is said to act as a passive damper; the exterior curtain wall is made of glass, stainless steel and granite and is criss-crossed by complex latticework cladding made of aluminum alloy pipes. Official dedication was August 28, 1998, a date chosen with the number 8 in mind; the building was operational in 1999. The Jin Mao Tower is owned by the China Jin Mao Group Co. Ltd, it has a daily maintenance cost of 1 million RMB. The building has one for the hotel; the basement has express elevators to the observation deck and a parking area for 600 vehicles and 7,500 bicycles. In total, 61 Mitsubishi elevators and 19 escalators carry visitors throughout the building.
Levels 51, 52, 89–93 are mechanical floors, accessible only by service elevators. The 3-level basement has a food court, while the first two floors include the Hyatt's conference and banquet facilities; the first six floors include a shopping mall and nightclubs, include Pu-J's. The lower 50 floors are made up of 123,000 m2 of offices, divided into 5 elevator zones. Office spaces are open-plan, with net height of 2.7 m. The building's anchor tenant is the five-star 555-room Grand Hyatt Shanghai hotel which occupies floors 53 to 87, it is one of the highest hotels in the world, second in Shanghai only to its sister property, the Shanghai Park Hyatt, occupying the 79th to 93rd floors of the adjacent Shanghai World Financial Center. These have since been surpassed by The Ritz-Carlton, Hong Kong, which occupies floors 102 to 118 of the International Commerce Centre. However, the tallest building to be used as a hotel is the JW Marriott Marquis Dubai. Additionally, the world's longest laundry chute runs down the full length of the tower to the basement, incorporating buffers to slow the laundry during its descent.
The Hyatt's famous barrel-vaulted atrium extends upwards to the 87th. Lined with 28 annular corridors and staircases arrayed in a spiral, it is 27 m in diameter with a clear height of 115 m, it is one of the tallest atria in the tallest being the Burj Al Arab's. The hotel floors feature: 53: The Piano Bar, a jazz club. 54: The hotel lobby and Grand Café, served by an express elevator from the tower's ground floor. 55: Canton, a high-end Cantonese restaurant that takes up the entire floor. 56: A collection of restaurants including The Grill, the Italian Cucina, the Japanese Kobachi, the Patio Lounge located at the base of the atrium. 57: Club Oasis, a fitness club featuring what was once the world's highest swimming pool. 85: The highest level of rooms in the hotel and elevators to the two levels
Maxdo Centre is a skyscraper in Changning District, China. It is 241 metres high, has 55 floors. List of tallest buildings in Shanghai Maxdo Centre at Emporis "Maxdo Centre". SkyscraperPage