Black comedy known as dark comedy or gallows humor, is a comic style that makes light of subject matter, considered taboo subjects that are considered serious or painful to discuss. Comedians use it as a tool for exploring vulgar issues, thus provoking discomfort and serious thought as well as amusement in their audience. Popular themes of the genre include death and violence, disease, sexuality and barbarism. Black comedy differs from blue comedy which focuses more on crude topics such as nudity and bodily fluids. Although the two are interrelated, black comedy is different from straightforward obscenity in that it is more subtle and does not have the explicit intention of offending people. In obscene humor, much of the humorous element comes from shock and revulsion, while black comedy might include an element of irony, or fatalism. For example, an archetypal example of black comedy in the form of self-mutilation appears in the English novel Tristram Shandy. Tristram, five years old at the time, starts to urinate out of an open window for lack of a chamber pot.
The sash circumcises him. Literary critics have associated black comedy and black humor with authors as early as the ancient Greeks with Aristophanes. Whereas the term black comedy is a broad term covering humor relating to many serious subjects, gallows humor tends to be used more in relation to death, or situations that are reminiscent of dying. Black humor can be related to the grotesque genre; the term black humor was coined by the Surrealist theorist André Breton in 1935 while interpreting the writings of Jonathan Swift. Breton's preference was to identify some of Swift's writings as a subgenre of comedy and satire in which laughter arises from cynicism and skepticism relying on topics such as death. Breton coined the term for his book Anthology of Black Humor, in which he credited Jonathan Swift as the originator of black humor and gallows humor. In his book, Breton included excerpts from 45 other writers, including both examples in which the wit arises from a victim with which the audience empathizes, as is more typical in the tradition of gallows humor, examples in which the comedy is used to mock the victim.
In the last cases, the victim's suffering is trivialized, which leads to sympathizing with the victimizer, as analogously found in the social commentary and social criticism of the writings of Sade. Among the first American writers who employed black comedy in their works were Nathanael West and Vladimir Nabokov, although at the time the genre was not known in the US; the concept of black humor first came to nationwide attention after the publication of a 1965 mass-market paperback titled Black Humor, of which the editor was Bruce Jay Friedman. The paperback was one of the first American anthologies devoted to the concept of black humor as a literary genre. With the paperback, Friedman labeled as "black humorists" a variety of authors, such as J. P. Donleavy, Edward Albee, Joseph Heller, Thomas Pynchon, John Barth, Vladimir Nabokov, Bruce Jay Friedman himself, Louis-Ferdinand Celine. Among the writers labeled as black humorists by journalists and literary critics are today Roald Dahl, Kurt Vonnegut, Warren Zevon, Christopher Durang, Philip Roth.
The motive for applying the label black humorist to all the writers cited above is that they have written novels, stories and songs in which profound or horrific events were portrayed in a comic manner. Comedians, like Lenny Bruce, that since the late 1950s have been labeled for using "sick comedy" by mainstream journalists, have been labeled with "black comedy". Sigmund Freud in his 1927 essay Humour puts forth the following theory of black comedy: "The ego refuses to be distressed by the provocations of reality, to let itself be compelled to suffer, it insists. Some other sociologists elaborated this concept further. At the same time, Paul Lewis warns that this "relieving" aspect of gallows jokes depends on the context of the joke: whether the joke is being told by the threatened person themselves or by someone else. Black comedy has the social effect of strengthening the morale of the oppressed and undermines the morale of the oppressors. According to Wylie Sypher, "to be able to laugh at evil and error means we have surmounted them."Black comedy is a natural human instinct and examples of it can be found in stories from antiquity.
Its use was widespread from where it was imported to the United States. It is rendered with the German expression Galgenhumor; the concept of gallows humor is comparable to the French expression rire jaune, which has a Germanic equivalent in the Belgian Dutch expression groen lachen. Italian comedian Daniele Luttazzi discussed gallows humour focusing on the particular type of laughter that it arouses, said that grotesque satire, as opposed to ironic satire, is the one that most
The Daily Express is a daily national middle-market tabloid newspaper in the United Kingdom. It is the flagship of a subsidiary of Northern & Shell, it was first published as a broadsheet in 1900 by Sir Arthur Pearson. Its sister paper, the Sunday Express, was launched in 1918. In February 2019, it had an average daily circulation of 315,142; the paper was acquired by Richard Desmond in 2000. Hugh Whittow was the editor from February 2011 until he retired in March 2018. Gary Jones took over as editor-in-chief in March 2018; the paper's editorial stances have been seen as aligned to the UK Independence Party and other right-wing factions including the right-wing of the Conservative Party. On 9 February 2018, Trinity Mirror said it would acquire the Daily Express' parent company and Shell Media, in a deal worth £126.7m. In addition to its sister paper, Express Newspapers publishes the red top newspapers the Daily Star and Daily Star Sunday; the Daily Express was founded in 1900 by Sir Arthur Pearson, with the first issue appearing on 24 April 1900.
Pearson, who had lost his sight to glaucoma in 1913, sold the title to the future Lord Beaverbrook in 1916. It was one of the first papers to place news instead of advertisements on its front page, carried gossip and women's features, it was the first in Britain to have a crossword puzzle. The Express began printing in Manchester in 1927. In 1931 it moved to 120 a specially commissioned art deco building. Under Beaverbrook, the paper set, its success was due to aggressive marketing campaign and a circulation war with other populist newspapers. Arthur Christiansen became editor in October 1933. Under his direction sales climbed from two million in 1936 to four million in 1949, he retired in 1957. The paper featured Alfred Bestall's Rupert Bear cartoon and satirical cartoons by Carl Giles which it began publishing in the 1940s. On 24 March 1933, "Judea Declares War on Germany", was published. During the late 1930s, the paper advocated the appeasement policies of the Chamberlain government, due to the influence of Lord Beaverbrook.
The ruralist author Henry Williamson wrote for the paper on many occasions for half a century the whole of his career. He wrote for the Sunday Express at the beginning of his career. In 1938, the publication moved to the Daily Express Building, Manchester designed by Owen Williams on the same site in Great Ancoats Street, it opened a similar building in Glasgow in 1936 in Albion Street. Glasgow printing ended in Manchester in 1989 on the company's own presses. Johnston Press has a five-year deal, begun in March 2015, to print the northern editions of the Daily Express, Daily Star, Sunday Express and the Daily Star Sunday at its Dinnington site in Sheffield; the Scottish edition is printed by facsimile in Glasgow by contract printers, the London editions at Westferry Printers. In March 1962, Beaverbrook was attacked in the House of Commons for running "a sustained vendetta" against the British Royal Family in the Express titles. In the same month, the Duke of Edinburgh described the Express as "a bloody awful newspaper.
It is full of lies and imagination. It is a vicious paper." At the height of Beaverbrook's control, in 1948, he told a Royal Commission on the press that he ran his papers "purely for the purpose of making propaganda". The arrival of television, the public's changing interests, took their toll on circulation, following Beaverbrook's death in 1964, the paper's circulation declined for several years. During this period, the Express alone among mainstream newspapers, was vehemently opposed to entry into what became the European Economic Community; as a result of the rejuvenation of the Daily Mail under David English and the emergence of The Sun under Rupert Murdoch and editorship of Larry Lamb, average daily sales of the Express dropped below four million in 1967, below three million in 1975, below two million in 1984. The Daily Express switched from broadsheet to tabloid in 1977, was bought by the construction company Trafalgar House in the same year, its publishing company, Beaverbrook Newspapers, was renamed Express Newspapers.
In 1982, Trafalgar House spun off its publishing interests to a new company, Fleet Holdings, under Lord Matthews, but this succumbed to a hostile takeover by United Newspapers in 1985. Under United, the Express titles moved from Fleet Street to Blackfriars Road in 1989. Express Newspapers was sold to publisher Richard Desmond in 2000, the names of the newspapers reverted to Daily Express and Sunday Express. In 2004, the newspaper moved to its present location on Lower Thames Street in the City of London. On 31 October 2005, UK Media Group Entertainment Rights secured majority interest from the Daily Express for Rupert Bear, they paid £6 million for a 66.6% control of the character. The Express retains minority interest of one-third plus the right to publish Rupert Bear stories in certain Express publications. In 2000, Express Newspapers was bought by Richard Desmond, publisher of celebrity magazine OK!, for £125 million. Controversy surrounded the deal since Desmond owned softcore pornography magazines.
As a result, many staff left, including columnist Peter Hitchens. Hitchens moved to The Mail on Sunday, saying working for the new owner was a moral conflict of interest since he had always attacked the pornographic magazines that Desmond published. Despite their divergent politics, Desmond respected Hitchens. In 2007, Express Newspape
A novelist is an author or writer of novels, though novelists write in other genres of both fiction and non-fiction. Some novelists are professional novelists, thus make a living writing novels and other fiction, while others aspire to support themselves in this way or write as an avocation. Most novelists struggle to get their debut novel published, but once published they continue to be published, although few become literary celebrities, thus gaining prestige or a considerable income from their work. Novelists come from a variety of backgrounds and social classes, this shapes the content of their works. Public reception of a novelist's work, the literary criticism commenting on it, the novelists' incorporation of their own experiences into works and characters can lead to the author's personal life and identity being associated with a novel's fictional content. For this reason, the environment within which a novelist works and the reception of their novels by both the public and publishers can be influenced by their demographics or identity.
Some novelists have creative identities derived from their focus on different genres of fiction, such as crime, romance or historical novels. While many novelists compose fiction to satisfy personal desires and commentators ascribe a particular social responsibility or role to novel writers. Many authors use such moral imperatives to justify different approaches to novel writing, including activism or different approaches to representing reality "truthfully". Novelist is a term derivative from the term "novel" describing the "writer of novels"; the Oxford English Dictionary recognizes other definitions of novelist, first appearing in the 16th and 17th centuries to refer to either "An innovator. However, the OED attributes the primary contemporary meaning of "a writer of novels" as first appearing in the 1633 book "East-India Colation" by C. Farewell citing the passage "It beeing a pleasant observation to note the order of their Coaches and Carriages.. As if it had bin the spoyles of a Tryumph leading Captive, or a preparation to some sad Execution" According to the Google Ngrams, the term novelist first appears in the Google Books database in 1521.
The difference between professional and amateur novelists is the author's ability to publish. Many people take up novel writing as a hobby, but the difficulties of completing large scale fictional works of quality prevent the completion of novels. Once authors have completed a novel, they will try to get it published; the publishing industry requires novels to have accessible profitable markets, thus many novelists will self-publish to circumvent the editorial control of publishers. Self-publishing has long been an option for writers, with vanity presses printing bound books for a fee paid by the writer. In these settings, unlike the more traditional publishing industry, activities reserved for a publishing house, like the distribution and promotion of the book, become the author's responsibility; the rise of the Internet and electronic books has made self publishing far less expensive and a realistic way for authors to realize income. Novelists apply a number of different methods to writing their novels, relying on a variety of approaches to inspire creativity.
Some communities encourage amateurs to practice writing novels to develop these unique practices, that vary from author to author. For example, the internet-based group, National Novel Writing Month, encourages people to write 50,000-word novels in the month of November, to give novelists practice completing such works. In the 2010 event, over 200,000 people took part – writing a total of over 2.8 billion words. Novelists don't publish their first novels until in life. However, many novelists begin writing at a young age. For example, Iain Banks began writing at eleven, at sixteen completed his first novel, "The Hungarian Lift-Jet", about international arms dealers, "in pencil in a larger-than-foolscap log book". However, he was thirty before he published his first novel, the controversial The Wasp Factory in 1984; the success of this novel enabled Banks to become a full-time novelist. An important writers' juvenilia if not published, is prized by scholars because it provides insight into an author's biography and approach to writing.
Novelists publish as early as their teens. For example, Patrick O'Brian published his first novel, Caesar: The Life Story of a Panda-Leopard, at the age of 15, which brought him considerable critical attention. Barbara Newhall Follett's The House Without Windows, was accepted and published in 1927 when she was 13 by the Knopf publishing house and earned critical acclaim from the New York Times, the Saturday Review, H. L. Mencken; these works will achieve popular success as well. For example, though Christopher Paolini's Eragon, was not a great critical success, but its popularity among readers placed it on the New York Times Children's Books Best Seller list for 121 weeks. First-time novelists of any age find themselves unable to get works published, because of a number of reasons reflecting the inexperience of the author and the economic realities of publishers. Authors mus
Sir John Betjeman was an English poet and broadcaster who described himself in Who's Who as a "poet and hack". He was Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom from 1972 until his death, he was a founding member of the Victorian Society and a passionate defender of Victorian architecture. He began his career as a journalist and ended it as one of the most popular British Poets Laureate and a much-loved figure on British television. Betjeman was born John Betjemann, he was the son of a prosperous silverware maker of Dutch descent. His parents and Ernest Betjemann, had a family firm at 34–42 Pentonville Road which manufactured the kind of ornamental household furniture and gadgets distinctive to Victorians. During the First World War the family name was changed to the less German-looking Betjeman, his father's forebears had come from the present day Netherlands more than a century earlier, setting up their home and business in Islington and during the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War had added the extra "-n" to avoid the anti-Dutch sentiment existing at the time.
Betjeman was baptised at St Anne's Church, Highgate Rise, a 19th-century church at the foot of Highgate West Hill. The family lived at Parliament Hill Mansions in the Lissenden Gardens private estate in Gospel Oak in north London. In 1909, the Betjemanns moved half a mile north to more opulent Highgate. From West Hill they lived in the reflected glory of the Burdett-Coutts estate: Betjeman's early schooling was at the local Byron House and Highgate School, where he was taught by poet T. S. Eliot. After this, he boarded at the Dragon School preparatory school in North Oxford and Marlborough College, a public school in Wiltshire. In his penultimate year, he joined the secret Society of Amici in which he was a contemporary of both Louis MacNeice and Graham Shepard, he founded a satirical magazine that lampooned Marlborough's obsession with sport. While at school, his exposure to the works of Arthur Machen won him over to High Church Anglicanism, a conversion of importance to his writing and conception of the arts.
Betjeman left Marlborough in July 1925. Betjeman entered the University of Oxford with difficulty, having failed the mathematics portion of the university's matriculation exam, Responsions, he was, admitted as a commoner at Magdalen College and entered the newly created School of English Language and Literature. At Oxford, Betjeman made little use of the academic opportunities, his tutor, a young C. S. Lewis, regarded him as an "idle prig" and Betjeman in turn considered Lewis unfriendly and uninspiring as a teacher. Betjeman disliked the coursework's emphasis on linguistics, dedicated most of his time to cultivating his social life and his interest in English ecclesiastical architecture, to private literary pursuits. At Oxford he was a friend of Maurice Bowra to be Warden of Wadham. Betjeman had a poem published in Isis, the university magazine, served as editor of the Cherwell student newspaper during 1927, his first book of poems was printed with the help of fellow student Edward James. He famously brought his teddy bear Archibald Ormsby-Gore up to Magdalen with him, the memory of which inspired his Oxford contemporary Evelyn Waugh to include Sebastian Flyte's teddy Aloysius in Brideshead Revisited.
Much of this period of his life is recorded in his blank verse autobiography Summoned by Bells published in 1960 and made into a television film in 1976. It is a common misapprehension, cultivated by Betjeman himself, that he did not complete his degree because he failed to pass the compulsory holy scripture examination, known colloquially as "Divvers", short for "Divinity". In Hilary term 1928, Betjeman failed Divinity for the second time, he had to leave the university for the Trinity term to prepare for a retake of the exam. Betjeman wrote to the Secretary of the Tutorial Board at Magdalen, G. C. Lee, asking to be entered for the Pass School, a set of examinations taken on rare occasions by undergraduates who are deemed unlikely to achieve an honours degree. In Summoned by Bells Betjeman claims that his tutor, C. S. Lewis, said "You'd have only got a third" – but he had informed the tutorial board that he thought Betjeman would not achieve an honours degree of any class. Permission to sit the Pass School was granted.
Betjeman famously decided to offer a paper in Welsh. Osbert Lancaster tells the story that a tutor came by train twice a week from Aberystwyth to teach Betjeman. However, Jesus College had a number of Welsh tutors who more would have taught him. Betjeman had to leave at the end of the Michaelmas term, 1928. Betjeman did pass his Divinity examination on his third try but was'sent down' after failing the Pass School, he had achieved a satisfactory result in only one of the three required papers. Betjeman's academic failure at Oxford rankled with him for the rest of his life and he was never reconciled with C. S. Lewis, towards whom he nursed a bitter detestation; this situation was complicated by his enduring love of Oxford, from which he accepted an honorary doctorate of letters in 1974. Betjeman left Oxford without a degree. Whilst there, however, he had made the acquaintance of people who would influence his work, including Louis MacNeice and W. H. Auden, he worked as a private secretary, school teacher and film critic for the Evening Standard, where he wrote for their high-society gossip column, the Londoner's Diary.
He was employed by the Architectural Review between 1930 and 1935, as a full-time assistant editor, following their publishing of some of his fre
George Henry Sanders was a British film and television actor, singer-songwriter, music composer, author. His career as an actor spanned over forty years, his upper-class English accent and bass voice led him to be cast as sophisticated but villainous characters. He is best known as Jack Favell in Rebecca, Scott ffolliott in Foreign Correspondent, Addison DeWitt in All About Eve, for which he won an Academy Award, Sir Brian De Bois-Guilbert in Ivanhoe, King Richard the Lionheart in King Richard and the Crusaders, Mr. Freeze in a two-parter episode of Batman, the voice of the malevolent man-hating tiger Shere Khan in Disney's The Jungle Book, as Simon Templar, "The Saint", in five films made in the 1930s and 1940s. Sanders was born in Russian Empire, at number 6 Petrovski Ostrov, his parents were Henry Peter Ernest Sanders, Margarethe Jenny Bertha Sanders, born in Saint Petersburg, of German, but Estonian and Scottish, ancestry. A biography published in 1990 claimed that Sanders's father was the illegitimate son of a prince of the House of Oldenburg and a Russian noblewoman of the Czar’s court, married to a sister of the Czar.
The actor Tom Conway was George Sanders's elder brother. Their younger sister, Margaret Sanders, was born in 1912. In 1917, at the outbreak of the Russian Revolution and his family moved to England. Like his brother, he attended Bedales School and Brighton College, a boys' independent school in Brighton went on to Manchester Technical College after which he worked in textile research. Sanders travelled to South America; the Depression sent him back to England. He worked at an advertising agency, where the company secretary, the aspiring actress Greer Garson, suggested that he take up a career in acting. Sanders learned how to sing and got a role on stage in Ballyhoo, which only had a short run but helped establish him as an actor, he began to work on the British stage, appearing several times with Edna Best. He co-starred with Dennis King in The Command Performance, he appeared in a British film, Love and Laughter. Sanders travelled to New York to appear on Broadway in a production of Noël Coward's Conversation Piece, directed by Coward, which only ran 55 performances.
He returned to England, where he had small parts in films like Things to Come, Strange Cargo, Find the Lady, The Man Who Could Work Miracles, Dishonour Bright. Some of these British films were distributed by 20th Century Fox who were looking for an actor to play a villain in their Hollywood-shot film Lloyd's of London. Sanders was duly cast as Lord Everett Stacy, opposite Tyrone Power, in one of his first leads, as the hero. Lloyds of London was a big hit and in November 1936 Fox put Sanders under a seven-year contract. Fox cast him opposite Power again in Love Is News he supported Wallace Beery in Slave Ship and Gloria Stuart in The Lady Escapes. Public response to Sanders had been strong, so Fox gave him his first heroic lead, in the B picture Lancer Spy with Dolores del Rio, he and del Rio were promptly reteamed in International Settlement. Sanders was second-billed in John Ford's Four Men and a Prayer, Fox had him play a villain in Mr. Moto's Last Warning. Sanders returned to Britain to make The Outsider for Associated British Picture Corporation and So This Is London for Fox.
Sanders returned to Hollywood where RKO wanted him to play the hero in a series of B-movies, The Saint. The Saint in New York had been made starring Louis Hayward in the title role, but when he decided not to return to the role Sanders took over for The Saint Strikes Back. After playing an American Nazi in Confessions of a Nazi Spy for Warners, Sanders was The Saint in London. For RKO he was a villain in Nurse Edith Cavell, as German, with Anna Neagle and Allegheny Uprising, with John Wayne, he played a double role in The Saint's Double Trouble went to Universal for Green Hell and The House of the Seven Gables. Alfred Hitchcock wanted him for a supporting role in a huge success. After The Saint Takes Over, Hitchcock used him again in Foreign Correspondent. MGM used him as a villain in Bitter Sweet and he performed a similar function for Edward Small in The Son of Monte Cristo. Sanders made his last appearance as Simon Templar in The Saint in Palm Springs MGM called him back for Rage in Heaven, an early film noir, playing the trustworthy good guy whose best friend, Robert Montgomery, goes murderously insane and sets him up for the rap. Sanders was a villain in Man Hunt but heroic in Sundown.
RKO had been fighting with Leslie Charteris, creator of The Saint, so they stopped the series and put Sanders in a new B picture series about a suave crime fighter, The Falcon. The first entry was The Gay Falcon, it was popular and followed by A Date with the Falcon. At Fox he was in Son of Fury: The Story of Benjamin Blake with Tyrone Power it was back to The Falcon Takes Over, based on Farewell, My Lovely. MGM used him in Her Cardboard Lover and he was one of several stars in Tales of Manhattan. Sanders was tiring of The Falcon, so he handed the role to his brother Tom, in T
The Edwardian era or Edwardian period of British history covers the brief reign of King Edward VII, 1901 to 1910, is sometimes extended in both directions to capture long-term trends from the 1890s to the First World War. The death of Queen Victoria in January 1901 marked the end of the Victorian era, her son and successor, Edward VII, was the leader of a fashionable elite that set a style influenced by the art and fashions of continental Europe. Samuel Hynes described the Edwardian era as a "leisurely time when women wore picture hats and did not vote, when the rich were not ashamed to live conspicuously, the sun never set on the British flag."The Liberals returned to power in 1906 and made significant reforms. Below the upper class, the era was marked by significant shifts in politics among sections of society, excluded from power, such as common labourers, the industrial working class, the Irish. Women started to play more of a role in politics; the Edwardian period is sometimes portrayed as a romantic golden age of long summer afternoons and garden parties, basking in a sun that never sets on the British Empire.
This perception was created in the 1920s and by those who remembered the Edwardian age with nostalgia, looking back to their childhoods across the abyss of the Great War. The Edwardian age was seen as a mediocre period of pleasure between the great achievements of the preceding Victorian age and the catastrophe of the following war. Recent assessments emphasise the great differences between the wealthy and the poor during this period and describe the age as heralding great changes in political and social life. Historian Lawrence James has argued that the leaders felt threatened by rival powers such as Germany and the United States; the sudden arrival of world war in summer 1914 was unexpected. There was a growing political awareness among the working class, leading to a rise in trade unions, the Labour movement and demands for better working conditions; the aristocracy remained in control of top government offices. The Conservatives – at the time called "Unionists" – were the dominant political party from the 1890s until 1906.
The party had many strengths, appealing to voters supportive of imperialism, the Church of England, a powerful Royal Navy, traditional hierarchical society. There was a powerful leadership base in the landed aristocracy and landed gentry in rural England, plus strong support from the Church of England and military interests. Historians have used election returns to demonstrate that Conservatives did well in working-class districts, they had an appeal as well to the better-off element of traditional working-class Britons in the larger cities. In rural areas, the national headquarters made effective use of paid traveling lecturers, with pamphlets and lantern slides, who were able to communicate with rural voters – the newly enfranchised agricultural workers. In the first years of the twentieth century, the Conservative government, with Arthur Balfour as Prime Minister, had numerous successes in foreign policy and education, as well as solutions for the issues of alcohol licensing and land ownership for the peasants of Ireland.
The weaknesses were accumulating, proved so overwhelming in 1906 that they did not return to complete power until 1922. The Conservative Party was losing its drive and enthusiasm after the retirement of the charismatic Joseph Chamberlain. There was a bitter split on "tariff reform", that drove many of the free traders over to the Liberal camp. Tariff reform was a losing issue. Conservative support weakened among the top tier of the working-class and lower middle-class, there was dissatisfaction among the intellectuals; the 1906 general election was a landslide victory for the Liberal Party, which saw its total vote share increase by 25%, while the Conservative total vote held steady. The Liberal Party lacked a unified ideological base in 1906, it contained numerous contradictory and hostile factions, such as imperialists and supporters of the Boers. Non-Conformist Dissenters – Protestants outside the Anglican fold – were a powerful element, dedicated to opposing the established church in terms of education and taxation.
However, the Dissenters were losing support and society at large and played a lesser and lesser role in party affairs after 1900. The Party, furthermore included Irish Catholics, secularists from the labour movement; the middle-class business and intellectual communities were strongholds, although some old aristocratic families played important roles as well. The working-class element was moving toward the newly emerging Labour Party. One uniting element was widespread agreement on the use of politics and Parliament as a device to upgrade and improve society and to reform politics; the Labour Party was emerging from the growing trade union movement after 1890. In 1903 it entered the Gladstone–MacDonald pact with the Liberals, allowing for cross-party support in elections, the emergence of a small Labour contingent in Parliament, it was a temporary arrangement until the 1920s, when the Labour Party was strong enough to act on its own, the Liberals were in an irreversible decline. Subtle social changes in the working-class were producing a younger generation that wanted to act independently.
Michael Childs argues that the y
A boarding house is a house in which lodgers rent one or more rooms for one or more nights, sometimes for extended periods of weeks and years. The common parts of the house are maintained, some services, such as laundry and cleaning, may be supplied, they provide "room and board," that is, at least some meals as well as accommodation. Lodgers only obtain a licence to use their rooms, not exclusive possession, so the landlord retains the right of access. Boarders would share washing and dining facilities; such boarding houses were found in English seaside towns and college towns. It was common for there to be two elderly long-term residents. "The phrase "boardinghouse reach" comes from an important variant of hotel life. In boardinghouses, tenants rent rooms and the proprietor provides family-style breakfasts and evening dinners in a common dining room. Traditionally, the food was put on the table, everyone scrambled for the best dishes; those with a long, fast reach ate best." Boarders can arrange to stay bed-and-breakfast, half-board or full-board.
For families on holiday with children, boarding was an inexpensive alternative and much cheaper than staying in all but the cheapest hotels. In the United Kingdom, boarding houses were run by landladies, some of whom maintained draconian authority in their houses: the residents might not be allowed to remain on the premises during the daytime and could be subject to rigorous rules and regulations, stridently enforced. Boarding houses were common in growing cities until the 1930s. In Boston in the 1830s, when the landlords and their boarders were added up, between one-third and one-half of the city's entire population lived in a boarding house. Boarding houses ran from large, purpose-built buildings down to "genteel ladies" who rented a room or two as a way of earning a little extra money. Large houses were converted to boarding houses as wealthy families moved to more fashionable neighborhoods; the boarders in the 19th century ran the gamut as well, from well-off businessmen to poor laborers, from single people to families.
In the 19th century, between 1/3 to 1/2 of urban dwellers rented a room to boarders or were boarders themselves. In New York in 1869, the cost of living in a boarding house ranged from $2.50 to $40 a week. Some boarding houses attracted people with particular occupations or preferences, such as vegetarian meals; the boarding house reinforced some social changes: it made it feasible for people to move to a large city, away from their families. This distance from relatives brought social anxieties and complaints that the residents of boarding houses were not respectable. Boarding out gave people the opportunity to meet other residents, so they promoted some social mixing; this had advantages, such as learning new ideas and new people's stories, disadvantages, such as meeting disreputable or dangerous people. Most boarders were men, but women found that they had limited options: a co-ed boarding house might mean meeting objectionable men, but an all-female boarding house might be – or at least be suspected of being – a brothel.
Boarding houses attracted criticism: in "1916, Walter Krumwilde, a Protestant minister, saw the rooming house or boardinghouse system "spreading its web like a spider, stretching out its arms like an octopus to catch the unwary soul." Attempts to reduce boarding house availability had a gendered impact, as boarding houses were operated or managed by women "matrons". Groups such as the Young Women's Christian Association provided supervised boarding houses for young women. Boarding houses were viewed as "brick-and-mortar chastity belts" for young unmarried women, which protected them from the vices in the city; the Jeanne d'Arc Residence in Chelsea, operated by an order of nuns, aimed to provide a dwelling space for young French seamstresses and nannies. Married women who boarded with their families in boarding houses were accused of being too lazy to do all of the washing and cleaning necessary to keep house or to raise children properly. While there is an association between boarding houses and women renters, men rented, notably the poet-authors Walt Whitman and Edgar Allan Poe.
In the decades after the 1880s, urban reformers began working on modernizing cities. By the early 1930s, urban reformers were using codes and zoning to enforce "uniform and protected single-use residential district of private houses", the reformers' preferred housing type. In 1936, the FHA Property Standards defined a dwelling as "any structure used principally for residential purposes", noting that "commercial rooming houses and tourist homes, tourist cabins, clubs, or fraternities would not be considered dwellings" as they did not have the "private kitchen and a private bath" that reformers viewed as essential in a "proper home"; as a result, boarding houses became less common in the early 20th century. Another factor that red