Seoul Metropolitan Government
The Seoul Metropolitan Government is a local government of Seoul, South Korea. The mayor is elected to a four-year term by the Seoul citizens and is responsible for the administration of the city government. Seoul Metropolitan Government deals with administrative affairs as the capital city of South Korea, so it is more centralized than that of most other cities with the city government being responsible for correctional institutions, public education, public safety, recreational facilities, water supply, welfare services. In the city government, there are 5 offices, 32 bureaus, 107 divisions; the headquarters is located in the Seoul City Hall building, in Taepyeongno, Jung-gu, Seoul. The Government started on September 28, 1946 as the Seoul City Government which became Seoul Metropolitan Government on August 15, 1949; the Seoul Metropolitan Government has one mayor and three vice mayors, two of them take charge of administrative affairs and the other for political affairs. Seoul is subdivided into 25 autonomous gu and 522 administrative dong.
The Seoul Institute is the think tank for the city, established in 1992 by the Seoul Metropolitan Government. It was known as The Seoul Development Institute; the SI supports the policy-making processes of the municipal administration by conducting intensive research and cooperating with domestic and foreign research institutes. The SI seeks to collaborate and communicate with the citizens of Seoul "to secure the validity of its various policy researches". In 2011, when Government 2.0 was still a new concept to many, the fifth elected mayor of the City of Seoul, Mr. Wonsoon Park, introduced many policies to promote democracy based on civil participation after his inauguration; as one of his key agenda, he suggested the Governance 2.0, based on the concepts of ‘Communication and Participation,’ as he established the foundation for promoting citizen participation in the governance of the city and sought to provide all administrative information of the city through the Information Communication Plaza.
The City of Seoul discloses all of its administrative information except for that information designated as classified in accordance with the law. Through this policy, the city upholds the rights to information of the citizens, enhances transparency in the administration, promotes accountability. Through the Information Communication Plaza of the city, the metropolitan government gathers up and returns various administrative information to its citizens. In order to implement our Nude Project the City of Seoul established the document disclosure system and the Information Communication Plaza in an innovative manner to disclose the administrative information automatically, while allowing the citizens to access the administrative information more through smartphones and other devices; as a result, the administrative information of the city is being provided more and substantively. The Information Communication Plaza provides various internal approval request documents of different fields created by the City of Seoul.
In addition to the main office of the City Hall and Business Entities of the city, the users may access the information from the 25 autonomous districts and other organizations funded by the city, allowing access to detailed information the citizens require. The ‘Council Information’ section provides the information on the meetings organized by the City of Seoul from the schedule of the meetings to the minutes; the ‘Policies of Seoul’ section provides the information on the key projects of the city administration and large projects which involve investments more than 10 billion won. This is helpful for anyone who wishes to access the status information on the various construction projects executed by the city. Politics of South Korea Seoul City Hall The Seoul Institute Seoul Information Communication Plaza
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
Seoul the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. With surrounding Incheon metropolis and Gyeonggi province, Seoul forms the heart of the Seoul Capital Area. Seoul is ranked as the fourth largest metropolitan economy in the world and is larger than London and Paris. Strategically situated on the Han River, Seoul's history stretches back over two thousand years, when it was founded in 18 BCE by the people of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea; the city was designated the capital of Korea under the Joseon dynasty. Seoul is surrounded by a mountainous and hilly landscape, with Bukhan Mountain located on the northern edge of the city; as with its long history, the Seoul Capital Area contains five UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Changdeok Palace, Hwaseong Fortress, Jongmyo Shrine and the Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty. More Seoul has been a major site of modern architectural construction – major modern landmarks include the N Seoul Tower, the 63 Building, the Lotte World Tower, the Dongdaemun Design Plaza, Lotte World, Trade Tower, COEX, the IFC Seoul.
Seoul was named the 2010 World Design Capital. As the birthplace of K-pop and the Korean Wave, Seoul received over 10 million international visitors in 2014, making it the world's 9th most visited city and 4th largest earner in tourism. Today, Seoul is considered a leading and rising global city, resulting from the South Korean economic boom - referred to as the Miracle on the Han River - which transformed it into the world's 7th largest metropolitan economy with a GDP of US$635.4 billion in 2014 after Tokyo, New York City and Los Angeles. International visitors reach Seoul via AREX from the Incheon International Airport, notable for having been rated the best airport for nine consecutive years by the Airports Council International. In 2015, it was rated Asia's most livable city with the second highest quality of life globally by Arcadis, with the GDP per capita in Seoul being $39,786. Inhabitants of Seoul are faced with a high cost of living, for which the city was ranked 6th globally in 2017.
Seoul is an expensive real estate market, ranked 5th in the world for the price of apartments in the downtown center. With major technology hubs centered in Gangnam and Digital Media City, the Seoul Capital Area is home to the headquarters of 15 Fortune Global 500 companies, including Samsung, LG, Hyundai. Ranked sixth in the Global Power City Index and Global Financial Centres Index, the metropolis exerts a major influence in global affairs as one of the five leading hosts of global conferences. Seoul has hosted the 1986 Asian Games, 1988 Summer Olympics, 2002 FIFA World Cup, more the 2010 G-20 Seoul summit; the city has been known in the past by the names Wiryeseong, Hanseong, Keijō. During Japan's annexation of Korea, "Hanseong" was renamed "Keijō" by the Imperial authorities to prevent confusion with the hanja'漢', which refers to Han people or the Han dynasty and in Japanese is a term for "China", its current name originated from the Korean word meaning "capital city", believed to have descended from an ancient word, which referred to Gyeongju, the capital of Silla.
Ancient Gyeongju was known in documents by the Chinese-style name Geumseong, but it is unclear whether the native Korean-style name Seorabeol had the same meaning as Geumseong. Unlike most place names in Korea, "Seoul" has no corresponding hanja. On January 18, 2005, the Seoul government changed its official Chinese name from the historic Hancheng, still in common use, to Shou'er. Settlement of the Han River area, where present-day Seoul is located, began around 4000 BCE. Seoul is first recorded as the capital of Baekje in the northeastern Seoul area. There are several city walls remaining in the area. Pungnaptoseong, an earthen wall located southeast Seoul, is believed to have been at the main Wiryeseong site; as the Three Kingdoms competed for this strategic region, control passed from Baekje to Goguryeo in the 5th century, from Goguryeo to Silla in the 6th century. In the 11th century Goryeo, which succeeded Unified Silla, built a summer palace in Seoul, referred to as the "Southern Capital".
It was only from this period. When Joseon replaced Goryeo, the capital was moved to Seoul, where it remained until the fall of the dynasty; the Gyeongbok Palace, built in the 14th century, served as the royal residence until 1592. The other large palace, constructed in 1405, served as the main royal palace from 1611 to 1872. After Joseon changed her name to the Korean Empire in 1897, Hwangseong designated Seoul; the city was surrounded by a massive circular stone wall to provide its citizens security from wild animals and attacks. The city has grown beyond those walls and although the wall no longer stands, the gates remain near the downtown district of Seoul, including most notably Sungnyemun and Heunginjimun (commonly known as Dong
The Hangang Bridge Han River bridge, crosses the Han River in Seoul, South Korea. It connects the districts of Yongsan-gu to the north and Dongjak-gu to the south, crosses over the artificial island of Nodeulseom; the bridge carries eight lanes of traffic. The Korea Meteorological Administration considers the Han to be frozen over when the 100-meter section of water between the second and fourth posts of the southern span freezes. Pontoon bridges were moored at the site of the modern bridge, but the Han had no fixed crossings until the nearby Hangang Railway Bridge was completed in 1900. Plans for a road bridge did not materialize until 1917, it was damaged by a flood in July 1925. In October 1935 a second span was constructed, tram tracks added. Shortly after the outbreak of the Korean War, South Korean troops bombed the bridge in an attempt to slow invading forces, as it was the river's solitary road crossing; the Hangang Bridge bombing killed between 500 and 1,000 people civilian refugees, who had not been informed of the plans to destroy the bridge.
The bridge was not restored until 1954. In 1982 additional lanes were added, it was renamed Hangang Bridge
Republic of Korea Army
The Republic of Korea Army known as the ROK Army, is the army of South Korea, responsible for ground-based warfare. It is the largest of the military branches of the Republic of Korea Armed Forces with 464,000 members as of 2018; this size is maintained through conscription. The modern South Korean army traces its lineage back to the Gwangmu Reform, when the Beolgyegoon was established by Emperor Gojong in 1881; the 1st of every October is celebrated in South Korea as Armed Forces Day. It commemorates the day during the Korean War when units of the ROK Army first crossed the 38th Parallel, thus leading the UN Coalition north into North Korean territory for the first time; the National Security Guard Of South Korea was formed out of the Republic Of Korea Army. This organization was created during the American occupation period from 1945-1948; the National Security Guard Of South Korea was a reserve unit of the National Police. In addition to some Nationalist Chinese and post-Manchurian soldiers remnants of the Imperial Japanese Army contributed to the force.
The National Defense Force was established on January 15, 1946 replacing the American lead constabulary from 1945. The outbreak of the Korean War caught the South Korean forces unprepared, requiring the United Nations to intervene with U. S.-led forces. The South Korean military developed during the Korean War, suffering enormous casualties and loss of equipment; as the Soviets had armed North Korea, the United States armed and trained the South Korean military throughout the Korean War. The South Korean army is structured to operate in both the mountainous terrain native to the Korean Peninsula and in North Korea with its 950,000 strong Korean People's Army Ground Force, two-thirds of, permanently garrisoned in the frontline near the DMZ; the current administration has initiated a program over the next two decades to design a purely domestic means of self-defense, whereby South Korea would be able to counter a North Korean attack. The ROK Army was organized into 3 armies: the First Army, Third Army and Second Operational Command.
Each with its own headquarters and divisions. The Third Army was responsible for the defense of the capital as well as the western section of the DMZ; the First Army was responsible for the defense of the eastern section of the DMZ whereas the 2nd OC formed the rearguard. Under a restructuring plan aimed at reducing redundancy, the Second ROK Army was converted as the Second Operations Command in 2007, the First and Third ROK Armies were merged as the Ground Operations Command in 2019; the army consists of 495,000 troops 2,400-2,500 tanks, 2,700 armored fighting vehicles, 5,800 artillery pieces, 60 guided missile systems, 600 helicopters as of 2014. Main battle tank types include: 880 M48 Patton series and its upgrades such as M48A3K, M48A5, M48A5K, 33 Soviet T-80U and 2 T-80UK, as well as 1,524 K1A1 and K1 tanks, which bear a 120 mm smoothbore gun and are of local manufacture; the future replacement for the K1 and K1A1 MBTs has been named the K2 Black Panther, which will be fitted with a 1500 hp MTU-based engine, 55-caliber 120 mm main gun with autoloader.
The new tank will feature radar equipment as well as all-bearing laser detection and defense systems, anti-missile active protection, heavy reactive armor and sensor package comparable to the American M1A2 Abrams and German Leopard 2A6. The ROK Army is planning to field 390 Black Panthers. In addition Republic of Korea manufactures the K-9 howitzer which have been exported to Turkey as the T-155 howitzer as well as the ZMA series TIFV's which saw action in UN peacekeeping operations as part of the Malaysian peacekeeping forces. A variation of the K200, the KAFVs can be retrofitted to bear a 90 mm cannon, 40 mm grenade turret, M230-1 Chain gun Turret, or MK-30 Chaingun Turret. A replacement for K200 series IFVs are being tested, designated as K21 KNIFV, which will have various capabilities for both land and naval warfare; the initial production is set for 2008, with the ROKA planning to field 1,000 units until 2015. The K21 KNIFV's chassis will be constructed out of fiberglass, reducing the vehicle's load and enabling it to travel at higher speeds without bulky and powerful engines.
When constructed, the NIFV will be lighter than other IFVs, including the American Bradley series and Russian BMP series, increasing both speed and payload. The ROK Army fields the mobile K-SAM "Pegasus", fitted with 8 missiles that fly at maximum speeds of mach 2.6, the K-30 "Biho" series, which features a 30 mm twin gun system for anti-aerial fire support. Besides having vehicles and equipment of their own design as well as American models, the ROK Army possesses inventories of Russian-built AFVs, including BMP-3 IFVs and T-80U MBTs, given by the Russian government to pay off the financial debt owed to South Korea. Other notable foreign equipment in service with the ROK Army includes the Mistral MANPADS. A new infantry rifle, the Daewoo K11 entered service in 2010; the overall concept of this weapon is similar to the American OICW. Capital Defense Command'SHIELD' 1st Air Defense Brigade 52nd Homeland Defense Infantry Division 56th Homeland Defense Infantry Division Special Warfare Command'LION' 1st Special Forces Brigade'EAGLE' 3rd Special Forces Brigade'FLYING TIGER' (3공수특전여단'비호부대'
Han River (Korea)
The Han River or Hangang is a major river in South Korea and the fourth longest river on the Korean peninsula after the Amnok and Nakdong rivers. The river begins as two smaller rivers in the eastern mountains of the Korean peninsula, which converge near Seoul, the capital of the country; the Han River and its surrounding area have played an important role in Korean history. The Three Kingdoms of Korea strove to take control of this land, where the river was used as a trade route to China. However, the river is no longer used for navigation, because its estuary is located at the borders of the two Koreas, barred for entrance by any civilian; the river serves as a water source for over 12 million Koreans. In July 2000, the United States military admitted to having dumped toxic chemicals in the river, causing protests; the lower stretches of the Han River are lined with pedestrian walkways, bicycle paths, public parks and restaurants in Seoul. In a 2011 survey conducted by Seoul Development Institute of 800 residents and 103 urban planning and architectural experts, 51.3 percent of residents and 68.9 percent of experts voted the river the second most scenic location in the city, following Mount Namsan in the top spot.
The Han is formed by the confluence of the Namhan River, which originates in Mount Daedeok, the Bukhan River, which originates on the slopes of Kumgang Mountain in North Korea. The River flows through Seoul and merges with the Rimjin River shortly before it flows into the Yellow Sea; the two major branches of the river, the Namhan River and the Bukhan River, come together at Yangpyeong, Gyeonggi province, at which point it is referred to as the Han River. It passes through Seoul and continues on to the Yellow Sea. Broad tidal flats can be found at the mouth of the Han River, where it meets the sea along the Korean Demilitarized Zone that divides South and North Korea; the total length of the Han River is 494 kilometres. Although it is not a long river, the lower Han is remarkably broad for such a short river. Within Seoul city limits, the river is more than 1 kilometre wide. Prior to the construction of a number of major dams, the river was known for its huge coefficient of river regime of 1:390.
The Namhangang is sometimes, but not always, referred to as the "Han" in South Korea. The term "South Han" is understood irrespective of. Though "Namhan" and "Bukhan" are homophones with the acronyms Namhan and Bukhan, used in South Korea, this is a mere coincidence; the hanja for the Han River is not 韓 but 漢. The reason behind this is because the meaning of the native Korean "han", in this instance meaning "great" "large" "wide", was transliterated into Hanja with the character 漢 meant "large", thus showing the reason why the river used the word 漢 instead of 韓, it is easily mistaken with the use of 漢 in Seoul's older name, "漢城" where 漢 does not refer to Chinese people, but refers to the idea of Seoul being the "walled city on the Han". As a result, Koreans use 漢 because 韓 and 漢 sound the same, but the meaning is 韓, not "Han Chinese". Han River has been called by different names through the course of Korean history. During the period of the Han Commanderies on the peninsula and the early part of the three kingdom's period the river was referred to as the Daesu.
The state of Goguryeo called it the Arisu. Baekje called it the Ungniha; the Han River has played a central role in Korean history from the earliest times. The kingdom of Baekje was the first to lay claim to the Han River, recognizing its strategic significance as a primary waterway linking the central western region of the peninsula with the Yellow Sea, it was recognized for the river's fertile alluvial banks, a relative rarity on the mountainous peninsula. Pungnaptoseong, located south of Seoul, is posited as an early capital of Baekje, it was not long before the region near the effluence of the Han River with the Yellow Sea, around present-day Seoul, became a bone of contention between Baekje and the rising kingdom of Goguryeo. During the reign of its King Jangsu Goguryeo wrested the western terminus of the Han River from its rival Baekje; the ensuing decades would see a tug-of-war over the region until 551 when Baekje, in an alliance with Silla, confirmed its control over the Han River basin.
But this alliance was not to last, in 553 Silla broke its alliance with Baekje to seize control of the entire river as part of its bid for domination of the peninsula. With the demise of both Baekje and Goguryeo and the unification of the peninsula under Silla in 668, the Han River entered its long era as a "Korean river", first under the control of Unified Silla of the succeeding Goryeo dynasty, as part of the Joseon dynasty. During the Joseon period the Han River achieved new prominence as the primary waterway of the new Korean capital of Seoul called Hanyang. During the Korean war the South Korean military destroyed the Han Bridge; the Han River now belongs to the Republic of Korea, or South Korea, with its effluence in the Yellow Sea a few nautical miles from North Korea (though some of the river's tributa