Violent Femmes is an American folk punk band from Milwaukee, Wisconsin active from 1980 to 2009. The band has since been active again from 2013; the band consists of singer and songwriter Gordon Gano, bassist Brian Ritchie and current drummer John Sparrow. Violent Femmes has released nine studio albums and fifteen singles during the course of their career; the band found immediate success with the release of their self-titled debut album in early 1983. Featuring many of their well-known songs, including "Blister in the Sun", "Kiss Off", "Add It Up" and "Gone Daddy Gone", Violent Femmes became the band's biggest-selling album and was certified platinum by the RIAA. Violent Femmes went on to become one of the most successful alternative rock bands of the 1980s, selling more than 9 million albums by 2005. After the release of their third album The Blind Leading the Naked, the band's future was uncertain and they split up in 1987, when Gano and Ritchie went solo. However, they regrouped a year releasing the album 3.
Since Violent Femmes' maintained steady popularity in the United States, where the songs "Nightmares" and "American Music" cracked the top five on the Modern Rock Tracks chart. Violent Femmes was founded by bassist Brian Ritchie and percussionist Victor DeLorenzo following the demise of the initial wave of American punk rock, became a full-fledged band upon the arrival of lead vocalist and guitarist Gordon Gano. According to Ritchie, he came up with the name of the group as a fake band name when one of his bandmates questioned his assertion that his brother was in a band—he and DeLorenzo liked the name, so they used it for the rhythm duo they played in prior to Gano joining the group. In its early days, the band played coffee houses and street corners, they were discovered by James Honeyman-Scott on August 23, 1981, when the band was busking on a street corner in front of the Oriental Theatre, the Milwaukee venue that The Pretenders would be playing that night. Chrissie Hynde invited them to play a brief acoustic set after the opening act.
After their debut album Violent Femmes, they released Hallowed Ground, which moved the group towards a country music sound and introduced Christian themes. Mark Van Hecke produced the band's first two efforts, but their third album, The Blind Leading the Naked, saw a change in the studio; this time, another fellow Milwaukee native Jerry Harrison of Talking Heads did the producing. It was more mainstream and pop-oriented, resulting in a minor hit with "Children of the Revolution" by T. Rex. In 1985, Van Hecke ended his collaboration with the group and became a much sought after composer and producer in the growing video game industry, he would return however, to produce two more albums for the group. The Femmes disbanded, with Gano releasing an album in 1987, the result of a gospel side project Mercy Seat. Ritchie released several solo LPs; the group came back together in late 1988, releasing 3, a return to the band's earlier, stripped-down sound. Why Do Birds Sing? was released in 1991 after the band signed to Reprise and featured another minor hit, "American Music," which became a concert staple.
In 1993, DeLorenzo departed the group to make solo records. Guy Hoffman of the Oil Tasters and BoDeans, was brought in to tour what was to become one of their biggest-selling records, the Add It Up collection. Over the next nine years, Violent Femmes, with Hoffman, recorded five full-length CDs and a handful of one-offs for motion picture soundtracks, such as "I Swear It" from the South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut soundtrack, "Color Me Once" for the soundtrack to The Crow and other compilation projects; the first full studio album with Hoffman on drums, New Times, was released in 1994, the band scored another minor hit with the song "Breakin' Up" Rock!!!!! was released in 1995 in Australia only, though it has since become available in the United States. Viva Wisconsin, a live album, was released in the United States in 1999 on the independent label Beyond and was followed by Freak Magnet in 2000. Something's Wrong, an album of unreleased studio tracks, covers and acoustic live performances was released as an MP3-only album through eMusic.
In 2002, Rhino Records repackaged their debut 1983 album along with demos and live tracks to coincide with a 20th anniversary reissue. DeLorenzo asked to rejoin for. On the 2002 SpongeBob SquarePants First Complete Season DVD, the Violent Femmes recorded a 34-second cover of the SpongeBob theme, they recorded a 30-second commercial for Nickelodeon. 2005 saw the release of two collections of past work—a CD called Permanent Record: The Very Best of Violent Femmes on Slash/Rhino and a DVD, Permanent Record – Live & Otherwise from Rhino, which showcases a concert performance from 1991, along with many of the group's videos. The CD is the first record that recognizes all four musicians and their contributions on the same disc. After touring in promotion of Freak Magnet, primary songwriter Gano decided that they would no longer make new music, but the band would continue to play shows when booked. On New Year's Eve of 2005, for one show in January 2006, all four Violent Femmes members played together.
In 2007, Gano angered Ritchie by selling advertising rights for the classic "Blister in the Sun" to Wendy's. Although nearly all of the band's songs, including "Blister in the Sun," credit Gano as the sole songwriter, Ritchie responded to the use of the song in the commercial by saying: "For the fans who rightfully are complaining about the Wendy's burger advertisement featuring "Blister in t
Bonnie Lynn Raitt is an American blues singer, guitarist and activist. During the 1970s, Raitt released a series of roots-influenced albums that incorporated elements of blues, rock and country. In 1989, after several years of critical acclaim but little commercial success, she had a major hit with the album Nick of Time; the following two albums, Luck of the Draw and Longing in Their Hearts, were multimillion sellers, generating several hit singles, including "Something to Talk About", "Love Sneakin' Up on You", the ballad "I Can't Make You Love Me". Raitt has received 10 Grammy Awards, she is listed as number 50 in Rolling Stone's list of the "100 Greatest Singers of All Time" and number 89 on the magazine's list of the "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time". Australian Country Music Artist Graeme Connors has said, "Bonnie Raitt does something with a lyric no one else can do. Raitt was born in Burbank, the daughter of the Broadway musical star John Raitt and his first wife, the pianist Marjorie Haydock.
Raitt is of Scottish ancestry. She was raised in the Quaker tradition, she began playing guitar at Camp Regis-Applejack in New York, at an early age. She gained notice for her bottleneck-style guitar playing. Raitt says she played "at camp" in New York. After graduating from Oakwood Friends School in Poughkeepsie, New York, in 1967 Raitt entered Radcliffe College, majoring in social relations and African studies, she said her "plan was to travel to Tanzania, where President Julius Nyerere was creating a government based on democracy and socialism". Raitt became friends with blues promoter Dick Waterman. During her second year of college, Raitt left school for a semester and moved to Philadelphia with Waterman and other local musicians. Raitt says it was an "opportunity that changed everything." In the summer of 1970, she played with her brother David on stand up bass with Mississippi Fred McDowell at the Philly Folk Festival as well as Opening for John Hammond at the Gaslight Cafe in New York, she was seen by a reporter from Newsweek, who began to spread the word about her performance.
Scouts from major record companies were soon attending her shows to watch her play. She accepted an offer from Warner Bros. who soon released her debut album, Bonnie Raitt, in 1971. The album was warmly received by the music press, with many writers praising her skills as an interpreter and as a bottleneck guitarist. While admired by those who saw her perform, respected by her peers, Raitt gained little public acclaim for her work, her critical stature continued to grow but record sales remained modest. Her second album, Give It Up, was released in 1972 to positive reviews. Though many critics still regard it as her best work, it did not change her commercial fortunes. 1973's Takin' My Time was met with critical acclaim, but these notices were not matched by the sales. Raitt was beginning to receive greater press coverage, including a 1975 cover story for Rolling Stone, but with 1974's Streetlights, reviews for her work were becoming mixed. By now, Raitt was experimenting with different producers and different styles, she began to adopt a more mainstream sound that continued through 1975's Home Plate.
In 1976, Raitt made an appearance on Warren Zevon's eponymous album. 1977's Sweet Forgiveness album gave Raitt her first commercial breakthrough when it yielded a hit single in her remake of "Runaway." Recast as a heavy rhythm and blues recording based on a rhythmic groove inspired by Al Green, Raitt's version of "Runaway" was disparaged by many critics. However, the song's commercial success prompted a bidding war for Raitt between Warner Bros. and Columbia Records. "There was this big Columbia–Warner war going on at the time", recalled Raitt in a 1990 interview. "James Taylor had just left Warner Bros. and made a big album for Columbia... And Warner signed Paul Simon away from Columbia, they didn't want me to have a hit record for Columbia – no matter what! So, I renegotiated my contract, they matched Columbia's offer. Frankly the deal was a big deal."Warner Brothers held higher expectations for Raitt's next album, The Glow, in 1979, but it was released to poor reviews as well as modest sales.
Raitt would have one commercial success in 1979 when she helped organize the five Musicians United for Safe Energy concerts at Madison Square Garden in New York City. The shows spawned the three-record gold album No Nukes, as well as a Warner Brothers feature film of the same name; the shows featured co-founders Jackson Browne, Graham Nash, John Hall, Raitt as well as Bruce Springsteen, Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers, the Doobie Brothers, Carly Simon, James Taylor, Gil Scott-Heron, numerous others. For her next record, 1982's Green Light, Raitt made a conscious attempt to revisit the sound of her earlier records. However, to her surprise, many of her peers and the media compared her new sound to the burgeoning new wave movement; the album received her strongest reviews in years, but her sales did not improve and this would have a severe impact on her relationship with Warner Brothers. In 1983, as Raitt was finishing work on her follow-up album, entitled Tongue and Groove, Warner Brothers "cleaned house", dropping a number of major artists such as Van Morrison and Arlo Guthrie from their roster.
The day after mastering was completed on Tongue & Groove, the record label dropped Raitt also. The album was shelved indefinitely, Raitt was left without a record label. By Raitt was str
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
George Porter Jr.
George Joseph Porter Jr. is an American musician, best known as the bassist and singer of The Meters. Along with Art Neville, Porter formed the group in the mid 1960s and came to be recognized as one of the progenitors of funk; the Meters disbanded in 1977, but reformed in 1989. Today the original group still plays the occasional reunion but the Funky Meters, of which Porter and Neville are members, most prominently keeps the spirit alive. Porter has his own group the Runnin' Pardners, other projects such as The Trio with Johnny Vidacovich, New Orleans Social Club, Deep Fried, Porter Batiste Stoltz, he has been performing and recording with wide range of artists including Soul Rebels Brass Band, Dr. John, Paul McCartney, Robbie Robertson, Willy DeVille, Robert Palmer, Patti Labelle, Jimmy Buffett, David Byrne, Johnny Adams, Harry Connick Jr. Earl King, Warren Haynes, Tori Amos, Snooks Eaglin among many others. Porter joined John Scofield's Piety Street Band in 2008 to record. Jon Cleary and Ricky Fataar are members of this band.
In 2010, he replaced Reed Mathis in 7 Walkers. In 2010 he performed with Runnin' Pardner at New Orleans' Voodoo Experience. Porter's parents were both avid lovers of music, his father listened to Duke Ellington and his mother sang in the local church choir. He grew up in New Orleans next to future Meters bandmate, Joe "Zigaboo" Modeliste, the two became friends when George was 10 years old; as teenagers, they played jam sessions together with Porter playing a box guitar. Porter was inspired to play bass guitar by another New Orleans native, Benjamin "Poppi" Francis who gave Porter some lessons on the instrument; when Porter was still in his teens, he sat in with Earl King. After one of the shows, Art Neville came up to him saying he was trying to start a band and asked if he would like to join. Porter agreed spawning the beginnings of The Meters. At first the band was known as Neville Sound and consisted of seven men including Cyril and Aaron Neville as vocalists and Gary Brown on saxophone. After a short time, the band was trimmed down to four core members - Art Neville, Zigaboo Modeliste, Leo Nocentilli and Porter Jr.
The four were playing six nights a week at a Bourbon Street bar called Ivanhoe when they were approached by Allen Toussaint and asked if they wanted to sign a record deal. After the deal, the label wanted the band to change their name to something that better reflected their sound, they settled on "The Meters." By the early seventies, Porter was touring coast to coast with The Meters. In 1975, they were touring as the opening act to the Rolling Stones. Porter has said that the best moment in his musical career is when he and the other Meters were opening for the Stones in Paris in 1976; the crowd started to boo them, when Keith Richards and Mick Jagger came out in support of The Meters and told the crowd to shut up and listen to the music. He said that moment kept The Meters alive for the time being By 1977, the band broke up due to personal differences. After the breakup, Porter Jr. formed. Porter played with many other New Orleans musicians in the 1980s. In 1989, Porter reunited with Art Neville and Leo Nocentelli as The Meters, replacing Joe Modeliste on drums with Russell Batiste Jr.
In 1990, he started. In the 1990s, Porter became a coveted bass player in the studio playing with artists like David Byrne and Tori Amos In 1994, Porter and Neville re-collaborated to form the band The Funky Meters to carry on The Meters sound. Art and George were joined by Russell Batiste Jr. on drums. Stoltz left the band in 2007 but rejoined in 2011 and the band still plays today. In the year 2000, the original four Meters reunited for a show at the Warfield in San Francisco. Modeliste wanted to make the reunion a permanent one but the other members and their management objected. In 2006, The Meters performed at the New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival; this was the first "Jazzfest" since Hurricane Katrina so the fact that The Meters reunited for it meant a lot to the city. In 2012, Leo Nocentelli, Joe Modeliste, Phish keyboardist Page McConnell performed two concerts as The Metermen. Limited shows followed in 2014 with two more night shows during Jazz Fest. Since Hurricane Katrina, Porter has done some activist work with other New Orleans musicians informing people of the dangers of eroding wetlands threatening the future of the city.
Porter still tours with the Runnin Pardners and The Funky Meters. He plays sporadically with the four original members of The Meters, now known as The Original Meters and frequently collaborates with other musicians, many of whom are from New Orleans. On February 24, 2018, George Porter Jr. sat in with Dead & Company during their New Orleans concert at the Smoothie King Center, playing bass on several songs including "Smokestack Lightning, "Bertha" and taking lead vocals on "Sugaree." Runnin' Partner, Rounder Things Ain't What They Used to Be Count On You - Japan release Funk This, Transvideo - EP Funk'n' Go Nuts, Transvideo We Came To Play - as Johnny Vidacovich, June Yamagishi and George Porter Jr. Searching For A Joyride, Night Train Expanding The Funkin Universe, OUW Records - as Porter Batiste Stoltz It's Life, Transvideo Can't Beat the Funk Official website Porter Batiste Stoltz Official Website George Porter Jr. at AllMusic George Porter interview from HonestTune.com Berry, Jason. Up The Cradle From Jazz: New Orleans Music Since World War II.
Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana at La
The Blind Boys of Alabama
The Blind Boys of Alabama is an American five-time Grammy Award-winning gospel group who first sang together in 1939. The Blind Boys have created an extensive discography. In 2016 the on-stage configuration of the group consisted of eight people: four blind singers—Jimmy Carter, Ben Moore, Eric "Ricky" McKinnie, Paul Beasley - guitarist and musical director Joey Williams, a keyboardist, a bass guitarist, a drummer; the Blind Boys of Alabama sing spiritually uplifting songs, as well as giving encouragement to those with disabilities. Blind group member Ricky McKinnie said "Our disability doesn't have to be a handicap. It's not about. It's about, and what we do is sing good gospel music." The Blind Boys of Alabama first sang together in the school chorus in 1939 at the Alabama Institute for the Negro Blind in Talladega, Alabama. All around nine years old at the time, the founding members were Clarence Fountain, George Scott, Velma Bozman Traylor, Johnny Fields, Olice Thomas, the only sighted member, J. T. Hutton.
The earliest version of the group was known as "The Happyland Jubilee Singers" and performed for World War II-era soldiers at training camps in the South. The group's first professional performance was on June 10, 1944. In 1945, the members began touring the gospel circuit. In 1948, a Newark, New Jersey promoter booked two sets of blind gospel singers - the Happy Land Jubilee Singers from Alabama and the Jackson Harmoneers from Mississippi - and advertised the program as "Battle of the Blind Boys." A friendly rivalry sprouted between continued henceforth. The two acts soon changed their names to the Five Blind Boys of Alabama and the Five Blind Boys of Mississippi and toured together swapping members. In 1948, The Blind Boys of Alabama recorded their first single, "I Can See Everybody's Mother But Mine" on the Veejay label, it was a hit and led to a series of recordings on various record labels. During the 1950s black gospel music was popular, the Blind Boys were one of the better known groups.
Artists from pop and rock genres began to include aspects of black gospel music in their arrangements and black gospel artists began'crossing over' to pop and rock music. During the 1960s and 1970s, soul music gained favor as a new type of secular black music; as a traditional gospel group, the fortunes of The Blind Boys of Alabama waned during these decades. Soul music was spiritual and engaged pop music, its sales soon exceeded those of its gospel forerunners. Although soul music became a more financially successful route for many gospel artists, the Blind Boys of Alabama remained purely gospel singers. Fountain attributed their resistance to selling out to their lack of need, noting that they were happy and well-fed as they were and wanted to enjoy performing the music they sought to perform, as opposed to recording popular music for a paycheck. In spite of shifting societal trends, The Blind Boys continued to be active in the 1960s and 1970s, releasing thirteen more albums through several labels, including the Vee-Jay label from 1963 to 1965.
In the 1960s, the group's hard-driving gospel sound was imitated by others including Bobby "Blue" Bland and Marvin Gaye. In 1969, Fountain left the group for a decade to try to make it on his own, the group re-formed with all the original members in the late 1970s; the band joined the Civil Rights Movement during the 1960s, performing at benefits for Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Up until this point, the Blind Boys of Alabama had played for black church audiences; the group performed at the World's Fair in Knoxville in 1982 and again in 1983. At that time the Five Blind Boys of Alabama began appearing collectively as Oedipus in the musical theater production "The Gospel at Colonus." The play was acclaimed as a landmark in American Musical History, receiving two OBIE Awards and nominations for a Pulitzer Prize and a Tony Award. This production brought the Blind Boys to the attention of a mainstream audience, Victor Brown who owned a nightclub, a church, The Church House Inn in Providence, Rhode Island who assisted them in getting off the chitlin circuit and playing other venues in the USA and Europe.
With this exposure, the Blind Boys began working in several genres and alongside more popular artists. The Blind Boys released an album, Deep River in 1992, nominated for a Grammy Award; the album was produced by Booker T. Jones, featured a version of Bob Dylan's "I Believe In You." The Blind Boys continued experimenting with contemporary popular music with 1995's live album I Brought Him With Me and 1997's funk-leaning Holding On," both released on the House of Blues label. In 1994, the National Endowment for the Arts awarded a National Heritage Fellowship to Clarence Fountain and the Five Blind Boys of Alabama; the group's founding member Clarence Fountain died on June 2018 at the age of 88 from diabetes. Fountain had ceased performing on stage in 2007 but continued to record with the group in studio sessions. 1994 - National Heritage Fellowship from the National Endowment for the Arts 2002 – Grammy in Best Traditional Soul Gospel Album for Spirit of the Century 2003 – Grammy in Best Traditional Soul Gospel Album for Higher Ground 2003 – Gospel Music Hall of Fame induction 2003 – Dove Award from the Gospel Music Association in Traditional Gospel Album of the Year for Higher Ground 2004 – Grammy in Best Traditional Soul Gospel Album for Go Tell It On the Mountain 2005 – Grammy in Best Traditional Soul Gospel Album for There Will Be a Light 2005 – Helen Keller Personal Achievement Award from the American Foundation for the Blind 2005 – Fi
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
The Esalen Institute called Esalen, is a non-profit American retreat center and intentional community in Big Sur, which focuses on humanistic alternative education. The Institute played a key role in the Human Potential Movement beginning in the 1960s, its innovative use of encounter groups, a focus on the mind-body connection, their ongoing experimentation in personal awareness introduced many ideas that became mainstream. Esalen was founded by Stanford graduates Michael Murphy and Dick Price in 1962, their intention was to support alternative methods for exploring human consciousness, what Aldous Huxley described as "human potentialities". Over the next few years, Esalen became the center of practices and beliefs that make up the New Age movement, from Eastern religions/philosophy, to alternative medicine and mind-body interventions, to Gestalt Practice. Price ran the Institute until he was killed in a hiking accident in 1985. In 2012, the board hired professional executives to help raise money and keep the Institute profitable.
Until 2016, Esalen offered over 500 workshops yearly in areas including personal growth, massage, Gestalt Practice, psychology, ecology and organic food. In 2016, about 15,000 people attended its workshops. In February 2017, the Institute was cut off when Highway 1 was closed on either side of the hot springs, it closed its doors, evacuated guests via helicopter, was forced to lay off 90% of its staff through at least July, when they reopened with limited workshop offerings. It decided to revamp its offerings to include topics more relevant to a younger generation; as of July 2017, due to the limited access resulting from the road closures, the hot springs are only open to Esalen guests. The grounds of the Esalen Institute were first home to a Native American tribe known as the Esselen, from whom the institute adopted its name. Carbon dating tests of artifacts found on Esalen's property have indicated a human presence as early as 2600 BCE; the location was homesteaded by Thomas Slate on September 9, 1882, when he filed a land patent under the Homestead Act of 1862.
The settlement began known as Slates Hot Springs. It was the first tourist-oriented business in Big Sur, frequented by people seeking relief from physical ailments. In 1910, the land was purchased by Henry Murphy, a Salinas, physician; the official business name was "Big Sur Hot Springs" although it was more referred to as "Slate's Hot Springs". Michael Murphy and Dick Price both attended Stanford University in early 1950s. Both had developed an interest in human psychology and earned degrees in the subject in 1952. Price was influenced by a lecture he heard Aldous Huxley give in 1960 titled "Human Potentialities". After graduating from Stanford, Price attended Harvard University to continue studying psychology. Murphy, traveled to Sri Aurobindo's ashram in India where he resided for several months before returning to San Francisco, they met in San Francisco at the suggestion of Frederic Spiegelberg, a Stanford professor of comparative religion and Indic studies, with whom both had studied. By they had both dropped out of their graduate programs, had served time in the military.
Although they had not met until this point, their experiences were similar enough for them to begin their partnership creating Esalen. After Price was hospitalized for eighteen months he was inspired to change the way people could experience a new way to live their life and experience new ideas and thoughts without judgment and influence from the outside world, he was inspired by his own interest in Buddhist practices and along with his own understanding of Taoism, he formed his teachings. He took what Fritz Perls had taught him and created a process, still taught and followed today. Today students all over the world follow the practices set up by Price in guidance and the process and principles. Price and Murphy wanted to create a venue where non-traditional workshops and lecturers could present their ideas free of the dogma associated with traditional education; the two began drawing up plans for a forum that would be open to ways of thinking beyond the constraints of mainstream academia while avoiding the dogma so seen in groups organized around a single idea promoted by a charismatic leader.
They envisioned offering a wide range of philosophies, religious disciplines and psychological techniques. In 1961, they went to look at property owned by the Murphy family at Slates Hot Springs in Big Sur, it included. The property was patrolled by gun-toting Hunter S. Thompson. Gay men from San Francisco filled the baths on the weekends. Henry Murphy's widow and Michael's grandmother Vinnie "Bunnie" MacDonald Murphy, who owned the property, lived 62 miles away in Salinas, she had refused to lease the property to anyone turning down an earlier request from Michael. She was afraid her grandson was going to "give the hotel to the Hindus," Murphy said. Not long after, Thompson attempted to visit the baths with friends and got into a fistfight when some of the gay men jumped him; the men tossed him over the cliff. Murphy's father, a lawyer persuaded his mother to allow her grandson to take over and she agreed to lease the property to them in 1962; the two men used capital that Price obtained from his father, a vice-president at Sears.
They incorporated their business as a non-profit named Esalen Institute in 1963. Murphy and Price were assisted by Spiegelberg, Watts and his wife Laura, as well as by Gerald Heard and Gregory Bateson, they modeled the concept of Esalen upon Trabuco College, founded by Hea