Aiki (martial arts principle)
Aiki is an ancient principle of blending and harmonizing of opposing forces within oneself, the balance of yin and yang of the universe within yourself. It is the joining of heaven and earth, with man in between, when heaven is above and earth below, man can stand on the floating bridge of heaven, and release the mountain echo. Aiki from a Japanese term, is a principle that allows a practitioner to negate an opponents power on contact through application of internal dynamics or Ki energy to affect techniques, when applied, the Aiki practitioner controls the actions of the attacker with minimal effort. One creates aiki by understanding the intent of the own body, mind. External factors are considered secondary concerns as the practitioner must first find balance, in Japanese Aiki is formed from two kanji, 合 - ai - joining 氣 - ki - spirit The kanji for ai is made of three radicals, join and mouth. Hence, ai symbolizes things coming together, Aiki should not be confused with wa which refers to harmony.
The kanji for ki represents a pot filled with steaming rice, thus aikis meaning is to fit, join, or combine energy. However, care must be taken about the meanings of words when discussing concepts derived from other cultures. Historical use of a term can influence meanings and be passed down by those wishing to illustrate ideas with the best word or phrase available to them, in this way, there may be a divergence of the meaning between arts or schools within the same art. The characters ai and ki have translations to many different English words, the use of the term would be passed on orally, as such teachings were often a closely guarded secret. The use of the term aiki can often be ambiguous, Aiki lends its name to various Japanese martial arts most notably Aikido and its parent art, Daito-ryu aiki-jujutsu. These arts tend to use the principle of aiki as a core element underpining the bulk of their techniques, the aiki arts place great emphasis on the use of qi energy. Techniques accomplished with aiki are subtle and require little mechanical force, adding to the confusion is that to the untrained eye, such techniques done with muscular strength and momentum often look similar to those done with aiki.
Aiki is a concept, not an external one as generally known even among martial artist. The general misconception is that it involves blending and harmonizing with an opponent when in reality and this balance of opposing internal forces allows a practitioner to totally receive the force of the opponents attack, irrespective of the physical strength of the opponent. Central to this is the use of internal strength - Ki energy Kiai and aiki use the kanji and can be thought of as the inner. Kiai relates to the manifestation, emission or projection of ones own energy and this use of ki will involve the use of kokyu power, i. e. breathing is coordinated with movement. Kokyu Ryoku is the power that can be produced when body
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul in South Korea and as Chosŏngŭl/Chosŏn Muntcha in North Korea is the alphabet that has been used to write the Korean language since the 15th century. It was created during the Joseon Dynasty in 1443 by King Sejong the Great, in South Korea, Hangul is used primarily to write the Korean language as using Hanja in typical Korean writing had fallen out of common usage during the late 1990s. In its classical and modern forms, the alphabet has 19 consonant and 21 vowel letters, instead of being written sequentially like the letters of the Latin alphabet, Hangul letters are grouped into blocks, such as 한 han, each of which transcribes a syllable. That is, although the syllable 한 han may look like a single character, each syllabic block consists of two to six letters, including at least one consonant and one vowel. These blocks are arranged horizontally from left to right or vertically from top to bottom. Each Korean word consists of one or more syllables, hence one or more blocks, of the 11,172 possible Hangul syllables, the most frequent 256 have a cumulative frequency of 88. 2%, with the top 512, it reaches 99. 9%.
The modern name Hangul was coined by Ju Sigyeong in 1912, han meant great in archaic Korean, and geul is the native Korean word for script. Taken together, the meaning is great script, as the word han had become one way of indicating Korea as a whole the name could potentially be interpreted as Korean script. Korean 한글 is pronounced, and in English as /ˈhɑːn. ɡʊl/ or /ˈhɑːŋɡʊl/, when used as an English word, it is often rendered without the diacritics, and it is often capitalized as Hangul, as it appears in many English dictionaries. Hankul in the Yale romanization, a system recommended for technical linguistic studies, North Koreans call it Chosŏngŭl, after Chosŏn, the North Korean name for Korea. Because of objections to the names Hangeul, Chosŏngŭl, and urigeul by Koreans in China, until the early 20th century, Hangul was denigrated as vulgar by the literate elite, who preferred the traditional hanja writing system. They gave it such names as these, Achimgeul, in the original Hanja, it is rendered as 故智者不終朝而會，愚者可浹旬而學。 Gugmun Eonmun Amgeul.
Am is a prefix that signifies a noun is feminine Ahaetgeul or Ahaegeul Hangul was promulgated by Sejong the Great, the Hall of Worthies, a group of scholars who worked with Sejong to develop and refine the new alphabet, is often credited for the work. The project was completed in late December 1443 or January 1444, the publication date of the Hunmin Jeong-eum, October 9, became Hangul Day in South Korea. Its North Korean equivalent, Chosongul Day, is on January 15, various speculations about the creation process were put to rest by the discovery in 1940 of the 1446 Hunmin Jeong-eum Haerye. This document explains the design of the consonant letters according to articulatory phonetics, to assuage this problem, King Sejong created the unique alphabet known as Hangul to promote literacy among the common people. However, it entered popular culture as Sejong had intended, being used especially by women, the late 16th century, saw a revival of Hangul, with gasa literature and sijo flourishing. In the 17th century, Hangul novels became a major genre, by this point spelling had become quite irregular
Hapki Kochido Musool
Hapki Kochido Musool is a modern Korean martial art, and a recognized style of Hapkido. It is not traditional, although it retains elements from ancient Korean. It is called Progressive Hapkido due to its focus on combat usefulness while deemphasizing sports elements. The term Hapki Kochido Musool can be divided into separate terms, hap stands for harmony of body and mind Ki or gi stands for ki, inner strength, common romanization often is ki. The word Chi in Korean, but not the meaning of China or Chinese, the style is therefore possibly not Korean, but of Dutch origin. Hapki Kochido Musool was developed by KwanJangNim Isaac Sinke, the style consists of a diverse mix of traditional Korean and Chinese martial arts, but adapted so that it is suitable as self defense for everyone regardless of fitness and age. Stripped of unnecessary movements, adding nothing, Kochido can be regarded as a hard art in which quickly controlling and disabling an enemy are central. All techniques end up in control of the opponent, so as to wait for help or to neutralize the opponent that he is no longer capable of a threat.
The emphasis of Kochido techniques is hand rather than the leg techniques, Hapki Kochido Musool is a highly technical art of self-defense. Practicing some particularly subtle techniques must usually be repeated frequently before these techniques can be effectively applied and this requires time and discipline of practitioners. To maintain the level of Kochido-in indicate, uses a degree system and this system consists of two parts. The so-called geup and degrees, the gup grades run from 8 t / m and a walk just in degree. The color of the band indicates the degree of advanced nature of, a beginner has a white band, to advance from one level to another, a student must pass an exam, twice a year there are opportunities to test. Over several years between exams may sit, in applying the techniques Hapki Kochido Musool, a practitioner may attempt to inflict injury upon an attacker. The implementation of which could potentially be severe e. g. bone fractures, spinal trauma, the curriculum is designed so the opponent in many cases can be neutralized without causing serious injury.
Checking the opponent by means of a clip is an example, the Kochido in-training techniques are applicable for street fights. There are generally no rules and all techniques are allowed the opponent to check off, however, in the dojang for the purpose of safety, techniques are not full-contact, they instead simulate an attack in a controlled manner
Japanese martial arts
Japanese martial arts refer to the variety of martial arts native to the country of Japan. At least three Japanese terms are used interchangeably with the English phrase Japanese martial arts, the terms bujutsu and bugei have more discrete definitions, at least historically speaking. Bujutsu refers specifically to the application of martial tactics and techniques in actual combat. Bugei refers to the adaptation or refinement of tactics and techniques to facilitate systematic instruction and dissemination within a formal learning environment. The historical origin of Japanese martial arts can be found in the traditions of the samurai. Originally, samurai were expected to be proficient in many weapons, as well as unarmed combat, the development of combative techniques is intertwined with the tools used to execute those techniques. In a rapidly changing world, those tools are constantly changing, requiring that the techniques to use them be continuously reinvented, the history of Japan is somewhat unusual in its relative isolation.
Compared with the rest of the world, the Japanese tools of war evolved slowly, many people believe that this afforded the warrior class the opportunity to study their weapons with greater depth than other cultures. Nevertheless, the teaching and training of martial arts did evolve. Another trend that developed throughout Japanese history was that of increasing martial specialization as society became more stratified over time, the martial arts developed or originating in Japan are extraordinarily diverse, with vast differences in training tools and philosophy across innumerable schools and styles. That said, Japanese martial arts may generally be divided into koryū and gendai budō based on whether they existed prior to or after the Meiji Restoration, respectively. Since gendai budō and koryū often share the historical origin. In modern usage, meaning military art/science, is typified by its application of technique to real-world or battlefield situations. The term is used generally to indicate that a style or art is traditional.
However, what it means for an art to be traditional or modern is subject to some debate. As a rule of thumb, the purpose of a koryū martial art was for use in war. The most extreme example of a school is one that preserves its traditional. Other koryū schools may have made modifications to their practices that reflect the passage of time, the following subsections represent not individual schools of martial arts, but rather generic types of martial arts
Ji Han-Jae was born in Andong, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea in 1936. He is one of the highest ranking hapkido instructors in the world and he began his martial arts training in 1949 under the direction of Choi Yong-Sool, and was Dan #14 under Choi. Ji trained with Choi Yong-Sool until 1956 when he moved to Seoul in order to open a school of self-defence in the nations capital, Ji Han-Jae trained in the ancient methods of the Korean martial arts, known as Sam Rang Do Tek Gi by a man named Taoist Lee. In 1959 Ji Han-Jae combined all of his martial arts knowledge together, many people consider Ji Han Jae to be the founder of hapkido, while others will credit his teacher, Choi Yong-Sool, who referred to his art as Yawara or Yu Kwon Sul. It is commonly claimed by his students that it was Ji who first started using the name hapkido for the techniques he was teaching at that time. Regardless, some of the techniques that many styles of hapkido has today is marked by changes that were implemented by Ji Han-Jae.
After studying with Choi, Kim went to a Buddhist temple, in addition to this Ji Han-Jaes original Sung Moo Kwan shared space with people who trained in other arts, including Western boxing. Ji and his students developed tactics for dealing with techniques of boxing, tang soo do, taekwondo and judo. Leaving Daegu for his hometown of Andong, Ji Han-Jae opened up his first school and his earliest students from this period were Kwon Tae-Man, Yoo Young-Woo, and Oh Se-Lim. After less than a year he decided to relocate to Seoul, there he founded the Sung Moo Kwan, which would become an influential kwan, or school of hapkido, producing many of the important teachers of the art. His first student was Hwang Deok-Kyoo followed shortly after by Myung Kwang-Sik, Lee Tae-Jun, in 1958 students Kim Yong-Jin, Jeong Won-Seon Han Bong-soo, Choi Sea-Oh and Myung Jae-Nam. In 1961, Kim Moo-Hong came to visit Ji and they developed many of the tactics the art is known for. In 1963, Ji Han-Jae was a member of the first attempt to create a large organization which would include hapkido.
Called the Korean Kido Association Choi Yong-Sool was elected the first titular chairperson with the organizations first constitution authored by Ji, Choi and its purpose was to promote martial arts to the public school system, police officers and government officials. Ji was very instrumental in organizing this group however Choi appointed another of his top students, Kim Jeong-Yoon, Kim Woo-Joong, the president of the Daewoo corporation, was elected the KHAs first president. Ji Han-Jaes star began to rise quickly when he started teaching hapkido to the presidents bodyguards in the South Korean Blue House, in 1979 however, the Korean president, Park Chung Hee was assassinated by Kim Jae-gyu, head of the Korean CIA, and many things changed. After the assassination of President Park most of those that were close to Park resigned, included were the presidential bodyguards and the martial arts instructors of the bodyguards. Ji was one of the many that resigned, in the ensuing struggle for power, many of those that had been in positions of power during the reign of President Park now found themselves without position, power or influence
Sin Moo Hapkido
Sin Moo Hapkido is a martial art that combines hard and soft techniques. From a purely technical perspective, it is closely related to its parent art, Traditional Hapkido, though it places more emphasis on meditative, philosophical. Hapkido is often translated as way of coordinating power, ” which places emphasis on the physical techniques that Hapkido is often known for. However, the founder of Sin Moo Hapkido, Ji Han-Jae, has landed on a different understanding of the term, hap means bringing together, gathering, or harmonizing. “Ki” is the energy or breath in the body that connects the mind and the body, and Do is the process or way this happens. Thus, his definition of Hapkido is, “The way of harmonizing the mind and body through the utilization of ki. ”Sin means higher mind or higher spirit, and Moo means martial art. When translated in its entirety, Sin Moo Hapkido therefore means, “The way of using martial arts to harmonize the mind and body to reach a more enlightened state of existence.
”Sin Moo Hapkido was founded in 1983 in Seoul, South Korea by Dojunim Ji Han-Jae with the assistance of Merrill Jung. The curriculum was based on Jis earlier Hapkido programs that he developed from his three teachers and own personal study. Ji, Han Jae was a student of Choi, Young Sool, a student of Yawara & Daito-Ryu Aikijujutsu, and the founder of Hapkiyusool. DoJuNim Ji, Han Jae a student of the teacher known only as Master / Wise-Man Lee, who taught Sam Rang Do, and more, as well as Grandma, who he considered to be his spiritual teacher. Though formed in Seoul, the first official school for Sin Moo Hapkido was not opened until 1984 in Daly City, Sin Moo Hapkido incorporates a philosophy of non-violence, self-improvement and physical, emotional and spiritual balance, with the basic Hapkido training. Additionally, Sin Moo Hapkido formalizes a series of techniques, although at advanced levels students are expected to synthesize their own work, the use of energy flows are emphasized in Sin Moo Hapkido.
Sin Moo Hapkido uses holds, joint locks, throws, re-direction, punches, pressure points, weapons and joint locks are used primarily for control of an aggressor. They are primarily defensive, but at more advanced levels can be interpreted as attacks, at the 4th dan black belt there is taught 30 special attack techniques using variations and combinations of basic locks. Throws and re-direction of an aggressors energy use an attackers momentum to continue their own using the circular motion principle of Hapkido. These techniques depend on the energy of the attack to determine their outcome. A large or powerful attack will result in a re-direction or throw that involves much more energy, translating to a more devastating outcome upon the attacker. The blocks used in Sin Moo Hapkido are usually re-direction blocks, legs are used for blocking
Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. Borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language with Korean pronunciation, hanja-mal or hanja-eo refers to words that can be written with hanja, and hanmun refers to Classical Chinese writing, although hanja is sometimes used loosely to encompass these other concepts. Because hanja never underwent major reform, they are almost entirely identical to traditional Chinese, only a small number of hanja characters are modified or unique to Korean. By contrast, many of the Chinese characters currently in use in Japan and Mainland China have been simplified, and contain fewer strokes than the corresponding hanja characters. Today, a working knowledge of Chinese characters is still important for anyone who wishes to study older texts. Learning a certain number of hanja is very helpful for understanding the etymology of Sino-Korean words, hanja are not used to write native Korean words, which are always rendered in hangul, and even words of Chinese origin—hanja-eo —are written with the hangul alphabet most of the time.
A major motivation for the introduction of Chinese characters into Korea was the spread of Buddhism, the major Chinese text that introduced hanja to Koreans, was not a religious text but the Chinese text, Cheonjamun. One way of adapting hanja to write Korean in such systems was to represent native Korean grammatical particles, for example, Gugyeol uses the characters 爲尼 to transcribe the Korean word hăni, in modern Korean, that means does, and so. However, in Chinese, the characters are read as the expression wéi ní. This is an example of Gugyeol words where the radical is read in Korean for its meaning. Hanja was the means of writing Korean until King Sejong the Great promoted the invention of hangul in the 15th century. However, even after the invention of hangul, most Korean scholars continued to write in hanmun and it was not until the 20th century that hangul truly replaced hanja. Officially, hanja has not been used in North Korea since June 1949, many words borrowed from Chinese have been replaced in the North with native Korean words.
However, there are a number of Chinese-borrowed words in widespread usage in the North. The replacement has been less total in South Korea where, although usage has declined over time, some remains in common usage in some contexts. Each hanja is composed of one of 214 radicals plus in most cases one or more additional elements, the vast majority of hanja use the additional elements to indicate the sound of the character, but a few hanja are purely pictographic, and some were formed in other ways. This dual meaning-sound reading of a character is called eumhun, the word or words used to denote the meaning are often—though hardly always—words of native Korean origin, and are sometimes archaic words no longer commonly used. South Korean primary schools abandoned the teaching of hanja in 1971 and it is taught in separate courses in South Korean high schools, separately from the normal Korean-language curriculum
Combat Hapkido is an eclectic modern Hapkido system founded by John Pellegrini in 1990. Taking the next step in 1992 Pellegrini formed the International Combat Hapkido Federation as the governing body of Combat Hapkido. Later, in 1999, the ICHF was recognized by the Korea Kido Association, the founder of Combat Hapkido was very clear in his statement that he did not invent a new martial art. He stated I have merely structured a new Self-Defense system based upon scientific principles. For this reason Combat Hapkido is referred to as the Science of Self-Defense, Combat Hapkido is a new interpretation and application of a selected body of Hapkido techniques. The word Combat was added to Combat Hapkido to distinguish this system from Traditional Hapkido styles, the style employs joint locks, pressure points, hand strikes, and low-lying kicks, and trains practitioners to either counter or preemptively strike an imminent attack to defend ones self. Combat Hapkido does not incorporate certain traditional Hapkido techniques which it deemed impractical for modern self-defense scenarios, another instance is the incorporation of derived-versions of Jeet Kune Do trapping and entering techniques to enhance transitions into Combat Hapkidos core joint locking and throwing techniques.
Combat Hapkidos core techniques rely heavily on the traditional Hapkido techniques that the ICHF determined to have the most practical applications for their goal of modern self-defense. All training in Combat Hapkido is reinforced with extensive training seminars, with most months containing multiple seminars located throughout the United States, in addition to the core curriculum, the ICHF researches and develops modules that are compatible with the core curriculum and encourages students to explore them. Some examples of such modules are Stick and Knife Combatives, Ground Survival, Combat Throws, Anatomical Target Striking/Pressure Points, Cane, Dan Bong. New modules are supported by DVDs, and local instruction conducted by certified instructors of each course, ICHF students are required to know the core curriculum for promotion and are encouraged to study various optional modules as well. Instructors may require their students to some of these additional modules to advance levels. Combat Hapkido uses a ten belt rank system with the difficulty, all rank certification is done directly through the ICHF Headquarters in Florida and is kept on file to insure that each student meets the proper time in grade requirements.
For those seeking international Dan Ranking the International Combat Hapkido Federation offers the option to have black belt ranks recognized through the Kido Hae and this form of target striking is called pain compliance and generally, but not always, leads to an immediate response by the attacker. This response can be taken to transition into another technique from the Combat Hapkido curriculum, the Combat Hapkido Trapping program is designed to be the blocking method of the Combat Hapkido System since Combat Hapkido does not use the Traditional hard blocks of the Traditional martial arts. The Trapping Program is designed to become reactionary and reflexive and not to impede or stop incoming attacks, the techniques and drills in this program are based to develop specific technical attribute from Jeet Kune Do that blend drills and techniques with Combat Hapkido. This Trapping program is a way to gain advantage over an opponent by manipulating them to accomplish a finishing technique, such as strikes, joint-locks, the cane is generally referred to as the weapon of choice for most Hapkido Systems because of its flexible and easily adaptive techniques.
Combat Hapkido along with other systems incorporate self-defense techniques using the cane into their training curricula for this exact reason, the reason the ICHF chooses the cane as one of their preferred self-defense weapons is due to its modern real world self-defense applications
Aikido is a modern Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies and religious beliefs. Aikido is often translated as the way of unifying life energy or as the way of harmonious spirit, Ueshibas goal was to create an art that practitioners could use to defend themselves while protecting their attacker from injury. Aikido techniques consist of entering and turning movements that redirect the momentum of an attack. Aikido derives mainly from the art of Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu, but began to diverge from it in the late 1920s. Ueshibas early students documents bear the term aiki-jūjutsu, Ueshibas senior students have different approaches to aikido, depending partly on when they studied with him. Today aikido is found all over the world in a number of styles, with ranges of interpretation. However, they all share techniques formulated by Ueshiba and most have concern for the well-being of the attacker and this has led to many possible interpretations of the word. 合 is mainly used in compounds to mean combine, join together, examples being 合同, 合成, 結合, 連合, 統合, and 合意.
The term dō is found in martial arts such as judo and kendo, one applies aiki by understanding the rhythm and intent of the attacker to find the optimal position and timing to apply a counter-technique. Aikido was created by Morihei Ueshiba, referred to by some aikido practitioners as Ōsensei, the term aikido was coined in the twentieth century. Ueshiba envisioned aikido not only as the synthesis of his martial training, during Ueshibas lifetime and continuing today, aikido has evolved from the Aiki that Ueshiba studied into a variety of expressions by martial artists throughout the world. Ueshiba developed aikido primarily during the late 1920s through the 1930s through the synthesis of the martial arts that he had studied. The core martial art from which aikido derives is Daitō-ryū aiki-jūjutsu, which Ueshiba studied directly with Takeda Sōkaku, the art of Daitō-ryū is the primary technical influence on aikido. Along with empty-handed throwing and joint-locking techniques, Ueshiba incorporated training movements with weapons, such as those for the spear, short staff, aikido derives much of its technical structure from the art of swordsmanship.
Ueshiba moved to Hokkaidō in 1912, and began studying under Takeda Sokaku in 1915 and his official association with Daitō-ryū continued until 1937. However, during the part of that period, Ueshiba had already begun to distance himself from Takeda. At that time Ueshiba was referring to his art as Aiki Budō. After Ueshiba left Hokkaidō in 1919, he met and was influenced by Onisaburo Deguchi
The concept of pressure points spread through the Tamil martial art called Varma kalai, which is a martial art that concentrates on the bodys pressure points. Hancock and Higashi published a book which pointed out a number of points in Japanese martial arts. Accounts of pressure-point fighting appeared in Chinese Wuxia fiction novels and became known by the name of Dim Mak, or Death Touch, in western popular culture in the 1960s
Kanji, or kanji, are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese writing system along with hiragana and katakana. The Japanese term kanji for the Chinese characters literally means Han characters and is using the same characters as the Chinese word hànzì. Chinese characters first came to Japan on official seals, swords, mirrors, the earliest known instance of such an import was the King of Na gold seal given by Emperor Guangwu of Han to a Yamato emissary in 57 AD. Chinese coins from the first century AD have been found in Yayoi-period archaeological sites, the Japanese of that era probably had no comprehension of the script, and would remain illiterate until the fifth century AD. The earliest Japanese documents were written by bilingual Chinese or Korean officials employed at the Yamato court. For example, the correspondence from King Bu of Wa to Emperor Shun of Liu Song in 478 has been praised for its skillful use of allusion. Later, groups of people called fuhito were organized under the monarch to read, during the reign of Empress Suiko, the Yamato court began sending full-scale diplomatic missions to China, which resulted in a large increase in Chinese literacy at the Japanese court.
The Japanese language had no form at the time Chinese characters were introduced. Chinese characters came to be used to write Japanese words, around 650 CE, a writing system called manyōgana evolved that used a number of Chinese characters for their sound, rather than for their meaning. Manyōgana written in cursive style evolved into hiragana, or onna-de, that is, ladies hand, major works of Heian-era literature by women were written in hiragana. Katakana emerged via a path, monastery students simplified manyōgana to a single constituent element. Thus the two writing systems and katakana, referred to collectively as kana, are descended from kanji. Katakana are mostly used for representing onomatopoeia, non-Japanese loanwords, the names of plants and animals, and for emphasis on certain words. In 1946, following World War II and under the Allied Occupation of Japan and this was done with the goal of facilitating learning for children and simplifying kanji use in literature and periodicals. The number of characters in circulation was reduced, and formal lists of characters to be learned during each grade of school were established, some characters were given simplified glyphs, called shinjitai.
Many variant forms of characters and obscure alternatives for common characters were officially discouraged and these are simply guidelines, so many characters outside these standards are still widely known and commonly used, these are known as hyōgaiji. The kyōiku kanji are 1,006 characters that Japanese children learn in elementary school, originally the list only contained 881 characters. This was expanded to 996 characters in 1977 and it was not until 1982 the list was expanded to its current size
International H.K.D. Federation
Federation was founded in 1974 by hapkido grandmaster Myung Jae Nam. Its original name was the International Hapkido Federation — it was changed when hankido and hankumdo were added to the I. H. F. s curriculum. The goal of the I. H. F is to promote the practice of Korean martial arts like hapkido and hankumdo, Myung Jae Nam had started teaching in Incheon from his school called Jeong Do Kwan in 1962. In 1973 he founded his own federation, called Dae Han Kuk Hapki Hwe, in October 1974, while still maintaining his own organization, he assisted in the forming the Dae Han Min Kuk Hapkido Hyop Hwe. He was appointed the director and remained with that organization until 1980. In August 1974, he changed the name of his own organization to Kuk Je Yon Maeng Hapki Hwe. In the same year he co-founded the Korean Hapkido Association, in 1981 the IHF was recognized by the Korean government. In August 1993 the I. H. F. opened the International hapkido hankido world headquarters near the city of Yongin, Myung Jae Nams son, Myung Sung Kwang, assumed leadership of the International H. K. D.
Federation in 1999 upon the passing of his father, in February 2010 Myung Sung Kwang finished his study at the Hangyang University with a thesis titled A Study on Hankido. The goal of the I. H. F. is to organize the International H. K. D Games every three years, since 1990 the I. H. F. has organized seven such games. The most recent took place in Battle Creek, MI in the summer of 2010, in 2013 the games were scheduled to take place in Korea again. The games of 2016 will probably take place in Brazil, after Myung Jae Nam died in 1999, his son Myung Sung-kwang took over. In 2000 he got permission of the Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism to start the Jaenam Musul Won Foundation, of which he is president. This foundation is in charge of Myung Jae Nams heritage and oversees the development of Hapkido, Hankumdo, koreans who want to enter the police academy need a black belt certificate from one of the selected Korean hapkido organizations. In the past the IHF was one of three organizations whose certificates were accepted, now the certificates of four more organizations are accepted