In everyday speech, a phrase may be any group of words carrying a special idiomatic meaning. In linguistic analysis, a phrase is a group of words that functions as a constituent in the syntax of a sentence, a single unit within a grammatical hierarchy. A phrase appears within a clause, but it is possible for a phrase to be a clause or to contain a clause within it. There are types of phrases like noun phrase, prepositional phrase and noun phrase The phrase coming up means an events is occurring within quite soon. Eg Christmas is coming up, in a few days. There is a difference between the common use of the term phrase and its technical use in linguistics. In common usage, a phrase is a group of words with some special idiomatic meaning or other significance, such as "all rights reserved", "economical with the truth", "kick the bucket", the like, it may be a saying or proverb, a fixed expression, a figure of speech, etc.. In grammatical analysis in theories of syntax, a phrase is any group of words, or sometimes a single word, which plays a particular role within the grammatical structure of a sentence.
It does not have to have any special meaning or significance, or exist anywhere outside of the sentence being analyzed, but it must function there as a complete grammatical unit. For example, in the sentence Yesterday I saw an orange bird with a white neck, the words an orange bird with a white neck form what is called a noun phrase, or a determiner phrase in some theories, which functions as the object of the sentence. Theorists of syntax differ in what they regard as a phrase; this means that some expressions that may be called phrases in everyday language are not phrases in the technical sense. For example, in the sentence I can't put up with Alex, the words put up with may be referred to in common language as a phrase but technically they do not form a complete phrase, since they do not include Alex, the complement of the preposition with. In grammatical analysis, most phrases contain a key word that identifies the type and linguistic features of the phrase; the syntactic category of the head is used to name the category of the phrase.
The remaining words in a phrase are called the dependents of the head. In the following phrases the head-word, or head, is bolded: too — Adverb phrase. For instance, the subordinator phrase: before that happened — Subordinator phrase, but this phrase, "before that happened", is more classified in other grammars, including traditional English grammars, as a subordinate clause. Most theories of syntax view most phrases as having a head, but some non-headed phrases are acknowledged. A phrase lacking a head is known as exocentric, phrases with heads are endocentric; some modern theories of syntax introduce certain functional categories in which the head of a phrase is some functional word or item, which may be covert, that is, it may be a theoretical construct that need not appear explicitly in the sentence. For example, in some theories, a phrase such as the man is taken to have the determiner the as its head, rather than the noun man – it is classed as a determiner phrase, rather than a noun phrase.
When a noun is used in a sentence without an explicit determiner, a null determiner may be posited. For full discussion, see Determiner phrase. Another type is the inflectional phrase, where a finite verb phrase is taken to be the complement of a functional covert head, supposed to encode the requirements for the verb to inflect – for agreement with its subject, for tense and aspect, etc. If these factors are treated separately more specific categories may be considered: tense phrase, where the verb phrase is the complement of an abstract "tense" element. Further examples of such proposed categories include topic phrase and focus phrase, which are assumed to be headed by elements that encode the need for a constituent of the sentence to be marked as the topic or as the focus. See the Generative approaches section of the latter article for details. Many theories of syntax and grammar illustrate sentence structure using phrase'trees', which provide schematics of how the words in a sentence are grouped and relate to each other.
Trees show the words, and, at times, clauses that make up sentences. Any word combination that corresponds to a complete subtree can be seen as a phrase. There are competing principles for constructing trees.
Senor Abravanel, known professionally as Silvio Santos, is a Brazilian entrepreneur, media tycoon and television host. He is the owner of holdings that include the second largest television network in the country, his net worth was US$1.3 billion in 2013. He is the presenter of the second oldest Brazilian program: Programa Silvio Santos, he is the only celebrity in the country on the list of billionaires by Forbes magazine. The magazine states that "there is no one more famous than Silvio Santos in Brazil. Senor Abravanel is the son of Sephardic Jewish immigrants, his father, Alberto Abravanel, was born in Thessalonica, Greece in 1897, his mother, Rebecca Caro, was born in Smyrna, Ottoman Empire in 1907. Both died in Rio de Janeiro and are buried side by side in the Jewish Cemetery of Caju in Rio de Janeiro city. On his paternal side, Silvio Santos is a descendant of Isaac Abravanel. Silvio Santos worked on the streets of Rio de Janeiro as a street vendor at the age of 14. During this period, he was invited to work in a radio station, but as he made more money as a street vendor, he left the broadcaster job a month later.
He went to São Paulo and after taking several different jobs that included prize raffling, he got a part on a TV show, a major success. About the same time he bought the company and in a short time expanded the leading brand of the group, which would be the starting point for Silvio to become one of the main names of Brazilian media. With a net worth of R$3.2 billion, Silvio Santos is the single biggest individual/natural person taxpayer in Brazil. In 1976, he started to fight for the rights of having his own television network, as he wanted to expand his prizes raffling. In 1981, he obtained permission to operate what would become TVS, in São Paulo; the TV channel expanded quickly and became what today is known as SBT, a brand that would be widespread throughout the country by the end of the 80s and early 90s. Silvio Santos tried to get involved in politics and ran for president in 1989. In 2008, Grupo Silvio Santos completed 50 years and was formed by 44 companies, with ventures that range from agribusiness to banks and hotels.
As he comes from a humble background, people tend to identify themselves with him and see him as proof that wealth can be achieved through hard work and persistence. Another point is that, as he was born to immigrant parents, Silvio Santos embodies the concept that Brazilians are a mixture of several different ethnicities, he is responsible for providing access to major international TV programming, such as Celebrity Big Brother, Wheel of Fortune, Candid Camera, Are You Smarter than a 5th Grader?, Deal or No Deal. Instead of just broadcasting these shows – which are on pay TV channels – he created Brazilian versions so that people could not only watch the shows, but participate in them as contestants buying the products of their sponsors or other investments; these shows attract middle-class people, as he would raffle money, appliances and promote family reunions and marriages. However, it did not prevent him from inviting celebrities and politicians who would participate in his shows and donate their prizes to various charities.
His trajectory has led to many comparisons between Sir Richard Branson. Due to his charismatic personality, Silvio became and is still one of the most influential and beloved people in Brazil. Due to his peculiar mannerisms, impersonations of him have become a staple of Brazilian humor. Santos's other trademark is wearing a full-size microphone on his chest, he is known for his great oratory, considered one of the greatest communicators of Brazil. Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão List of Brazilians by net worth Grinberg, Keila. Os judeus no Brasil. Editora Record. ISBN 85-200-0699-X. Silva, Arlindo. A fantástica história de Sílvio Santos. Editora do Brasil. ISBN 85-10-03063-4. Sílvio Santos on IMDb Official SBT site
The frequency of letters in text has been studied for use in cryptanalysis, frequency analysis in particular, dating back to the Iraqi mathematician Al-Kindi, who formally developed the method. Letter frequency analysis gained additional importance in Europe with the development of movable type in 1450 AD, where one must estimate the amount of type required for each letterform, as evidenced by the variations in letter compartment size in typographer's type cases. Linguists use letter frequency analysis as a rudimentary technique for language identification, where it's effective as an indication of whether an unknown writing system is alphabetic, syllablic, or ideographic. For example, the Japanese Hiragana syllabary contains 46 distinct characters, more than most phonetic alphabets. No exact letter frequency distribution underlies a given language, since all writers write differently. However, most languages have a characteristic distribution, apparent in longer texts. Language changes as extreme as from old English to modern English show strong trends in related letter frequencies: over a small sample of Biblical passages, from most frequent to least frequent, enaid sorhm tgþlwu cfy ðbpxz of old English compares to eotha sinrd luymw fgcbp kvjqxz of modern English, with the most extreme differences concerning letterforms not shared.
Linotype machines for the English language assumed the letter order, from most to least common, to be etaoin shrdlu cmfwyp vbgkjq xz based on the experience and custom of manual compositors. The equivalent for the French language was elaoin sdrétu cmfhyp vbgwqj xz. Modern International Morse code encodes the most frequent letters with the shortest symbols. Similar ideas are used in modern data-compression techniques such as Huffman coding. Letter frequency was used by other telegraph systems, such as the Murray Code. Letter frequencies, like word frequencies, tend to vary, both by subject. One cannot write an essay about x-rays without using frequent Xs, the essay will have an idiosyncratic letter frequency if the essay is about the use of x-rays to treat zebras in Qatar. Different authors have habits. Hemingway's writing style, for example, is visibly different from Faulkner's. Letter, trigram, word frequencies, word length, sentence length can be calculated for specific authors, used to prove or disprove authorship of texts for authors whose styles are not so divergent.
Accurate average letter frequencies can only be gleaned by analyzing a large amount of representative text. With the availability of modern computing and collections of large text corpora, such calculations are made. Examples can be drawn from a variety of sources and there are differences for general fiction with the position of'h' and'i', with'h' becoming more common. Herbert S. Zim, in his classic introductory cryptography text "Codes and Secret Writing", gives the English letter frequency sequence as "ETAON RISHD LFCMU GYPWB VKJXQ Z", the most common letter pairs as "TH HE AN RE ER IN ON AT ND ST ES EN OF TE ED OR TI HI AS TO", the most common doubled letters as "LL EE SS OO TT FF RR NN PP CC". To note that different dialects of a language will affect a letter's frequency. For example, an author in the United States would produce something in which the letter'z' is more common than an author in the United Kingdom writing on the same topic: words like "analyze", "apologize", "recognize" contain the letter in American English, whereas the same words are spelled "analyse", "apologise", "recognise" in British English.
This would affect the frequency of the letter'z' as it is a used letter elsewhere in the English language. The "top twelve" letters constitute about 80% of the total usage; the "top eight" letters constitute about 65% of the total usage. Letter frequency as a function of rank can be fitted well by several rank functions, with the two-parameter Cocho/Beta rank function being the best. Another rank function with no adjustable free parameter fits the letter frequency distribution reasonably well A spy using the VIC cipher or some other cipher based on a straddling checkerboard uses a mnemonic such as "a sin to err" or "at one sir" to remember the top eight characters; the use of letter frequencies and frequency analysis plays a fundamental role in cryptograms and several word puzzle games, including Hangman and the television game show Wheel of Fortune. One of the earliest descriptions in classical literature of applying the knowledge of English letter frequency to solving a cryptogram is found in Edgar Allan Poe's famous story The Gold-Bug, where the method is applied to decipher a message instructing on the whereabouts of a treasure hidden by Captain Kidd.
Letter frequencies had a strong effect on the design of some keyboard layouts. The most frequent letters are on the bottom row of the Blickensderfer typewriter, the home row of the Dvorak S
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
A guess is a swift conclusion drawn from data directly at hand, held as probable or tentative, while the person making the guess admittedly lacks material for a greater degree of certainty. A guess is an unstable answer, as it is "always putative, open to further revision and interpretation, validated against the horizon of possible meanings by showing that one interpretation is more probable than another in light of what we know". In many of its uses, "the meaning of guessing is assumed as implicitly understood", the term is therefore used without being meticulously defined. Guessing may combine elements of deduction, induction and the purely random selection of one choice from a set of given options. Guessing may involve the intuition of the guesser, who may have a "gut feeling" about which answer is correct without being able to articulate a reason for having this feeling. Philosopher Mark Tschaepe, who has written extensively on the scientific and epistemological role of guessing, has noted that there are often-overlooked "gradations" of guessing - that is, different kinds of guesses susceptible to different levels of confidence.
Tschaepe defines guessing as "an initial, deliberate originary activity of imaginatively creating, selecting, or dismissing potential solutions to problems or answers to questions as a volitional response to those problems or questions when insufficient information is available to make a deduction and/or induction to the solution or answer". He objects to definitions that describe guessing as either forming a "random or insufficiently formed opinion", which Tschaepe deems too ambiguous to be helpful, or "to instantaneously happen upon an opinion without reasoning". Tschaepe notes that in the latter case, the guess might appear to occur without reasoning, when in fact a reasoning process may be occurring so in the mind of the guesser that it does not register as a process; this reflects the observation made centuries before by Gottfried Leibniz, that "when I turn one way rather than another, it is because of a series of tiny impressions of which I am not aware". Tschaepe quotes the description given by William Whewell, who says that this process "goes on so that we cannot trace it in its successive steps".
A guess that "is a hunch or is groundless... is arbitrary and of little consequence epistemologically". A guess made with no factual basis for its correctness may be called a wild guess. Jonathan Baron has said that "he value of a wild guess is l/N + l/N - l/N = l/N", meaning that taking a true wild guess is no different than choosing an answer at random. Philosopher David Stove described this process as follows: A paradigm case of guessing is, when captains toss a coin to start a cricket match, one of them'calls', say "heads"; this can not be a case of scientific knowledge or any other, if it is a case of guessing. If the captain knows that the coin will fall heads, it is just logically impossible for him to guess that it will. More than that, however: guessing, at least in such a paradigm case, does not belong on what may be called the epistemic scale; that is, if the captain, when he calls "heads", is guessing, he is not, in virtue of that, believing, or inclining to think, or conjecturing, or anything of that sort, that the coin will fall heads.
And in fact, of course, he is not doing any of these things when he guesses. He just calls, and this is guessing. In such an instance, there not only is no reason for favoring "heads" or "tails", but everyone knows this to be the case. Tschaepe addresses the guess made in a coin flip, contending that it represents an limited case of guessing a random number. Tschaepe examines such guesses at greater length with the instance of guessing a number between 1 and 100, for which Tschaepe notes that the guesser "has to look for clues that are specific to what or whom is ordering them to guess, as well as possible past scenarios that involved guessing numbers", once these are exhausted, "there comes a point early in the process wherein no other clue to an answer exists"; as an exemplary case of guessing that involves progressively more information from which to make a further guess, Tschaepe notes the game of Twenty Questions, which he describes as "similar to guessing a number that the other person is thinking, but unlike guessing a number as a singular action... allows for combining abductive reasoning with deductive and inductive reasoning".
An unreasoned guess that turns out to be correct may be called a happy guess, or a lucky guess, it has been argued that "a'lucky guess' is a paradigm case of a belief that does not count as knowledge". In Jane Austen's Emma, the author has the character, respond to a character calling a match that she made a "lucky guess" by saying that "a lucky guess is never luck. There is always some talent in it"; as Tschaepe notes, William Whewell stated that certain scientific discoveries "are not improperly described as happy Guesses. By contrast, a guess made using prior knowledge to eliminate wrong possibilities may be called an informed guess or an educated guess. Uninformed guesses can be distinguished from the kind of informed guesses that lead to the development of a scientific hypothesis. Tschaepe notes that "his process of guessing is distinct from that of a coin toss or picking a number", it has been noted that "hen a decision must be made, the educated guess of the experts will be the best basis for a decision — an educated guess is better than an uneducated guess".
An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree. Apple trees are cultivated worldwide and are the most grown species in the genus Malus; the tree originated in Central Asia, where Malus sieversii, is still found today. Apples have been grown for thousands of years in Asia and Europe and were brought to North America by European colonists. Apples have religious and mythological significance in many cultures, including Norse and European Christian traditions. Apple trees are large. Apple cultivars are propagated by grafting onto rootstocks, which control the size of the resulting tree. There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples, resulting in a range of desired characteristics. Different cultivars are bred for various tastes and use, including cooking, eating raw and cider production. Trees and fruit are prone to a number of fungal and pest problems, which can be controlled by a number of organic and non-organic means. In 2010, the fruit's genome was sequenced as part of research on disease control and selective breeding in apple production.
Worldwide production of apples in 2017 was 83.1 million tonnes, with China accounting for 49.8% of the total. The apple is a deciduous tree standing 6 to 15 ft tall in cultivation and up to 30 ft in the wild; when cultivated, the size and branch density are determined by rootstock selection and trimming method. The leaves are alternately arranged dark green-colored simple ovals with serrated margins and downy undersides. Blossoms are produced in spring with the budding of the leaves and are produced on spurs and some long shoots; the 3 to 4 cm flowers are white with a pink tinge that fades, five petaled, with an inflorescence consisting of a cyme with 4–6 flowers. The central flower of the inflorescence is called the "king bloom"; the fruit matures in late summer or autumn, cultivars exist in a wide range of sizes. Commercial growers aim to produce an apple, 2 3⁄4 to 3 1⁄4 in in diameter, due to market preference; some consumers those in Japan, prefer a larger apple, while apples below 2 1⁄4 in are used for making juice and have little fresh market value.
The skin of ripe apples is red, green, pink, or russetted, though many bi- or tri-colored cultivars may be found. The skin may be wholly or russeted i.e. rough and brown. The skin is covered in a protective layer of epicuticular wax; the exocarp is pale yellowish-white, though pink or yellow exocarps occur. The original wild ancestor of Malus pumila was Malus sieversii, found growing wild in the mountains of Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Xinjiang, China. Cultivation of the species, most beginning on the forested flanks of the Tian Shan mountains, progressed over a long period of time and permitted secondary introgression of genes from other species into the open-pollinated seeds. Significant exchange with Malus sylvestris, the crabapple, resulted in current populations of apples being more related to crabapples than to the more morphologically similar progenitor Malus sieversii. In strains without recent admixture the contribution of the latter predominates. In 2010, an Italian-led consortium announced they had sequenced the complete genome of the apple in collaboration with horticultural genomicists at Washington State University, using'Golden Delicious'.
It had about 57,000 genes, the highest number of any plant genome studied to date and more genes than the human genome. This new understanding of the apple genome will help scientists identify genes and gene variants that contribute to resistance to disease and drought, other desirable characteristics. Understanding the genes behind these characteristics will help scientists perform more knowledgeable selective breeding; the genome sequence provided proof that Malus sieversii was the wild ancestor of the domestic apple—an issue, long-debated in the scientific community. The center of diversity of the genus Malus is in eastern present-day Turkey; the apple tree may have been the earliest tree that humans cultivated, growers have improved its fruits through selection over thousands of years. Alexander the Great is credited with finding dwarfed apples in Kazakhstan in 328 BCE. Winter apples, picked in late autumn and stored just above freezing, have been an important food in Asia and Europe for millennia.
Of the many Old World plants that the Spanish introduced to Chiloé Archipelago in the 16th century, apple trees became well adapted. Apples were introduced to North America by colonists in the 17th century, the first apple orchard on the North American continent was planted in Boston by Reverend William Blaxton in 1625; the only apples native to North America are crab apples, which were once called "common apples". Apple cultivars brought as seed from Europe were spread along Native American trade routes, as well as being cultivated on colonial farms. An 1845 United States apples nursery catalogue sold 350 of the "best" cultivars, showing the proliferation of new North American cultivars by the early 19th century. In the 20th century, irrigation projects in Eastern Washington began and allowed the development of the multibillion-dollar fruit industry, of which the apple is the leading product; until the 20th century, farmers stored apples in frostproof cellars during the winter for their own use or for sale.
Improved transportation of fresh apples by train and road replaced the necessity for storage. Controlled atmosphere facilities are used to keep apples fresh year-round. Controlled atmosphere facilit