Yohanan ben Zakkai
Yohanan ben Zakkai, sometimes abbreviated as Ribaz for Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai, was one of the Tannaim, an important Jewish sage in the era of the Second Temple, a primary contributor to the core text of Rabbinical Judaism, the Mishnah. His name is preceded by the honorific title, "Rabban." He is regarded as one of the most important Jewish figures of his time. His tomb is located within the Maimonides burial compound, he was the first Jewish sage attributed the title of rabbi in the Mishnah. The Talmud reports that, in the mid first century, he was active in opposing the Sadducees' interpretations of Jewish law, produced counter-arguments to the Sadducees' objection to the Pharisees. So dedicated was he to opposing the Sadducee view of Jewish law, that he prevented the Jewish high priest, a Sadducee, from following the Sadducee interpretation of the Red Heifer ritual, his home, at this time, was in a village in the Galilee, where he spent eighteen years. However, although living among them, he found the attitude of Galileans to be objectionable exclaiming that they hated the Torah and would therefore "fall into the hands of robbers."During the siege of Jerusalem in the Great Jewish Revolt, he argued in favour of peace.
Yochanan predicted that Vespasian would become Emperor, that the temple would soon be destroyed. Upon the destruction of Jerusalem, Jochanan converted his school at Yavne into the Jewish religious centre, insisting that certain privileges, given by Jewish law uniquely to Jerusalem, should be transferred to Yavne, his school functioned as a re-establishment of the Sanhedrin, so that Judaism could decide how to deal with the loss of the sacrificial altars of the temple in Jerusalem, other pertinent questions. Referring to a passage in the Book of Hosea, "I desired mercy, not sacrifice", he helped persuade the council to replace animal sacrifice with prayer, a practice that continues in today's worship services. In his last years he taught at a location near Yavne, his students were present at his deathbed, were requested by him, in his penultimate words, according to the Talmudic record, to reduce the risk of ritual contamination imparted by a corpse: Put the vessels out of the house, that they may not become uncleanMore enigmatic were the Talmud's record of his last words, which seem to relate to Jewish messianism: prepare a throne for Hezekiah, the King of Judah, comingAccording to the Talmud, Yohanan ben Zakkai lived 120 years.
His students returned to Yavne upon his death, he was buried in the city of Tiberias. In his role as leader of the Jewish Council, he was succeeded by Gamliel II. Jewish tradition records Yohanan ben Zakkai as being dedicated to religious study, claiming that no one found him engaged in anything but study, he is considered to be someone.
Amoraim refers to the Jewish scholars of the period from about 200 to 500 CE, who "said" or "told over" the teachings of the Oral Torah. They were concentrated in the Land of Israel, their legal discussions and debates were codified in the Gemara. The Amoraim followed the Tannaim in the sequence of ancient Jewish scholars; the Tannaim were direct transmitters of uncodified oral tradition. The first Babylonian Amoraim were Abba Arika, respectfully referred to as Rav, his contemporary and frequent debate partner, Shmuel. Among the earliest Amoraim in Israel were Johanan bar Shimon ben Lakish. Traditionally, the Amoraic period is reckoned as eight generations; the last Amoraim are considered to be Ravina I and Rav Ashi, Ravina II, nephew of Ravina I, who codified the Babylonian Talmud around 500 CE. In total, 761 amoraim are mentioned by name in the Babylonian Talmuds. 367 of them were active in the land of Israel from around 200-350 CE, while the other 394 lived in Babylonia during 200-500 CE. In the Talmud itself, the singular amora refers to a lecturer's assistant.
The following is an abbreviated listing of the most prominent of the Amoraim mentioned in the Talmud. More complete listings may be provided by some of the external links below. See List of rabbis. Abba Arika, known as Rav, last Tanna, first Amora. Disciple of Judah haNasi. Moved from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia. Founder and Dean of the Yeshiva at Sura. Shmuel, disciple of Judah haNasi's students and others. Dean of the Yeshiva at Nehardea. Joshua ben Levi, headed the school of Lod. Bar Kappara Rav Huna, disciple of Rav and Shmuel. Dean of the Yeshiva at Sura. Rav Yehudah, disciple of Rav and Shmuel. Dean of the Yeshiva at Pumbedita. Adda bar Ahavah, disciple of Rav. Hillel, son of Gamaliel III, disciple and grandson of Judah haNasi, younger brother of Judah II. Judah II, disciple and grandson of Judah haNasi, son and successor of Gamaliel III as Nasi. Sometimes called Rabbi Judah Nesi'ah, Rebbi like his grandfather. Resh Lakish, disciple of Judah haNasi, Rabbi Yannai and others, colleague of Rabbi Yochanan.
Yochanan bar Nafcha, disciple of Judah haNasi and Rabbi Yannai. Dean of the Yeshiva at Tiberias. Primary author of the Jerusalem Talmud. Samuel ben Nahman Shila of Kefar Tamarta Isaac Nappaha Anani ben Sason Rabbah, disciple of Rav Huna and Rav Yehudah. Dean of the Yeshiva at Pumbedita. Rav Yosef, disciple of Rav Huna and Rav Yehudah. Dean of the Yeshiva at Pumbedita. Rav Zeira Rav Chisda, disciple of Rav and Rav Huna. Dean of the Yeshiva at Sura. Simon ben Pazzi Rav Sheshet Rav Nachman, disciple of Rav and Rabbah bar Avuha. Did not head his own yeshiva, but was a regular participant in the discussions at the Yeshivot of Sura and Mahuza. Rabbi Abbahu, disciple of Rabbi Yochanan. Dean of the Yeshiva in Caesarea. Hamnuna — Several rabbis in the Talmud bore this name, the most well-known being a disciple of Shmuel. Judah III, disciple of Rabbi Johanan bar Nappaha. Son and successor of Gamaliel IV as NASI, grandson of Judah II. Rabbi Ammi Rabbi Assi Hanina ben Pappa Raba bar Rav Huna Rami bar Hama Rav Shmuel bar Yehudah Abaye, disciple of Rabbah, Rav Yosef, Rav Nachman.
Dean of the Yeshiva in Pumbedita. Rava, disciple of Rabbah, Rav Yosef, Rav Nachman, Rabbi Yochanan. Dean of the Yeshiva at Mahuza. Hillel II. Creator of the present-day Hebrew calendar. Son and successor as Nasi of Judah Nesiah, grandson of Gamaliel IV. Abba the Surgeon Bebai ben Abaye Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak, disciple of Abaye and Rava. Dean of the Yeshiva at Pumbedita. Rav Papa, disciple of Abaye and Rava. Dean of the Yeshiva at Naresh. Rav Kahana, teacher of Rav Ashi Rav Hama Rav Huna berai d'Rav Yehoshua Rav Ashi, disciple of Rav Kahana. Dean of the Yeshiva in Mata Mehasia. Primary redactor of the Babylonian Talmud. Ravina I, disciple of Abaye and Rava. Colleague of Rav Ashi in the Yeshiva at Mata Mehasia, where he assisted in the redaction of the Babylonian Talmud. Mar bar Rav Ashi. Ravina II, disciple of Ravina I and Rav Ashi. Dean of the Yeshiva at Sura. Completed the redaction of the Babylonian Talmud; the "Stammaim" is a term used by some modern scholars, such as Halivni, for the rabbis who composed the anonymous statements and arguments in the Talmud, some of whom may have worked during the period of the Amoraim, but who made their contributions after the amoraic period.
See Savoraim. Gemara in the Talmud Map – University of Calgary Jewish Encyclopedia article for Amora
Abba Hilkiah was a tannaic sage, a grandson of Honi ha-M'agel. The Talmud cites him as exceptionally scrupulous in his behavior. Just like his well-known grandfather, known for his abilities to induce rain by means of prayers and other supernatural means, so was Hilkiah known for his abilities to induce rain by his prayers. For this reason, during one of the periods of the drought, as the Talmud records the occasion, the sages sent him a delegation of two disciples, to ask him to pray for rain; the disciples found him working in the field as a salaried employee, so he failed to address their courtesy when they greeted him, until he was done with his work at the field, only did they make their way to his home together, while they observe some strange behaviors of Hilkiah. Abba Hilkiah, who understood by himself the reason for the disciples' visit, failed, in his humbleness nature, to listen to their appeals, upon arrival at his house, he and his wife ascended to the attic, where they made a prayer plea for rain to come, a plea, answered by heaven.
Rain clouds started appearing in the direction where his wife prayed, the rain started tapping. Abba Hilkiah returned to his visitors, while pretending to be naive, he asked them for their wishes; the disciples did not fall into the trap, were able to comprehend that Hilkiah induced the rain, had asked him on his strange behaviors that they observed on their way to his home, as well as for the reason that the rain came from the direction his wife prayed and not his. Hilkiah explained everything to them, that the reason his wife's plea was answered first was because she helps the needy who knock on her door, by handing them cooked food, while he only hands them money, so they have to bother to go buy it, but his alternative reason is more fundamental: "There had been robbers in my street, I prayed to G‑d to get rid of them, but my wife prayed that they should mend their ways!" Yisroel Meir Gabbai
Jose the Galilean
Jose the Galilean, d. 15 Av, was a Jewish sage who lived in the 1st and 2nd centuries CE. He was one of the rabbis whose work was compiled in the Mishna. Neither the name of his father nor the circumstances of his youth are known, though his name indicates that he was a native of Galilee, he suffered from the prejudice held against the Galileans by the Judeans. Jose was a contemporary and colleague of Rabbis Akiva and Eleazar ben Azariah; when he entered the academy at Yavne, he was unknown. It is noted that he was modest and addressed Tarfon as "my master", he was a thorough scholar then, his arguments nonplused both Tarfon and Akiva. His first appearance at Yavne thus obtained for him general recognition, the two rabbis considered him not as a pupil, but as a colleague. Akiva was obliged to endure more than one sharp criticism from Jose, who once said to him: "Though you expound the whole day, I shall not listen to you". Tarfon expressed his high esteem of Jose by interpreting Daniel 8:4-7 as though it contained an allusion to him: "I saw the ram, that is, saw that no beast might stand before him.
As a matter of fact, Jose was the only one who opposed Akiva and Akiva abandoned his own interpretation in favor of Jose's. Jose was famed for his piety. An amora of the 3rd century says: "When, for their sins, there is drought in Israel, such a one as Jose the Galilean prays for rain, the rain comes straightway"; the popular invocation, "O Jose ha-Gelili, heal me!" Survived to the 10th century. This invocation is condemned by the Karaite Sahal ben Matzliah. Jose's married life was unhappy, his wife was malicious and quarrelsome, insulted him in the presence of his pupils and friends. When she married again and was in straitened circumstances, Jose was magnanimous enough to support her and her husband. Jose did have a son, who followed in his father's footsteps and became a great rabbinic authority. Jose showed a tendency to revert to the older Halakha, explaining the text according to its literal meaningGenerally, his halakic exegesis differed little from that of Akiva, both employed the same rules of interpretation.
He taught that poultry may be eaten, as was done in his own native town. Of his aggadic opinions the two following may be mentioned: The command of the Torah that the "face of the old man" shall be honored includes, by implication, the young man who has acquired wisdom; the words "He shall rule over thee" do not include every form of power. The righteous have their desires in their power, but the wicked are under the power of their desires. Singer and acob Zallel Lauterbach. "Jose the Galilean". Jewish Encyclopedia. Funk and Wagnalls, 1901–1906. Tan. i. 252-265. 119-120. Jose the Galilean by Isidore Singer and Jacob Zallel Lauterbach RabbiYose ha Gelili Ohel in Dalton, Israel This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Singer, Isidore. "article name needed". The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls
Sivan is the ninth month of the civil year and the third month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. It is a spring month of 30 days. Sivan falls in May–June on the Gregorian calendar. 6–7 Sivan – Shavuot 1 Sivan – Worms Jews massacred by crusaders during morning prayers, after taking refuge in a local castle. 6 Sivan – The Torah was given to Moses at Mt. Sinai and thus observed as the holiday of Shavuot. 4 Sivan – Birth of David. 6 Sivan – Death of Baal Shem Tov 7 Sivan – Safed Plunder breaks out 13 Sivan – Chmielnicki Massacres 20 Sivan – The first blood libel in France – tens of Jewish men and women were burned alive in the French town of Blois on the accusation that Jews used the blood of Christian children in the preparation of matzah for Passover. 23 Sivan – Mordechai and Esther sent letters so that the Jews shall prepare themselves for the annihilation plan orchestrated by Haman to be committed against them on the 13th of the following Adar. 27 Sivan – Purim of Florence – the Jews of Florence were saved from a mob.
About the Month of Sivan Resources on the Month of Sivan
The Gemara is the component of the Talmud comprising rabbinical analysis of and commentary on the Mishnah. After the Mishnah was published by Judah the Prince, the work was studied exhaustively by generation after generation of rabbis in Babylonia and the Land of Israel, their discussions were written down in a series of books that became the Gemara, which when combined with the Mishnah constituted the Talmud. There are two versions of the Gemara; the Jerusalem Talmud was compiled by scholars of the Land of Israel of the academies of Tiberias and Caesarea, was published between about 350–400 CE. The Talmud Bavli was published about 500 CE by scholars of Babylonia of the academies of Sura and Nehardea. By convention, a reference to the "Gemara" or "Talmud," without further qualification, refers to the Babylonian version; the main compilers were Rav Ashi. See Talmud; the Gemara and the Mishnah together make up the Talmud. The Talmud thus comprises two components: the Mishnah – the core text; the rabbis of the Mishnah are known as Tannaim.
The rabbis of the Gemara are referred to as Amoraim. Because there are two Gemaras, there are in fact two Talmuds: the Jerusalem Talmud, the Babylonian Talmud, corresponding to the Jerusalem Gemara and the Babylonian Gemara; the Gemara is written in Aramaic, the Jerusalem Gemara in Western Aramaic and the Babylonian in Eastern Aramaic, but both contain portions in Hebrew. Sometimes the language changes in the middle of a story. In a narrow sense, the word Gemara refers to the mastery and transmission of existing tradition, as opposed to sevara, which means the deriving of new results by logic. Both activities are represented in the "Gemara" as a literary work; the term "gemara" for the activity of study is far older than its use as a description of any text: thus Pirke Avot, a work long preceding the recording of the Talmud, recommends starting "Mishnah" at the age of 10 and "Gemara" at the age of 15. The analysis of the Amoraim is focused on clarifying the positions and views of the Tannaim.
These debates and exchanges form the "building-blocks" of the gemara. A sugya will comprise a detailed proof-based elaboration of the Mishna; every aspect of the Mishnaic text is treated as a subject of close investigation. This analysis is aimed at an exhaustive understanding of the Mishna's full meaning. In the Talmud, a sugya is presented as a series of responsive hypotheses and questions – with the Talmudic text as a record of each step in the process of reasoning and derivation; the Gemara thus takes the form of a dialectical exchange. The disputants here are termed the tartzan; the gemara records the semantic disagreements between Amoraim. Some of these debates were conducted by the Amoraim, though many of them are hypothetically reconstructed by the Talmud's redactors. Are debates formally closed; the distinctive character of the gemara derives from the intricate use of argumentation and debate, described above. In each sugya, either participant may cite scriptural and Amoraic proof to build a logical support for their respective opinions.
The process of deduction required to derive a conclusion from a prooftext is logically complex and indirect. "Confronted with a statement on any subject, the Talmudic student will proceed to raise a series of questions before he satisfies himself of having understood its full meaning." This analysis is described as "mathematical" in approach. Prooftexts quoted to corroborate or disprove the respective opinions and theories will include: verses from the Tanakh: the exact language employed is regarded as significant; the actual debate will centre on the following categories: Why does the Mishna use one word rather than another? If a statement is not clear enough, the Gemara seeks to clarify the Mishna's intention. Exploring the logical principles underlying the Mishnah's statements, showing how different understandings of the Mishnah's reasons could lead to differences in their practical application. What underlying principle is entailed in a statement of fact or in a specific instance brought as an illustration?
If a statement appears obvious, the Gemara seeks the logical reason for its necessity. It seeks to answer under which circumstances a statement is true, what qualifications are permissible. All statements are examined for internal consistency. Resolving
The Shulchan Aruch, sometimes dubbed in English as the Code of Jewish Law, is the most consulted of the various legal codes in Judaism. It was published in Venice two years later. Together with its commentaries, it is the most accepted compilation of Jewish law written; the halachic rulings in the Shulchan Aruch follow Sephardic law and customs, whereas Ashkenazi Jews will follow the halachic rulings of Moses Isserles, whose glosses to the Shulchan Aruch note where the Sephardic and Ashkenazi customs differ. These glosses are referred to as the mappah to the Shulchan Aruch's "Set Table". All published editions of the Shulchan Aruch include this gloss, the term "Shulchan Aruch" has come to denote both Karo's work as well as Isserles', with Karo referred to as "the mechaber" and Isserles as "the Rema"; the Shulchan Aruch follow the same structure as Arba'ah Turim by Rabbi Jacob ben Asher. There are four sections, each subdivided into many chapters and paragraphs: Orach Chayim – laws of prayer and synagogue, holidays.
References are given in two ways. There is disagreement on the authorship of the references to Isserles' remarks, as they are incorrect. Since the 17th century, the Shulchan Aruch has been printed with Isserles' annotations in small Rashi print interspersed with Karo's text; as commentaries on the work proliferated, more sophisticated printing styles became required, similar to those of the Talmud. The Shulchan Aruch is based on an earlier work by Karo, titled Beth Yosef. Although the Shulchan Aruch is a codification of the rulings of the Beth Yosef, it includes various rulings that are not mentioned at all in the Beth Yosef, because after completing the Beth Yosef, Karo read opinions in books he hadn't seen before, which he included in the Shulchan Aruch. In his famous methodological work Yad Malachi, Malachi ben Jacob ha-Kohen cites a halachic authority who reports rumors that the Shulchan Aruch was a summary of Karo's earlier rulings in Beth Yosef which he gave to certain of his students to edit and compile.
He concludes that this would account for those self-contradictory instances in the Shulchan Aruch. Karo intended to rely on his own judgment relating to differences of opinion between the various authorities where he could support his own view based on the Talmud, but he abandoned this idea because, as he wrote: "Who has the courage to rear his head aloft among mountains, the heights of God?" and because he may have thought, though he does not mention his conclusion, that he could gain no following if he set up his authority against that of the ancient scholars. Hence Karo adopted the Halakhot of Rabbi Isaac Alfasi and Asher ben Jehiel as his standards, accepting as authoritative the opinion of two of the three, except in cases where most of the ancient authorities were against them or in cases where there was an accepted custom contrary to his ruling; the net result of these last exceptions is that in a number of cases Karo rules in favour of the Catalan school of Nahmanides and Rashba, thus indirectly reflecting Ashkenazi opinions against the consensus of Alfasi and Maimonides.
Karo often decides disputed cases without considering the age and importance of the authority in question, expressing his own views. He follows Maimonides' example, as seen in Mishneh Torah, rather than that of Jacob ben Asher, who decides between ancient authorities. Several reasons induced Karo to connect his work with the "Tur", instead of Maimonides' code; the "Tur", although not considered as great an authority as Maimonides' code, was much more known. Karo intended to give not the results of his investigations, but the investigations themselves, he wished not only to aid the officiating rabbi in the performance of his duties, but to trace for the student the development of particular laws from the Talmud through rabbinical literature. Unlike the Tur, Maimonides' code includes all fields of Jewish law, of both present-day relevance and those dealing with prior and future times. For Karo, whose interest lay in ruling on the practical issues, the Tur seemed a better choice; the "Rema" started writing his commentary on the Arba'ah Turim, Darkhei Moshe, at about the same time as Yosef Karo.
Karo finished his work "Bet Yosef" first, it was first presented to the Rema as a gift from one of his students. Upon receiving the gift, the Rema could not understand how he had spent so many years unaware of Karo's efforts. After looking through the Bet Yosef