Franz Haniel & Cie.
Franz Haniel & Cie. GmbH is a German family-owned group of companies with the holding company headquartered in Duisburg, Germany. Haniel was founded in 1756 in the city of Ruhrort, now Duisburg, today the company is one of Europes largest privately owned family businesses. The Haniel family consists of more than 600 family members and is considered as one of the wealthiest families in Germany, the company was founded in Ruhrort by Jan Willem Noot and began as a colonial goods store. Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, signed the leasehold for the land on 10 February 1756 and this year is used as the founding year. Jan Willem Noot´s daughter Aletta and her husband, Jacob Haniel and their youngest son Franz Haniel renamed the company and became the main driving force. With his brother Gerhard Haniel they took over the business at the beginning of the century and expanded in many business areas, including merchant shipping, mining. The marriages of their sisters helped Gerhard Haniel and Franz Haniel to get in contact with their brothers in law Heinrich Huyssen, together the four men founded Hüttengewerkschaft Jacobi, Haniel & Huyssen in 1808, which later became the Gutehoffnungshütte stock corporation. JHH produced its first complete steam engines in 1820, and set up a shipyard in Ruhrort in 1829, between 1834 and 1870, the company pioneered modern mining in the Ruhr area. By 1900 Haniel was active in mining, coal trading, shipping and forwarding, in 1917 Franz Haniel & Co. became Franz Haniel & Cie. GMBH, with the purpose of handling the trading and transport activities of its shareholders as a decentralized holding company. In 1921 Haniel began to trade in artificial fertilizers, and in 1936 it began producing synthetic gasoline made from coal, allied bombardments in World War II caused serious losses. Thanks to serious efforts Haniel managed to relaunch shipping and trading as well as the coalmines, in the 1960s Haniel slowly started to divest its heavy industry and gasoline holdings. In the 1980s the company sold its shares of the Gutehoffnungshütte followed by the withdrawal from the internal trading, fueling and shipping operations
Uriel is one of the archangels of post-Exilic Rabbinic tradition, and also of certain Christian traditions. In apocryphal, kabbalistic and occult works, Uriel has been equated or confused with Urial, Nuriel, Uryan, Jeremiel, Vretil, Sariel, Suriel, Puruel, Phanuel, Jacob, the angels mentioned in the older books of the Hebrew Bible are without names. Indeed, rabbi Simeon ben Lakish of Tiberias, asserted that all the names for the angels were brought back by the Jews from Babylon. Raphael features prominently in the deuterocanonical Book of Tobit, the Book of Tobit is accepted as scriptural by the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Oriental Orthodox Church. Where a fourth archangel is added to the three, to represent the four cardinal points, Uriel is generally the fourth. Uriel is listed as the angel in Christian Gnostics, by Gregory the Great. However, the Book of Enoch clearly distinguishes the two Angels, Uriel means the Light of God while Phanuel means the Face of God, Uriel is the third angel listed in the Testament of Solomon, the fourth being Sabrael. Uriel appears in the Second Book of Esdras found in the Biblical apocrypha in which the prophet Ezra asks God a series of questions, and Uriel is sent by God to instruct him. According to the Revelation of Esdras, the angels that will rule at the end of the world are Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, Raphael, Gabuthelon, Beburos, Zebuleon, Aker, and Arphugitonos. The last five listed only appear in book and nowhere else in apocryphal or apocalyptic works. In Christian apocryphal gospels Uriel plays a role, differing sources, in the rescue of Jesus cousin John the Baptist from the Massacre of the Innocents ordered by King Herod. He carries John and his mother Saint Elizabeth to join the Holy Family after their Flight into Egypt and their reunion is depicted in Leonardo da Vincis Virgin of the Rocks. Uriel is often identified as a cherub and angel of repentance and he stands at the Gate of Eden with a fiery sword, or as the angel who watches over thunder and terror. In the Apocalypse of Peter he appears as the Angel of Repentance, in the Life of Adam and Eve, Uriel is regarded as the spirit of the third chapter of Genesis. He is also identified as one of the angels who helped bury Adam, stemming from medieval Jewish mystical traditions, Uriel has also become the Angel of Sunday, the Angel of Poetry, and one of the Holy Sephiroth. Uriel is depicted as the destroyer of the hosts of Sennacherib and he checked the doors of Egypt for lambs blood during the plague. He also holds the key to the Pit during the End Times and he is often depicted carrying a book or a papyrus scroll representing wisdom. Uriel is a patron of the Arts, in addition, every Monday throughout the year is dedicated to the angels
Gabriel, in the Abrahamic religions, is an angel who typically serves as Gods messenger. Gabriel is mentioned in both the Old and New Testaments of the Bible, in the Old Testament, he appears to the prophet Daniel, explaining Daniels visions. In the Gospel of Luke, Gabriel appeared to Zechariah and the Virgin Mary, foretelling the births of John the Baptist and Jesus, respectively. In the Book of Daniel, he is referred to as the man Gabriel, while in the Gospel of Luke, Gabriel is not called an archangel in the Bible, but is so called in Intertestamental period sources like the Book of Enoch. In the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Anglican churches, the archangels Michael, Raphael, in Islam, Gabriel is considered an archangel whom God is believed to have sent with revelation to various prophets, including Muhammad. The 96th chapter of the Quran, The Clot, is believed by Muslims to have been the first chapter revealed by Gabriel to Muhammad, in the LDS Faith, The Angel Gabriel was The Prophet Noah, and Michael the Archangel was the Prophet Adam in their Mortal Ministries. Jewish rabbis interpreted the man in linen as Gabriel in the Book of Daniel, in the Book of Daniel, Gabriel is responsible for interpreting Daniels visions. Gabriels main function in Daniel is that of revealer, a role he continues in later literature, in the Book of Ezekiel, Gabriel is understood to be the angel that was sent to destroy Jerusalem. According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, Gabriel takes the form of a man, shimon ben Lakish concluded that the angelic names of Michael, Raphael, and Gabriel came out of the Babylonian exile. In Kabbalah, Gabriel is identified with the sephirot of Yesod, Gabriel also has a prominent role as one of Gods archangels in the Kabbalah literature. There, Gabriel is portrayed as working in concert with Michael as part of Gods court, Gabriel is not to be prayed to because only God can answer prayers and sends Gabriel as his agent. According to Jewish mythology, in the Garden of Eden there is a tree of life or the tree of souls that blossoms and produces new souls, which fall into the Guf, Gabriel reaches into the treasury and takes out the first soul that comes into his hand. Then Lailah, the Angel of Conception, watches over the embryo until it is born, the intertestamental period produced a wealth of literature, much of it having an apocalyptic orientation. The names and ranks of angels and devils were greatly expanded, and each had particular duties and status before God. In 1 Enoch 9, 1–3, Gabriel, along with Michael, Uriel and Suriel, saw much blood being shed upon the earth and heard the souls of men cry, Bring our cause before the Most High. —1 Enoch 10,9 Gabriel is the fifth of the five angels who watch, Gabriel, one of the holy angels, who is over Paradise and the serpents. And these are the four angels of the Lord of Spirits, the angel Gabriel is mentioned in Daniel 8, 16-26 and 9, 20-27. Gabriel, one who looked like a man, interprets Daniels visions, Gabriel speaks to Daniel while he is in a deep sleep, and Daniel is tired and sick for days after being with Gabriel
Hebrew is a language native to Israel, spoken by over 9 million people worldwide, of whom over 5 million are in Israel. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, the earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family, Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language. Hebrew had ceased to be a spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt. Aramaic and to a lesser extent Greek were already in use as international languages, especially among elites and it survived into the medieval period as the language of Jewish liturgy, rabbinic literature, intra-Jewish commerce, and poetry. Then, in the 19th century, it was revived as a spoken and literary language, and, according to Ethnologue, had become, as of 1998, the language of 5 million people worldwide. After Israel, the United States has the second largest Hebrew-speaking population, with 220,000 fluent speakers, Modern Hebrew is one of the two official languages of the State of Israel, while premodern Hebrew is used for prayer or study in Jewish communities around the world today. Ancient Hebrew is also the tongue of the Samaritans, while modern Hebrew or Arabic is their vernacular. For this reason, Hebrew has been referred to by Jews as Leshon Hakodesh, the modern word Hebrew is derived from the word Ivri, one of several names for the Israelite people. It is traditionally understood to be a based on the name of Abrahams ancestor, Eber. This name is based upon the root ʕ-b-r meaning to cross over. Interpretations of the term ʕibrim link it to this verb, cross over, in the Bible, the Hebrew language is called Yәhudit because Judah was the surviving kingdom at the time of the quotation. In Isaiah 19,18 it is called the Language of Canaan, Hebrew belongs to the Canaanite group of languages. In turn, the Canaanite languages are a branch of the Northwest Semitic family of languages, according to Avraham ben-Yosef, Hebrew flourished as a spoken language in the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah during about 1200 to 586 BCE. Scholars debate the degree to which Hebrew was a vernacular in ancient times following the Babylonian exile. In July 2008 Israeli archaeologist Yossi Garfinkel discovered a ceramic shard at Khirbet Qeiyafa which he claimed may be the earliest Hebrew writing yet discovered, dating around 3000 years ago. The Gezer calendar also dates back to the 10th century BCE at the beginning of the Monarchic Period, classified as Archaic Biblical Hebrew, the calendar presents a list of seasons and related agricultural activities. The Gezer calendar is written in an old Semitic script, akin to the Phoenician one that through the Greeks, the Gezer calendar is written without any vowels, and it does not use consonants to imply vowels even in the places where later Hebrew spelling requires it
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that was first spoken in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. Arabic is also the language of 1.7 billion Muslims. It is one of six languages of the United Nations. The modern written language is derived from the language of the Quran and it is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, which is the language of 26 states. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the standards of Quranic Arabic. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-Quranic era, Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics. As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Many words of Arabic origin are found in ancient languages like Latin. Balkan languages, including Greek, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has also borrowed words from languages including Greek and Persian in medieval times. Arabic is a Central Semitic language, closely related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages, particularly in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include, The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense, the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense. The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms, the development of an internal passive. These features are evidence of descent from a hypothetical ancestor. In the southwest, various Central Semitic languages both belonging to and outside of the Ancient South Arabian family were spoken and it is also believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages were also spoken in southern Arabia at this time. To the north, in the oases of northern Hijaz, Dadanitic and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages, in Najd and parts of western Arabia, a language known to scholars as Thamudic C is attested
An angel, especially according to Abrahamic religions and Zoroastrianism, is a spiritual being superior to humans in power and intelligence. Most of them either as intermediaries between Heaven and Earth, or as guardian spirits. They are studied in the doctrine of angelology. In Christian Science, the angel is used to refer to an inspiration from God. In fine art, angels are depicted as having the shape of human beings of extraordinary beauty, they are often identified using the symbols of bird wings, halos. The word angel in English is a blend of Old English engel, both derive from Late Latin angelus messenger, which in turn was borrowed from Late Greek ἄγγελος ángelos. According to R. S. P. Beekes, ángelos itself may be an Oriental loan, the words earliest form is Mycenaean a-ke-ro attested in Linear B syllabic script. The ángelos is the default Septuagints translation of the Biblical Hebrew term mal’ākh denoting simply messenger without specifying its nature. In the Latin Vulgate, however, the meaning becomes bifurcated, if the word refers to some supernatural being, the word angelus appears. Such differentiation has been taken over by later vernacular translations of the Bible, early Christian and Jewish exegetes, in Zoroastrianism there are different angel-like figures. For example, each person has one guardian angel, called Fravashi and they patronize human beings and other creatures, and also manifest Gods energy. In the commentaries of Proclus on the Timaeus of Plato, Proclus uses the terminology of angelic, according to Aristotle, just as there is a First Mover, so, too, must there be spiritual secondary movers. The Torah uses the terms מלאך אלהים, מלאך יהוה, בני אלהים and הקודשים to refer to beings traditionally interpreted as angels, later texts use other terms, such as העליונים. The term מלאך is also used in books of the Tanakh. Depending on the context, the Hebrew word may refer to a messenger or to a supernatural messenger. Daniel is the first biblical figure to refer to individual angels by name, mentioning Gabriel in Daniel 9,21 and these angels are part of Daniels apocalyptic visions and are an important part of all apocalyptic literature. One of these is hāšāṭān, a figure depicted in the Book of Job, philo of Alexandria identifies the angel with the Logos inasmuch as the angel is the immaterial voice of God. The angel is something different from God himself, but is conceived as Gods instrument, in post-Biblical Judaism, certain angels took on particular significance and developed unique personalities and roles