Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument
Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments are sites in Los Angeles, which have been designated by the Los Angeles Cultural Heritage Commission as worthy of preservation based on architectural and cultural criteria. The Historic-Cultural Monument process has its origin in the Historic Buildings Committee formed in 1958 by the Los Angeles chapter of the American Institute of Architects; as growth and development in Los Angeles threatened the city's historic landmarks, the committee sought to implement a formal preservation program in cooperation with local civic and business organizations and municipal leaders. On April 30, 1962, a historic preservation ordinance proposed by the AIA committee was passed; the original Cultural Heritage Board was formed in the summer of 1962, consisting of William Woollett, FAIA, Bonnie H. Riedel, Carl S. Dentzel, Senaida Sullivan and Edith Gibbs Vaughan; the board met for the first time in August 1962, at a time when the owner of the historic Leonis Adobe was attempting to demolish the structure and replace it with a supermarket.
In its first day of official business, the board designated the Leonis Adobe and four other sites as Historic-Cultural Monuments. The designation of a property as a Historic-Cultural Monument does not prevent demolition or alteration. However, the designation requires permits for demolition or substantial alteration to be presented to the commission; the commission has the power to delay the demolition of a designated property for up to one year. In the commission's first decade of operation, it designated 101 properties as Historic-Cultural Monuments. By March 2010, there were 979 designated properties. Leonis Adobe Bolton Hall 1913 Eastern Columbia Building Griffith Park CBS Columbia Square Studios Historic-Cultural Monuments in Downtown Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments on the East and Northeast Sides Historic-Cultural Monuments in the Harbor area Historic-Cultural Monuments in Hollywood Historic-Cultural Monuments in the San Fernando Valley Historic-Cultural Monuments in Silver Lake, Angelino Heights, Echo Park Historic-Cultural Monuments in South Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments on the Westside Historic-Cultural Monuments in the Wilshire and Westlake areas City of Los Angeles' Historic Preservation Overlay Zones National Register of Historic Places listings in Los Angeles List of California Historical Landmarks Los Angeles Office of Historic Resources: Designated L.
A. Historic-Cultural Monuments website — with'ever-updated' LAHCM List via PDF link. Official Los Angeles Office of Historic Resources website — Homepage Los Angeles Cultural Heritage Commission website Designated LAHCM Landmarks by Neighborhood — L. A. Department of City Planning website Big Orange Landmarks: "Exploring the Landmarks of Los Angeles, One Monument at a Time" — online photos and in-depth history of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments — Website curator: Floyd B. Bariscale. Big Orange Landmarks: Floyd B. Bariscale's Flickr Photostream — Big Orange Flickr Gallery of L. A. H. C. Monuments
National Register of Historic Places listings in Alabama
This is a list of buildings, sites and objects listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Alabama. This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. There are 1,200 properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Alabama; the numbers of properties and districts in Alabama or in any of its 67 counties are not directly reported by the National Register. Following are tallies of current listings from lists of the specific properties and districts. There are no sites listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Geneva County. List of National Historic Landmarks in Alabama List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Alabama
Barley, a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally. It was one of the first cultivated grains in Eurasia as early as 10,000 years ago. Barley has been used as animal fodder, as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages, as a component of various health foods, it is used in soups and stews, in barley bread of various cultures. Barley grains are made into malt in a traditional and ancient method of preparation. In 2016, barley was ranked fourth among grains in quantity produced behind maize and wheat; the Old English word for'barley' was bære, which traces back to Proto-Indo-European and is cognate to the Latin word farina "flour". The direct ancestor of modern English "barley" in Old English was the derived adjective bærlic, meaning "of barley"; the first citation of the form bærlic in the Oxford English Dictionary dates to around 966 CE, in the compound word bærlic-croft. The underived word bære survives in the north of Scotland as bere, refers to a specific strain of six-row barley grown there.
The word barn, which meant "barley-house", is rooted in these words. Barley is a member of the grass family, it is a diploid species with 14 chromosomes. The wild ancestor of domesticated barley, Hordeum vulgare subsp. Spontaneum, is abundant in grasslands and woodlands throughout the Fertile Crescent area of Western Asia and northeast Africa, is abundant in disturbed habitats and orchards. Outside this region, the wild barley is less common and is found in disturbed habitats. However, in a study of genome-wide diversity markers, Tibet was found to be an additional center of domestication of cultivated barley. Wild barley is the ancestor of domestic barley. Over the course of domestication, barley grain morphology changed moving from an elongated shape to a more rounded spherical one. Additionally, wild barley has distinctive genes and regulators with potential for resistance to abiotic or biotic stresses to cultivated barley and adaptation to climatic changes. Wild barley has a brittle spike. Domesticated barley has nonshattering spikes.
The nonshattering condition is caused by a mutation in one of two linked genes known as Bt1 and Bt2. The nonshattering condition is recessive, so varieties of barley that exhibit this condition are homozygous for the mutant allele; each plant gets a set of genes from both parents, so two copies of each gene are in every plant. If one gene copy is a nonworking mutant, but the other gene copy works, the mutation has no effect. Only when the plant is homozygous with both copies of the gene as nonworking mutants does the mutation show its effect by exhibiting the nonshattering condition. Domestication in barley is followed by the change of key phenotypic traits at the genetic level. Little is known about the genetic variation among domesticated and wild genes in the chromosomal regions. Spikelets are arranged in triplets. In wild barley, only the central spikelet is fertile; this condition is retained in certain cultivars known as two-row barleys. A pair of mutations result in fertile lateral spikelets to produce six-row barleys.
Recent genetic studies have revealed that a mutation in one gene, vrs1, is responsible for the transition from two-row to six-row barley. Two-row barley has a lower protein content than six-row barley, thus a more fermentable sugar content. High-protein barley is best suited for animal feed. Malting barley is lower protein which shows more uniform germination, needs shorter steeping, has less protein in the extract that can make beer cloudy. Two-row barley is traditionally used in English ale-style beers, with two-row malted summer barley being preferred for traditional German beers. Six-row barley is common in some American lager-style beers when adjuncts such as corn and rice are used. Hulless or "naked" barley is a form of domesticated barley with an easier-to-remove hull. Naked barley is an ancient food crop, but a new industry has developed around uses of selected hulless barley to increase the digestible energy of the grain for swine and poultry. Hulless barley has been investigated for several potential new applications as whole grain, for its value-added products.
These include flour for multiple food applications. In traditional classifications of barley, these morphological differences have led to different forms of barley being classified as different species. Under these classifications, two-row barley with shattering spikes is classified as Hordeum spontaneum K. Koch. Two-row barley with nonshattering spikes is classified as H. distichum L. six-row barley with nonshattering spikes as H. vulgare L. and six-row with shattering spikes as H. agriocrithon Åberg. Because these differences were driven by single-gene mutations, coupled with cytological and molecular evidence, most recent classifications treat these forms as a single species, H. vulgare L. VocabularyDON: Acronym for deoxynivalenol, a toxic byproduct of Fusarium head blight known as vomitoxin Heading date: A parameter in barley cultivation Lodging: The bending over of the stems near ground level Nutans: A designation for a variety with a lax ear, as opposed to'erectum' (with an erect ea
2002 Los Angeles International Airport shooting
On Independence Day of the United States, July 4, 2002, a lone terrorist opened fire at the airline ticket counter of El Al, Israel's national airline, at Los Angeles International Airport in Los Angeles, California. Two people were killed and four others were injured before the gunman was fatally shot by an El Al security guard after being wounded by him. On July 4, 2002 at around 11:30 a.m. a lone gunman approached the El Al ticket counter at the Los Angeles International Airport, pulled out two Glock pistols and started shooting at the 90 passengers standing in the line. The assailant killed 25-year-old Customer Service Agent Victoria Hen, standing behind the counter, with a gunshot to the chest; the assailant opened fire at the passengers as they huddled nearby and killed 46-year-old bystander Yaakov Aminov. In addition, he injured four other bystanders; the terrorist used a.45-caliber handgun in the shooting. In addition, he was armed with a 9 mm handgun, a 6-inch knife, was carrying extra magazines and ammunition for both guns.
After the gunman fired 10 bullets at the crowd, one of El Al's security guards, unarmed, managed to knock him down. Meanwhile, El Al's security officer, Chaim Sapir, ran to the scene but was stabbed by the assailant with a knife. Despite this, Sapir managed killing him. Hesham Mohamed Hadayet, a 41-year-old Egyptian national, was identified as the assailant, he claimed political asylum. In Egypt he had been arrested for being a member of Al-Gama ` an Islamist group, he denied the accusation to U. S. immigration authorities. He said that he was a member of Assad Eben Furat Mosque Association, a group that aimed to "understand and apply Islamic law in the 20th century under any circumstances." Despite these Islamist commitments, he was given permission to live in the U. S. while his asylum application was pending. His asylum request was denied in 1995 but a letter notifying him was returned by the Post Office as undeliverable and no further efforts appear to have been made to locate and deport him.
Hadayet had a green card. He was married, had at least one child. At the time of the shooting, Hadayet was living in California. Like Hesham Mohamed Hadayet, Sayfullo Habibullaevich Saipov, the perpetrator of the 2017 New York City attack, gained legal residency in the United States under the Diversity Immigrant Visa lottery. In September 2002, federal investigators concluded that Hadayet hoped to influence U. S. government policy in favor of the Palestinians, that the incident was a terrorist act. 1985 Rome and Vienna airport attacks 2013 Los Angeles International Airport shooting
Airport Tunnel (Los Angeles)
The Airport Tunnel known as the Sepulveda Boulevard Tunnel, is a highway tunnel in Los Angeles, carrying Sepulveda Boulevard underneath the two runways and taxiways on the south side of the Los Angeles International Airport. This section of Sepulveda is a part of California State Route 1; the tunnel was the first tunnel in the United States to run under an airport runway
The Theme Building is an iconic Space Age structure at the Los Angeles International Airport. Influenced by "Populuxe" architecture, it is an example of the Mid-century modern design movement to become known as "Googie"; the distinctive white building resembles a flying saucer. The initial design was created by James Langenheim, of Pereira & Luckman, subsequently taken to fruition by a team of architects and engineers headed by William Pereira and Charles Luckman, that included Paul Williams and Welton Becket; the appearance of the building's signature crossed arches as homogeneous structures is a design illusion, created by topping four steel-reinforced concrete legs extending 15 feet above the ground with hollow stucco-covered steel trusses. To counteract earthquake movements, the Theme Building was retrofitted in 2010 with a tuned mass damper without changing its outward appearance; the original design for the airport created by Pereira & Luckman in 1959 had all the terminal buildings and parking structures connected to a huge glass dome, which would serve as a central hub for traffic circulation.
The plan was scaled down and the terminals were constructed elsewhere on the property. The Theme Building was subsequently built to mark the spot intended for the dome structure, as a reminder of the original plan; the restaurant on top rotated giving the visitors a 360-degree dining experience. However, it was made stationary; the structure was dedicated on June 25, 1961, by the US Vice-President Lyndon B. Johnson; the Los Angeles City Council designated the building, which lies within the Westchester neighborhood of the city of Los Angeles, a historic-cultural monument in 1993. A $4 million renovation, with retro-futuristic interior and electric lighting designed by Walt Disney Imagineering, was completed before the Encounter Restaurant opened there in 1997. Visitors are able to take an elevator up to the Observation Level to get a 360-degree view of arriving and departing planes. After the September 11 attacks, the Observation Level was closed for security reasons. Following a $12.3 million restoration of the building completed in 2010, the observation level re-opened to the public on Saturdays and Sundays starting July 10.
Additionally, on September 9, 2003, a permanent memorial honoring those who perished in the attacks of September 11 was opened on the grounds of the Theme Building. The Encounter Restaurant closed for business in December 2013 with no future plans to reopen, although the building's observation level is still open on weekends; the restaurant was closed in March 2007 for repairs after a half-ton piece of the stucco skin on the upper arches crashed onto the roof of the restaurant, reopened on November 12, 2007. Delaware North Companies Travel Hospitality Services operated the restaurant; the restaurant being in a non-secure area of the airport, where travelers are reluctant to spend time when a lengthy security checkpoint lay ahead, or leave after being screened and have to go through security again upon returning, was cited as a reason for closing. The Theme Building is home to the Bob Hope USO, which moved into the location in 2018. Theme Building – via USC Theme Building via Emporis
LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin
LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin was a German-built and -operated, passenger-carrying, hydrogen-filled, rigid airship which operated commercially from 1928 to 1937. When it entered commercial service in 1928, it became the first commercial passenger transatlantic flight service in the world, it was named after the German pioneer of airships, Ferdinand von Zeppelin, a count in the German nobility. During its operating life, the airship made 590 flights covering more than 1.7 million kilometers. It was designed to be operated by a crew of men; the LZ 127 was the longest rigid airship at the time of its completion and was only surpassed by the USS Akron in 1931. It was scrapped for fighter plane parts in 1940. Built at the Zeppelin Company works in Friedrichshafen am Bodensee, between 1926 and 1928, the LZ-127 had a design patterned on that of the LZ-126, which the company had delivered as a war reparation to the U. S. Navy; the LZ-126 had been delivered at NAS Lakehurst, New Jersey, in October 1924, where it was commissioned as the USS Los Angeles.
With that project completed, the Zeppelin company's chairman Dr. Hugo Eckener promptly began a two-year campaign of lobbying the German Government for funds and permission to proceed with construction of a new airship for Germany. Construction began in 1926 with the aid of a government grant although the majority of the necessary 2 million Reichsmark in funding would be raised by public subscription; the LZ 127 was completed and launched in September 1928. At 236.6 m and a total gas volume of 105,000 m3 of which 75,000 m3 was hydrogen carried in 17 "lift gas" cells and 30,000 m3 was Blau gas in 12 "power gas" cells, the Graf was the largest airship in the world at the time. It was powered by five Maybach VL-2 12-cylinder 550 hp engines that could burn either Blau gas or gasoline. Although the Graf could achieve a top airspeed of 128 km/h at its maximum power of 1,980 kW, its normal operational airspeed was 117 km/h at a power of 1,600 kW; some flights were made using only Blau gas carried in the dozen power gas cells which enabled the airship to cruise for up to 100 hours.
Using gasoline alone it was able to cruise for 67 hours, up to 118 hours using both. The Graf Zeppelin had a total lift capacity of 87,000 kg with a usable payload of 15,000 kg on a 10,000 km flight; the flight deck and operational spaces, common areas, passenger cabins, public toilet facilities on the Graf Zeppelin were all contained in a single contiguous "gondola" structure built into the forward third of the airship's ventral surface. The forward operational spaces consisted of the flight deck, a navigation room with two large open access hatches to allow the command crew to communicate with the navigators, radio room, a short passage to the main entrance-exit door space. An ascending ladder located in the map room allowed access to a keel corridor inside the hull; the map room had two large windows, one on each side, which permitted navigators to shoot the horizon and sky with a sextant. Behind the operational spaces were the main dining and sitting room with four large windows which connected via a long corridor to ten passenger cabins capable of sleeping 24, a pair of washrooms, dual toilet facilities.
The passenger cabins were set by day with a sofa which converted to two beds, one above the other, at night. The crew's quarters were reached by a catwalk; the galley was equipped with a single electric oven with two compartments and hot plates on top for cooking. One luxury, not provided on the Graf Zeppelin was heating; the main generating plant consisted of two fuel-burning generators. Two small ram air turbines attached to the main gondola on swinging arms supplemented electrical power for the radio room, internal lighting, the galley, acted as a reserve. Batteries stored the electrical energy; the gondola had a gasoline generator for emergency power. The Graf was outfitted with the most modern radio equipment available. A staff of three radio operators communicated with ground stations and ships, performed radio navigation, received weather reports, sent private telegrams for passengers. A one-kilowatt vacuum tube transmitter was used to send telegrams over the low frequency bands. A 70 watt antenna power emergency transmitter was available for both telegraph and radio telephone over 300–1,300 m wavelength bands which could be powered by either batteries or the gasoline generator.
The main antenna consisted of two lead weighted 120-meter-long wires deployed by electric motor or hand crank. The emergency antenna was a 40-meter wire stretched from a ring on the airship hull. Three high-quality, six-tube receivers served the wavelength ranges 120 to 1,200 m, 400 to 4,000 m and 3,000 to 25,000 m; the radio room had a shortwave receiver for wavelengths 10 to 280 m. A radio direction finder of the kind used by large passenger ships employed a rotatable loop antenna to determine the airship's position from any two land radio stations or ship-based transmitters from ships with known positions. During the airship's transatlantic flight to the United States in October 1928, the radio room sent 484 private telegrams and 160 press telegrams; the LZ 127 was christened Graf Zeppelin by