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Hanlon's razor

Hanlon's razor is an aphorism expressed in various ways, including: Never attribute to malice that, adequately explained by stupidity. Named after a Robert J. Hanlon, it is a philosophical razor which suggests a way of eliminating unlikely explanations for human behavior. Inspired by Occam's razor, the aphorism became known in this form and under this name by the Jargon File, a glossary of computer programmer slang; that same year, the Jargon File editors noted lack of knowledge about the term's derivation and the existence of a similar epigram by William James. In 1996, the Jargon File entry on Hanlon's Razor noted the existence of a similar quotation in Robert A. Heinlein's novella Logic of Empire, with speculation that Hanlon's Razor might be a corruption of "Heinlein's Razor". In 2001, Quentin Stafford-Fraser published two blog entries citing e-mails from Joseph E. Bigler explaining that the quotation came from Robert J. Hanlon of Scranton, Pennsylvania, as a submission for a book compilation of various jokes related to Murphy's Law published in Arthur Bloch's Murphy's Law Book Two: More Reasons Why Things Go Wrong!.

Subsequently, in 2002, the Jargon File entry noted the same. Earlier attributions to the idea go back to at least the 18th century. First published in German Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote in The Sorrows of Young Werther:Misunderstandings and lethargy produce more wrong in the world than deceit and malice do. At least the latter two are rarer. An alternate expression of the idea comes from Jane West, in her novel The Loyalists: An Historical Novel: Let us not attribute to malice and cruelty what may be referred to less criminal motives. A similar quote is misattributed to Napoleon

Tungsten hexafluoride

Tungsten fluoride known as tungsten hexafluoride, is an inorganic compound with the formula WF6. It is a toxic, colorless gas, with a density of about 13 g/L It is one of the densest known gases under standard conditions. WF6 is used by the semiconductor industry to form tungsten films, through the process of chemical vapor deposition; this layer serves as a low-resistivity metallic "interconnect". It is one of seventeen known binary hexafluorides; the WF6 molecule is octahedral with the symmetry point group of Oh. The W–F bond distances are 183.2 pm. Between 2.3 and 17 °C, tungsten hexafluoride condenses into a pale yellow liquid having the density of 3.44 g/cm3 at 15 °C. At 2.3 °C it freezes into a white solid having a cubic crystalline structure, the lattice constant of 628 pm and calculated density 3.99 g/cm3. At −9 °C this structure transforms into an orthorhombic solid with the lattice constants of a = 960.3 pm, b = 871.3 pm, c = 504.4 pm, the density of 4.56 g/cm3. In this phase, the W–F distance is 181 pm, the mean closest intermolecular contacts are 312 pm.

Whereas WF6 gas is one of the densest gases, with the density exceeding that of the heaviest elemental gas radon, the density of WF6 in the liquid and solid state is rather moderate. The vapor pressure of WF6 between −70 °C and 17 °C can be described by the equation log10 P = 4.55569 −,where the P = vapor pressure, T = temperature. Tungsten hexafluoride is produced by the exothermic reaction of fluorine gas with tungsten powder at a temperature between 350 and 400 °C: W + 3 F2 → WF6The gaseous product is separated from WOF4, a common impurity, by distillation. In a variation on the direct fluorination, the metal is placed in a heated reactor pressurized to 1.2 to 2.0 psi, with a constant flow of WF6 infused with a small amount of fluorine gas. The fluorine gas in the above method can be substituted by ClF, ClF3 or BrF3. An alternative procedure for producing tungsten fluoride is to react tungsten trioxide with HF, BrF3 or SF4. Tungsten fluoride can be obtained by conversion of tungsten hexachloride: WCl6 + 6 HF → WF6 + 6 HCl or WCl6 + 2 AsF3 → WF6 + 2 AsCl3 or WCl6 + 3 SbF5 → WF6 + 3 SbF3Cl2 On contact with water, tungsten hexafluoride gives hydrogen fluoride and tungsten oxyfluorides forming tungsten trioxide: WF6 + 3 H2O → WO3 + 6 HFUnlike some other metal fluorides, WF6 is not a useful fluorinating agent nor is it a powerful oxidant.

It can be reduced to the yellow WF4. The dominant application of tungsten fluoride is in semiconductor industry, where it is used for depositing tungsten metal in a chemical vapor deposition process; the expansion of the industry in the 1980s and 1990s resulted in the increase of WF6 consumption, which remains at around 200 tonnes per year worldwide. Tungsten metal is attractive because of its high thermal and chemical stability, as well as low resistivity and electromigration. WF6 is favored over related compounds, such as WCl6 or WBr6, because of its higher vapor pressure resulting in higher deposition rates. Since 1967, two WF6 deposition routes have been developed and employed, thermal decomposition and hydrogen reduction; the required WF6 gas purity is rather high and varies between 99.98% and 99.9995% depending on the application. WF6 molecules have to be split up in the CVD process; the decomposition is facilitated by mixing WF6 with hydrogen, germane, diborane and related hydrogen-containing gases.

WF6 reacts upon contact with a silicon substrate. The WF6 decomposition on silicon is temperature-dependent: 2 WF6 + 3 Si → 2 W + 3 SiF4 below 400 °C and WF6 + 3 Si → W + 3 SiF2 above 400 °C; this dependence is crucial, as twice as much silicon is being consumed at higher temperatures. The deposition occurs selectively on pure Si only, but not on silicon oxide or nitride, thus the reaction is sensitive to contamination or substrate pre-treatment; the decomposition reaction is fast, but saturates when the tungsten layer thickness reaches 10–15 micrometers. The saturation occurs because the tungsten layer stops diffusion of WF6 molecules to the Si substrate, the only catalyst of molecular decomposition in this process. If the deposition occurs not in an inert but in an oxygen containing atmosphere instead of tungsten, a tungsten oxide layer is produced; the deposition process occurs at temperatures between 300 and 800 °C and results in formation of hydrofluoric acid vapors: WF6 + 3 H2 → W + 6 HFThe crystallinity of the produced tungsten layers can be controlled by altering the WF6/H2 ratio and the substrate temperature: low ratios and temperatures result in oriented tungsten crystallites whereas higher values favor the orientation.

Formation of HF is a drawback, as the HF vapor is aggressive and etches away most materials. The deposited tungsten shows poor adhesion to the silicon dioxide, the main passivation material in semiconductor electronics. Therefore, SiO2 has to be covered with an extra buffer layer prior to the tungsten deposition. On the other hand, etching by HF may be beneficial to remove unwanted impurity layers; the characteristic features of tungsten deposition from the WF6/SiH4 are high speed, good adhesion and layer smoothness. The drawbacks are explosion hazard and high sensitivity of the deposition rate and morphology to the process parameters, such as mixing ratio, substrate temperature, etc. Therefore, silane is used to create a thin tungsten nucleation layer, it is switched to hydrogen, that slows down the deposition and cleans up the layer. Deposition from WF6/GeH4 mixture is similar to that of WF6/SiH4, but the tungsten layer becomes contaminated with

Gloria in excelsis Deo, BWV 191

Gloria in excelsis Deo, BWV 191, is a church cantata written by the German Baroque composer Johann Sebastian Bach, the only one of his church cantatas set to a Latin text. He composed the Christmas cantata in Leipzig in 1745 to celebrate the end of the Second Silesian War on Christmas Day; the composition's three movements all derive from the Gloria of an earlier Missa written by Bach in 1733 for the Dresden court, which the composer would use as the Gloria of his Mass in B minor. Gloria in excelsis Deo was written in Leipzig for Christmas Day, as indicated by the heading on the manuscript in Bach's own handwriting, "J. J. Festo Nativit: Xsti.", to be sung around the sermon. Recent archival and manuscript evidence suggest the cantata was first performed not in 1743, but in 1745 at a special Christmas Day service to celebrate the Peace of Dresden, which brought to an end the hardships imposed on the region by the Second Silesian War. Unlike Bach's other church cantatas, the words are not in German, taken from the Bible, a chorale or contemporary poetry, but in Latin, taken from the Gloria and the Doxology.

This late work is the only Latin cantata among around 200 surviving sacred cantatas in German. It is based on an earlier composition, the Missa in B minor which Bach had composed in 1733 and that would, in 1748, become part of his monumental Mass in B minor; the first movement is an identical copy of the earlier work, while the second and third movements are close parodies. Parts, for instance, of the fugal section of Sicut erat in principio, taken from the Cum sancto spiritu of the 1733 setting, are moved from a purely vocal to an instrumentally accompanied setting; the modifications Bach made to the last two movements of BWV 191, were not carried over into the final manuscript compilation of the Mass in B minor, leaving it a matter of speculation whether or not these constitute "improvements" to Bach's original score. The cantata bears the heading::J. J. Festo Nativit: Xsti. Gloria in excelsis Deo. À 5 Voci. 3 Trombe Tymp. 2 Trav 2 Hautb. 2 Violini Viola e Cont. Di J. S. B. in Bach's own handwriting.

The cantata is festively scored for soprano and tenor soloists and an unusual five-part choir, three trumpets, two flauto traverso, two oboes, two violins and basso continuo. Its only link to Christmas is the opening chorus on Luke; the other two movements after the sermon divide the general words of the Doxology in a duet Gloria Patri et Filio et Spiritui sancto and a final chorus Sicut erat in principio. The final movement may contain ripieno markings similar to the ripieni found in Unser Mund sei voll Lachens, BWV 110, a nativity cantata. Coro: Gloria in excelsis Deo Duetto: Gloria Patri et Filio et Spiritui sancto Coro: Sicut erat in principio Die Bach Kantate Vol. 16, Helmuth Rilling, Gächinger Kantorei, Bach-Collegium Stuttgart, Nobuko Gamo-Yamamoto, Adalbert Kraus, Hänssler 1971 J. S. Bach: Weihnachtsoratorium, Ludwig Güttler, Concentus Vocalis Wien, Virtuosi Saxoniae, Christiane Oelze, Hans Peter Blochwitz, Dresden Classics 1995 J. S. Bach: Complete Cantatas Vol. 21, Ton Koopman, Amsterdam Baroque Orchestra & Choir, Caroline Stam, Paul Agnew, Antoine Marchand 1999 Bach Cantatas Vol. 18: Weimar/Leipzig/Hamburg / For Christmas Day & for Epiphany / For the 1st Sunday after Epiphany, John Eliot Gardiner, Monteverdi Choir, English Baroque Soloists, Claron McFadden, Christoph Genz, Soli Deo Gloria 1999 J. S. Bach: Kantate BMV 191 «Gloria in Excelsis Deo», Rudolf Lutz, Vokalensemble der Schola Seconda Pratica, Schola Seconda Pratica, Gerlinde Sämann, Johannes Kaleschke, Gallus Media 2009 Dürr, Alfred.

Die Kantaten von Johann Sebastian Bach. 1. Deutscher Taschenbuchverlag. Pp. 118–119. ISBN 3-423-04080-7. Dürr, Alfred. Adventsmotette. St. Thomas Church, Leipzig. P. 10. Gloria in excelsis Deo, BWV 191: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Gloria in excelsis deo BWV 191. Johann Sebastian Bach / Cantatas Nos 40, 91, 110 & 121. Soli Deo Gloria. Retrieved 31 December 2018. Chapter 54 BWV 191 Gloria in excelsis Deo / Glory to God in the highest. Julian Mincham, 2010 Gloria in excelsis Deo, BWV 191: performance by the Netherlands Bach Society

DigDat

Darren Diggs, known professionally as DigDat, is a British rapper and songwriter from Lewisham, South London. His single Air Force entered the UK Singles Chart at number 93 in September 2018; the track peaked at number 20 in December following the release of the remix featuring Krept and Konan and K Trap - this was the first time one of his tracks had entered the top 20. His next single, "No Cap" with Loski, reached number 51 on the same chart in February 2019. DigDat began rapping in 2017, he gained recognition with his single "Air Force", which entered the UK Singles Chart at number 93 in September 2018. A remix of the track with features from Krept and Konan and K Trap was released in the following months and the track peaked at number 20 in December, 2018, he released his debut album Ei8ht Mile on 17 January 2020 with features from K-Trap, D-Block Europe, Tee Grizzley, Aitch amongst others. Ei8ht Mile

Lupita dolls

Lupita dolls known as cartonería dolls, are toys made from a hard kind of papier-mâché which has its origins about 200 years ago in central Mexico. They were created as a substitute for the far more expensive porcelain dolls and maintained popularity until the second half of the 20th century, with its availability of plastic dolls. Today they are made only by certain artisans' workshops as collectors' items. Since the 1990s, there have been efforts to revitalize the crafts by artists such as María Eugenia Chellet and Carolina Esparragoza sponsored by the government to maintain traditional techniques but update the designs and shapes. A Lupita doll is a kind of papier-mâché doll, made by the poor along with those from straw and rags; the papier-mâché technique is properly called cartonería, making a hard surface when dry. This technique has been used to make a number of crafts up to this day, most notably to make alebrijes and skeletal and other figures for Day of the Dead; the dolls are created with the help of molds, one for the head and torso and others for the arms and legs, with the strips of paper and paste layered on thickly.

When the five pieces are dry, holes are bored into them in order to connect the legs. The two arms are connected to the body with a single cord that extends from one upper arm, through the torso, to the other upper arm, with knots visible on the upper arms; the legs are attached similarly. This allows the legs to be moved from the shoulders and hips respectively. Traditional Lupitas are painted in various flesh tones and with other colors to simulate clothing or underwear. On traditional dolls, flower designs of Otomi origin are painted; those painted with underwear are dressed in some kind of costume. The making of Lupitas is known in Mexico City and in the city of Celaya, where they are called “muñecas de carton”. In Celaya, the dolls are given names; these dolls were played with along with toy chairs and tables along with play dishes. They are still displayed sitting on a miniature chair; the hard papier-mâché has its origins in the late colonial to early Independence period, created by poorer families to imitate more expensive porcelain dolls from Spain.

In Mexico City, the name Lupita is derived from the diminutive for the popular girls name of Guadalupe. In the past they were sold in Mexico City in places such as the Sonora Market, where other items made of cartonería such as piñatas and Judas figures are still sold; the dolls remained popular until the era of commercial plastic dolls. A number of stories surround the dolls. One of these is that a wife who feels that her husband is cheating on her would buy one of these dolls and write the name of his supposed mistress to let him know that she knew. Another story says that they were used in the past to advertise brothels in Mexico City with each doll representing a prostitute; the dolls in the windows indicated. However, since the second half of the 20th century, the dolls have lost popularity, they are no longer made in Mexico City and are only available from certain artisans in Celaya, sold not as toys but as collectors’ items. These artisans include Lupita Hernández and Luis Alberto Canchola who makes the dolls in various sizes.

Since the 1990s, there have been efforts by the government to revitalize the craft. One of these was the Jugar. De las Lupes a las Robóticas project managed by artist María Eugenia Chellet from 1991 to 2008, it worked to create innovation in the dolls, creating images from mass media, the circus and animal/human figures. The dolls were painted in acrylics and decorated with items such as clothing, feathers and more; the main goal of the project was to see the dolls not as anonymous handcrafts but rather as works of art. This project was sponsored by CONACULTA and had workshops and exhibitions in various parts of Mexico; this was followed in 2010 by the Miss Lupita project headed by Caroline Esparragoza in Mexico City, with support from Chellet and the Fondo Nacional para las Artes y Cultura. The goal of this project is to preserve the traditional techniques to make the dolls but to update the designs. Dolls were created by ordinary people with help from artisans and artists and the results were exhibited in Mexico and Portugal.

There was a workshop to make the dolls in Japan. Cartonería in Celaya has made something of a comeback, including the making of the Lupita dolls

Indiana Oaks

The Indiana Oaks is a Thoroughbred horse race, run from 1995 to 2012 at Hoosier Park in Anderson, Indiana. Since 2013, it has been held at Indiana Grand in Indiana. Open to three-year-old fillies, the Grade III event is set at a distance of a mile and one sixteenth on dirt; the race offers a purse of $200,000 added. The Indiana Oaks was first run in 1995, the year; the race was downgraded in 2017 from a Grade II to Grade III status, along with its counterpart, the Indiana Derby. Speed record: ​1 1⁄16 miles - 1:41.85 - Grace Hall 1 mile- 1:37.00 - Princess Eloise & Niner's Home Most wins by a jockey: 3 - Robby Albarado 3- Julien Leparoux Most wins by a trainer: 2 - Carl Nafzger Indiana Oaks top three finishes and starters