An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia
Jackanory is a BBC children's television series, broadcast between 1965 to 1996. It was designed to stimulate an interest in reading; the show was first transmitted on 13 December 1965, the first story was the fairy-tale "Cap-o'-Rushes" read by Lee Montague. Jackanory continued to be broadcast with around 3,500 episodes in its 30-year run; the final story, The House at Pooh Corner by A. A. Milne, was read by Alan Bennett and broadcast on 24 March 1996; the show was revived on 27 November 2006 for two one-off stories, the format was revived as Jackanory Junior on CBeebies between 2007 and 2009. The show's format, which varied little over the decades, involved an actor reading from children's novels or folk tales while seated in an armchair. From time to time the scene being read would be illustrated by a specially commissioned still drawing by Quentin Blake. A single book would occupy five daily fifteen-minute episodes, from Monday to Friday. A spin-off series was Jackanory Playhouse, a series of thirty-minute dramatisations.
These included a dramatisation by Philip Glassborow of the comical A. A. Milne story "The Princess Who Couldn't Laugh"; the show's title comes from an old English nursery rhyme: I'll tell you a story About Jack a Nory, And now my story's begun. The rhyme was first recorded in the publication The Top Book of All, for little Masters and Misses, which appeared about 1760. In November 2006 Jackanory returned with comedian John Sessions as the revived programme's first narrator reading the Lord of the Rings parody Muddle Earth, written by Paul Stewart; the second narrator was Sir Ben Kingsley. They were broadcast in three 15 minute slots on CBBC and BBC One and repeated in their entirety on BBC One on consecutive Sundays; the readings of Muddle Earth were accompanied by animation and featured John Sessions speaking the lines of all the animated characters, leading to criticism that the spirit of the original programme, a single voice telling a tale with minimal distractions, had been lost. The Magician of Samarkand was a similar production, without additional actors speaking lines.
Both of these stories were directed by Nick Willing. Both stories were released on DVD in their entirety with added bonus features. A version of Jackanory for younger children—called Jackanory Junior—was shown on CBeebies between 2007 and 2009; the CBeebies Bedtime Stories strand continues the tradition of well-known actors and personalities reading stories directly to camera. A partial list of stories includes: Little House in the Big Woods, written by Laura Ingalls Wilder, read by Red Shiveley Farmer Boy, written by Laura Ingalls Wilder, read by Richard Monette Cap of Rushes, read by Lee Montague Mr. & Mrs. Vinegar, read by Lee Montague Master of All Masters, read by Lee Montague Tom Thumb, read by Lee Montague Dick Whittington, read by Lee Montague The Squirrel, the Hare and the Little Grey Rabbit, written by Alison Uttley, read by Wendy Hiller How Little Grey Rabbit Got Back Her Tail, written by Alison Uttley, read by Wendy Hiller Wise Owl's Story, written by Alison Uttley, read by Wendy Hiller Squirrel Goes Skating, written by Alison Uttley, read by Wendy Hiller Little Grey Rabbit's Christmas, written by Alison Uttley, read by Wendy Hiller The Snow Queen, written by Hans Christian Andersen, adapted by Anna Home, read by Enid Lorimer The Wonderful Tar Baby, an Uncle Remus story, read by George Browne Brer Rabbit Makes a Fool of Brer Fox, an Uncle Remus story, read by George Browne Brer Rabbit Steals the Peas, an Uncle Remus story, read by George Browne Brer Rabbit Goes Calling on Mrs. Goose, an Uncle Remus story, read by George Browne Brer Rabbit Does Some Shopping, an Uncle Remus story, read by George Browne Mary Poppins Comes Back, written by P.
L. Travers, read by Hattie Jacques The Musicians of Bremen Town, written by the Brothers Grimm, read by Dilys Hamlett The Frog Prince, written by the Brothers Grimm, read by Dilys Hamlett The Goose Girl, written by the Brothers Grimm, read by Dilys Hamlett Pippi Longstocking, written by Astrid Lindgren adapted by David Coulter, read by Joyce Grenfell Rumpelstiltskin, written by the Brothers Grimm, read by Dilys Hamlett The Twelve Dancing Princesses, written by the Brothers Grimm, read by Dilys Hamlett The Wheel on the School, written by Meindert DeJong, read by Peter Settelen Gulliver's Travels, written by Jonathan Swift, read by Alfred Marks Gulliver in Space, written by J. G. Ballard, read by Alfred Marks The Tale of Little Pig Robinson, written by Beatrix Potter, read by Margaret Rutherford The Tale of Mrs. Tiggy-Winkle, written by Beatrix Potter, read by Margaret Rutherford The Tale of Johnny Town-Mouse, written by Beatrix Potter, read by Margaret Rutherford The Tale of Mr. Tod, written by Beatrix Potter, read by Margaret Rutherford Minnow on the Say, written by Philippa Pearce, read by Dinsdale Landen Little Old Mrs. Pepperpot, written by Alf Prøysen, read by Ann Way Queen of the Crows, written by Alf Prøysen, read by Ann Way Mrs. Pepperpot Buys Macaroni, written by Alf Prøysen, read by Ann Way Mrs. Pepperpot Tries to Please Her Husband, written by Alf Prøysen, read by Ann Way (10 November 19
St James's Church, Piccadilly
St James's Church, Piccadilly known as St James's Church, St James-in-the-Fields, is an Anglican church on Piccadilly in the centre of London, United Kingdom. The church was built by Sir Christopher Wren; the church is built of red brick with Portland stone dressings. Its interior has galleries on three sides supported by square pillars and the nave has a barrel vault supported by Corinthian columns; the carved marble font and limewood reredos are both notable examples of the work of Grinling Gibbons. In 1902, an outside pulpit was erected on the north wall of the church, it was carved by Laurence Arthur Turner. It was restored at the same time as the rest of the fabric. Like many central London churches surrounded by commercial buildings and fewer local people, St James’s lost numbers and momentum in the 1960s and 1970s. When, in 1980, Donald Reeves was offered the post of rector, the bishop said "I don’t mind what you do, just keep it open." During that decade and most of the 1990s numbers and activity grew, the clergy and congregation gaining a reputation for being a progressive and campaigning church.
That has continued. The "congregation" rejects that description and prefers "community", it is centred on the celebration of the principal Christian sacrament. It finds expression in a wide range of interest groups: spiritual explorers, labyrinth walking, Julian prayer meetings, the Vagabonds group, a LGBT group and many others; the community has supported, supports, the ordination of women to all the orders of the church, the just treatment of asylum seekers and those living in poverty. It celebrates what it regards as the "radical welcome" found in the heart of the Gospels and attested to by the Incarnation. Concerts are held in the church. Concerts have included performances by popular contemporary musicians such as R. E. M; the folk musician Laura Marling as part of her "church tour", the collegiate Indian-American music group Penn Masala and Devin Townsend on his 2015 UK acoustic tour. Hauser & Wirth, a contemporary art gallery, is running a programme of outdoor sculpture exhibitions in Southwood Garden in the grounds of the church.
The first exhibition was of work by the Swiss sculptor Hans Josephsohn, running from September 2009 to January 2010. Southwood Garden was created in the churchyard by Viscount Southwood after World War II as a garden of remembrance, "to commemorate the courage and fortitude of the people of London," and was opened by Queen Mary in 1946. From 23 December 2013 to 5 January 2014 the "Bethlehem Unwrapped" demonstration against the Israeli West Bank barrier featured an art installation by Justin Butcher, Geof Thompson, Dean Willars, which included a large replica section of the wall; the installation blocked the view of the church, other than a section of the top of the tower, stated by church authorities to be part of the point of the demonstration. The Piccadilly Market was established in 1981 and operates six days a week in the courtyard of St James's Church. Monday and Tuesday: Food Market, 11:00 am – 5:00 pm. Wednesday – Saturday: Arts and Craft Market, 10:00 am – 6:00 pm. In 1662, Henry Jermyn, 1st Earl of St Albans, was granted land for residential development on what was the outskirts of London.
He set aside land for the building of a parish church and churchyard on the south side of what is now Piccadilly. Christopher Wren was appointed the architect in 1672 and the church was consecrated on 13 July 1684 by Henry Compton, the Bishop of London. In 1685 the parish of St James was created for the church; the church was damaged by enemy action in 1940, during the Second World War. Works of restoration carried out by Rattee and Kett. Gerrard Andrewes Samuel Clarke was rector from 1709 to 1729 and was one of the leading intellectual figures of eighteenth-century Britain. Joseph McCormick, Canon of York, chaplain to Queen Victoria, King Edward VII and King George V, rector from 1900 to 1914. Leopold Stokowski was choirmaster from 1902 until 1905 when he left for a similar position in New York. William Blake, baptised 1757. George Thomas Smart, baptised 2 Jun 1776. Lord Chesterfield Lord Chatham John Ross and Alicia Arnold were married. Ince and Mayhew, founding partners of the furniture-makers, married sisters in a double wedding here in 1762.
Frederick de Horn and Angelica Kauffman, 1767. Horn was an imposter, married and Kauffman was a successful artist. George Bass, explorer of Australia and the Bass Strait, married Elizabeth Waterhouse in 1800. Georges-Alexis, marquis d'Amboise y épouse Louisa Barwell, fille de Richard Barwell, membre du Parlement, en 1815. Philip Hardwick, the architect, married Julia Shaw in 1819. General Sir Robert Arbuthnot, KCB, married Harriet Smith in 1826. Prince Friedrich Wilhelm von Hanau, eldest son of Frederik William, Elector of Hesse-Kassel, married the actress Auguste Birnbaum in 1856. In 1856, George Augustus Hopley, the Belgian Consul to Charleston South Carolina, in the US, married the French-born Felicité Claudine Rancine on 26 July. John Cyril Porte, an aviation pioneer and air racer, married Minnie Miller on 16 August 1916; the ceremony was conducted by Curate. Robert Graves, an author and poet, married Nancy Nicholson in the church in 1918; the best man was George Mallory. James Arbuthnot MP, married Emma Broadbent, daughter of Michael Broadbent, in 1984.
Dundee is Scotland's fourth-largest city and the 51st-most-populous built-up area in the United Kingdom. The mid-year population estimate for 2016 was 148,270, giving Dundee a population density of 2,478/km2 or 6,420/sq mi, the second-highest in Scotland, it lies within the eastern central Lowlands on the north bank of the Firth of Tay, which feeds into the North Sea. Under the name of Dundee City, it forms one of the 32 council areas used for local government in Scotland. Part of Angus, the city developed into a burgh in the late 12th century and established itself as an important east coast trading port. Rapid expansion was brought on by the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century when Dundee was the centre of the global jute industry. This, along with its other major industries gave Dundee its epithet as the city of "jute and journalism". Today, Dundee is promoted as "One City, Many Discoveries" in honour of Dundee's history of scientific activities and of the RRS Discovery, Robert Falcon Scott's Antarctic exploration vessel, built in Dundee and is now berthed at Discovery Point.
Biomedical and technological industries have arrived since the 1980s, the city now accounts for 10% of the United Kingdom's digital-entertainment industry. Dundee has two universities -- the University of the Abertay University. In 2014 Dundee was recognised by the United Nations as the UK's first UNESCO City of Design for its diverse contributions to fields including medical research and video games. A unique feature of Dundee is that its two professional football clubs, Dundee F. C. and Dundee United, have stadiums all but adjacent to each other. With the decline of traditional industry, the city has adopted a plan to regenerate and reinvent itself as a cultural centre. In pursuit of this, a £1 billion master plan to regenerate and to reconnect the Waterfront to the city centre started in 2001 and is expected to be completed within a 30-year period; the V&A Dundee – the first branch of the V&A to operate outside of London – is the main centre piece of the waterfront project. In recent years, Dundee's international profile has risen.
GQ magazine named Dundee the'Coolest Little City In Britain' in 2015 and The Wall Street Journal ranked Dundee at number 5 on its'Worldwide Hot Destinations' list for 2018. The name "Dundee" is made up of two parts: meaning fort. While earlier evidence for human occupation is abundant, Dundee's success and growth as a seaport town arguably came as a result of William the Lion's charter, granting Dundee to his younger brother, David in the late 12th century; the situation of the town and its promotion by Earl David as a trading centre led to a period of prosperity and growth. The earldom was passed down amongst whom was John Balliol; the town became a Royal Burgh on John's coronation as king in 1292. The town and its castle were occupied by English forces for several years during the First War of Independence and recaptured by Robert the Bruce in early 1312; the original Burghal charters were lost during the occupation and subsequently renewed by Bruce in 1327. The burgh suffered during the conflict known as the Rough Wooing of 1543 to 1550, was occupied by the English forces of Andrew Dudley from 1547.
In 1548, unable to defend the town against an advancing Scottish force, Dudley ordered that the town be burnt to the ground. In 1645, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Dundee was again besieged, this time by the Royalist Marquess of Montrose; the town was destroyed by Parliamentarian forces led by George Monck in 1651. The town played a pivotal role in the establishment of the Jacobite cause when John Graham of Claverhouse, 1st Viscount Dundee raised the Stuart standard on the Dundee Law in 1689; the town was held by the Jacobites in the 1715–16 rising, on 6 January 1716 the Jacobite claimant to the throne, James VIII and III, made a public entry into the town. Many in Scotland, including many in Dundee, regarded him as the rightful king. A notable resident of Dundee was Adam Duncan, 1st Viscount Duncan of Baron of Lundie, he was born in the son of Alexander Duncan of Lundie, Provost of Dundee. Adam was educated in Dundee and joined the Royal Navy on board the sloop Trial, he in October 1797 defeated the Dutch fleet off Camperdown.
This was seen as one of the most significant actions in naval history. The economy of mediaeval Dundee centred on the export of raw wool, with the production of finished textiles being a reaction to recession in the 15th century. Two government Acts in the mid 18th century had a profound effect on Dundee's industrial success: the textile industry was revolutionised by the introduction of large four-storey mills, stimulated in part by the 1742 Bounty Act which provided a government-funded subsidy on Osnaburg linen produced for export. Expansion of the whaling industry was triggered by the second Bounty Act, introduced in 1750 to increase Britain's maritime and naval skill base. Dundee, Scotland more saw rapid population increase at end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, with the city's population increasing from 12,400 in 1751 to 30,500 in 1821; the phasing out of the linen export bounty between 1825 and 1832 stimulated demand for cheaper textiles for cheaper, tough fabrics. The discovery that the dry fibres of jute could be lubricated with whale oil (of which Dundee had a surfeit, following the opening of its gasworks
Kurt Julian Weill was a German Jewish composer, active from the 1920s in his native country, in his years in the United States. He was a leading composer for the stage, best known for his fruitful collaborations with Bertolt Brecht. With Brecht, he developed productions such as his best-known work The Threepenny Opera, which included the ballad "Mack the Knife". Weill held the ideal of writing music that served a useful purpose, he wrote several works for the concert hall. He became a United States citizen on August 27, 1943. Weill was born on the third of four children to Albert Weill and Emma Weill, he grew up in a religious Jewish family in the "Sandvorstadt", the Jewish quarter in Dessau in Saxony, where his father was a cantor. At the age of twelve, Weill started taking piano lessons and made his first attempts at writing music. Jewish Wedding Song. In 1915, Weill started taking private lessons with Albert Bing, Kapellmeister at the "Herzogliches Hoftheater zu Dessau", who taught him piano, music theory, conducting.
Weill performed publicly both as an accompanist and soloist. The following years he composed numerous Lieder to the lyrics of poets such as Joseph von Eichendorff, Arno Holz, Anna Ritter, as well as a cycle of five songs titled Ofrahs Lieder to a German translation of a text by Yehuda Halevi. Weill graduated with an Abitur from the Oberrealschule of Dessau in 1918, enrolled at the Berliner Hochschule für Musik at the age of 18, where he studied composition with Engelbert Humperdinck, conducting with Rudolf Krasselt, counterpoint with Friedrich E. Koch, attended philosophy lectures by Max Dessoir and Ernst Cassirer; the same year, he wrote his first string quartet. Weill's family experienced financial hardship in the aftermath of World War I, in July 1919, Weill abandoned his studies and returned to Dessau, where he was employed as a répétiteur at the Friedrich-Theater under the direction of the new Kapellmeister, Hans Knappertsbusch. During this time, he composed an orchestral suite in E-flat major, a symphonic poem of Rainer Maria Rilke's The Lay of the Love and Death of Cornet Christopher Rilke as well as Schilflieder, a cycle of five songs to poems by Nikolaus Lenau.
In December 1919, through the help of Humperdinck, Weill was appointed as Kapellmeister at the newly founded Stadttheater in Lüdenscheid, where he directed opera and singspiel for five months, composed a cello sonata and Ninon de Lenclos, a now lost one-act operatic adaptation of a play by Ernst Hardt. From May to September 1920, Weill spent a couple of months in Leipzig, where his father had become the new director of a Jewish orphanage. Before he returned to Berlin, in September 1920, he composed Sulamith, a choral fantasy for soprano, female choir, orchestra. Back in Berlin, Weill had an interview with Ferruccio Busoni in December 1920. After examining some of Weill's compositions, Busoni accepted him as one of five master students in composition at the Preußische Akademie der Künste in Berlin. From January 1921 to December 1923, Weill studied music composition with him and counterpoint with Philipp Jarnach in Berlin. During his first year he composed his first symphony, Sinfonie in einem Satz, as well as the lieder Die Bekehrte and two Rilkelieder for voice and piano.
To support his family in Leipzig, he worked as a pianist in a Bierkeller tavern. In 1922, Weill joined the November Group's music faction; that year he composed a psalm, a divertimento for orchestra, Sinfonia Sacra: Fantasia and Hymnus for Orchestra. On November 18, 1922, his children's pantomime Die Zaubernacht premiered at the Theater am Kurfürstendamm. Out of financial need, Weill taught music theory and composition to private students from 1923 to 1925. Among his students were Claudio Arrau, Maurice Abravanel, Heinz Jolles, Nikos Skalkottas. Arrau and Jolles remained members of Weill's circle of friends thereafter, Jolles's sole surviving composition predating the rise of the Nazi regime in 1933 is a fragment of a work for four pianos he and Weill wrote jointly. Weill's compositions during his last year of studies included Quodlibet, an orchestral suite version of Die Zaubernacht, seven medieval poems for soprano, viola, French horn, bassoon, Recordare for choir and children's choir to words from the Book of Lamentations.
Further premieres that year included a performance of his Divertimento for Orchestra by the Berlin Philharmonic under the direction of Heinz Unger on April 10, 1923, the Hindemith-Amar Quartet's rendering of Weill's String Quartet, Op. 8, on June 24, 1923. In December 1923, Weill finished his studies with Busoni. In 1922 he joined the Novembergruppe, a group of leftist Berlin artists that included Hanns Eisler and Stefan Wolpe. In February 1924 the conductor Fritz Busch introduced him to the dramatist Georg Kaiser, with whom Weill would have a long-lasting creative partnership resulting in several one-act operas. At Kaiser's house in Grünheide, Weill first met singer/actress Lotte Lenya in the summer of 1924; the couple were married twice: in 1926 and again in 1937. She took great care to support Weill's work, after his death she took it upon herself to increase awareness of his music, forming the Kurt Weill Foundation. From November 1924 to May 1929, Weill wrote hundreds of reviews for the influential and comprehensive radio program guide Der
Dame Wendy Margaret Hiller, was an English film and stage actress, who enjoyed a varied acting career that spanned nearly sixty years. The writer Joel Hirschorn, in his 1984 compilation Rating the Movie Stars, described her as "a no-nonsense actress who took command of the screen whenever she appeared on film". Despite many notable film performances, she chose to remain a stage actress, she won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance in Separate Tables. Born in Bramhall, the daughter of Frank Watkin Hiller, a Manchester cotton manufacturer, Marie Stone, Hiller began her professional career as an actress in repertory at Manchester in the early 1930s, she first found success as slum dweller Sally Hardcastle in the stage version of Love on the Dole in 1934. The play toured the regional stages of Britain; this play saw her West End debut in 1935 at the Garrick Theatre. She married the play's author Ronald Gow, fifteen years her senior, in 1937; the huge popularity of Love on the Dole took the production to New York in 1936, where her performance attracted the attention of George Bernard Shaw.
Shaw recognised a spirited radiance in the young actress, ideally suited for playing his heroines. Shaw cast her in several of his plays, including Saint Joan and Major Barbara and his influence on her early career is apparent, she was reputed to be Shaw's favourite actress of the time. Unlike other stage actresses of her generation, she did little Shakespeare, preferring the more modern dramatists such as Henrik Ibsen and new plays adapted from the novels of Henry James and Thomas Hardy among others. In the course of her stage career, Hiller won popular and critical acclaim in both London and New York, she excelled at strong willed characters. After touring Britain as Viola in Twelfth Night she returned to the West End to be directed by John Gielgud as Sister Joanna in The Cradle Song; the string of notable successes continued as Princess Charlotte in The First Gentleman opposite Robert Morley as the Prince Regent, Pegeen in Playboy of the Western World and Tess of the d'Urbervilles, adapted for the stage by her husband.
In 1947, Hiller originated the role of Catherine Sloper, the painfully shy, vulnerable spinster in The Heiress on Broadway. The play, based on the Henry James novel Washington Square featured Basil Rathbone as her abusive father; the production enjoyed a year-long run at the Biltmore Theatre in New York and would prove to be her greatest triumph on Broadway. On returning to London, Hiller again played the role in the West End production in 1950, her stage work remained a priority and continued with Ann Veronica, adapted by Gow from the novel by H. G. Wells with his wife in the leading role, she did a two-year run in N. C. Hunter's Waters of the Moon, alongside Edith Evans. A season at the Old Vic in 1955–56 produced a notable performance as Portia in Julius Caesar among others. Other stage work at this time included The Night of the Ball, the new Robert Bolt play Flowering Cherry, Toys in the Attic, The Wings of the Dove, A Measure of Cruelty, A Present for the Past, The Sacred Flame with Gladys Cooper, The Battle of Shrivings with John Gielgud and Lies.
In 1957, Hiller returned to New York to star as Josie Hogan in Eugene O'Neill's A Moon for the Misbegotten, a performance which gained her a Tony Award nomination as Best Dramatic Actress. The production featured Cyril Cusack and Franchot Tone, her final appearance on Broadway was as Miss Tina in the 1962 production of Michael Redgrave's adaptation of The Aspern Papers, from the Henry James novella. As she matured, she demonstrated a strong affinity for the plays of Henrik Ibsen, as Irene in When We Dead Awaken, as Mrs. Alving in Ghosts, Aase in Peer Gynt and as Gunhild in John Gabriel Borkman, in which she appeared with Ralph Richardson and Peggy Ashcroft. West End successes such as Queen Mary in Crown Matrimonial proved she was not limited to playing dejected deprived women, she revisited some earlier plays playing older characters, as in West End revivals of Waters of the Moon with Ingrid Bergman and The Aspern Papers with Vanessa Redgrave. She was scheduled to return to the American stage in a 1982 revival of Anastasia with Natalie Wood, until Wood's death just weeks before rehearsals.
Hiller made her final West End performance in the title role in Driving Miss Daisy. At Shaw's insistence, she starred as Eliza Doolittle in the film Pygmalion with Leslie Howard as Professor Higgins; this performance earned Hiller her first Oscar nomination, a first for a British actress in a British film, became one of her best remembered roles. She was the first actress to utter the word "bloody" in a British film, when Eliza utters the line "Not bloody I'm going in a taxi!". She followed up this success with another Shaw adaptation, Major Barbara with Rex Harrison and Robert Morley. Powell and Pressburger signed her for The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp, but her second pregnancy led to Deborah Kerr being cast instead. Dete
David Keith Lynch is an American filmmaker, musician and photographer. He has been described by The Guardian as "the most important director of this era", while AllMovie called him "the Renaissance man of modern American filmmaking", his films Blue Velvet and Mulholland Drive are regarded by critics to be among the greatest films of their respective decades, while the success of his 1990–91 television series Twin Peaks led to him being labeled "the first popular Surrealist" by film critic Pauline Kael. He has received three Academy Award nominations for Best Director, has won France's César Award for Best Foreign Film twice, as well as the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival and a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement at the Venice Film Festival. In 2016, Mulholland Drive, was named the top film of the 21st century by the BBC following a poll of 177 film critics from 36 countries. Born to a middle-class family in Missoula, Lynch spent his childhood traveling around the United States before he studied painting at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia, where he first made the transition to producing short films.
He moved to Los Angeles, where he produced his first motion picture, the surrealist horror film Eraserhead. After Eraserhead became a cult classic on the midnight movie circuit, Lynch was employed to direct the biographical film The Elephant Man, from which he gained mainstream success, he was employed by the De Laurentiis Entertainment Group and proceeded to make two films: the science-fiction epic Dune, which proved to be a critical and commercial failure, a neo-noir mystery film Blue Velvet, which stirred controversy over its violence but grew in critical reputation. Next, Lynch created his own television series with Mark Frost, the popular murder mystery Twin Peaks, he created a cinematic prequel, Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me, a road film Wild at Heart and a family film The Straight Story in the same period. Turning further towards surrealist filmmaking, three of his subsequent films operated on dream logic non-linear narrative structures: Lost Highway, Mulholland Drive, Inland Empire.
Meanwhile, Lynch embraced the Internet as a medium, producing several web-based shows, such as the animated DumbLand and the surreal sitcom Rabbits. Lynch and Frost reunited for the Showtime limited series Twin Peaks: The Return, with Lynch co-writing and directing every episode. Lynch's other artistic endeavours include: his work as a musician, encompassing two solo albums—Crazy Clown Time and The Big Dream —as well as music and sound design for a variety of his films. An avid practitioner of Transcendental Meditation, Lynch founded the David Lynch Foundation in 2005, which sought to fund the teaching of TM in schools and has since widened its scope to other at-risk populations, including the homeless and refugees. Lynch was born in Missoula, Montana, on January 20, 1946, his father, Donald Walton Lynch, was a research scientist working for the U. S. Department of Agriculture, his mother, Edwina "Sunny" Lynch, was an English language tutor. Two of Lynch's maternal great-grandparents were Finnish, had immigrated to the United States from Finland in the 19th century.
Lynch was raised a Presbyterian. The Lynch family moved around according to where the USDA assigned Donald, it was because of this that when he was two months old, Lynch moved with his parents to Sandpoint and only two years after that, following the birth of his brother John, the family moved to Spokane, Washington. It was here; the family moved to Durham, North Carolina Boise and Alexandria, Virginia. Lynch found this transitory early life easy to adjust to, noting that he found it easy to meet new friends whenever he started attending a new school. Commenting on much of his early life, Lynch has remarked: I found the world and fantastic as a child. Of course, I had the usual fears, like going to school... For me, back school was a crime against young people, it destroyed the seeds of liberty. The teachers didn't encourage a positive attitude. Alongside his schooling, Lynch joined the Boy Scouts, although he would note that he only "became so I could quit and put it behind me." He rose to the highest rank of Eagle Scout.
As an Eagle Scout, he was present with other Boy Scouts outside the White House at the inauguration of President John F. Kennedy, which took place on Lynch's birthday in 1961. Lynch had been interested in painting and drawing from an early age, became intrigued by the idea of pursuing it as a career path when living in Virginia, where his friend's father was a professional painter. At Francis C. Hammond High School in Alexandria, Lynch did poorly academically, having little interest in school work, but was popular with other students, after leaving decided that he wanted to study painting at college, beginning his studies at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston in 1964, where he was a roommate of Peter Wolf. Nonetheless, he left the School of the Museum of Fine Arts after only a year, stating that "I was not inspired AT ALL in that place", instead deciding that he wanted to travel around Europe for three years with his friend Jack Fisk, unhappy with his studies at Cooper Union, they had some hopes tha