Walter Adolph Georg Gropius was a German architect and founder of the Bauhaus School, along with Alvar Aalto, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright, is regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modernist architecture. Gropius was a leading architect of the International Style. Born in Berlin, Walter Gropius was the third child of Walter Adolph Gropius and Manon Auguste Pauline Scharnweber, daughter of the Prussian politician Georg Schwarnweber. Walter's uncle Martin Gropius was the architect of the Kunstgewerbemuseum in Berlin and a follower of Karl Friedrich Schinkel, with whom Walter's great-grandfather Carl Gropius, who fought under Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher at the Battle of Waterloo, had shared a flat as a bachelor. In 1915 Gropius married Alma Mahler, widow of Gustav Mahler. Walter and Alma's daughter, named Manon after Walter's mother, was born in 1916; when Manon died of polio at age 18, in 1935, composer Alban Berg wrote his Violin Concerto in memory of her.
Gropius and Mahler divorced in 1920. On 16 October 1923, Gropius married Ilse Frank; the couple adopted a daughter together, Beate Gropius, known as Ati. Ise Gropius died on 9 June 1983 in Massachusetts. Walter's only sister Manon Burchard is the great-grandmother of the German film and theater actresses Marie Burchard and Bettina Burchard, of the curator and art historian Wolf Burchard. Gropius could not draw, was dependent on collaborators and partner-interpreters throughout his career. In school he hired an assistant to complete his homework for him. In 1908, after studying architecture in Munich and Berlin for four semesters, Gropius joined the office of the renowned architect and industrial designer Peter Behrens, one of the first members of the utilitarian school, his fellow employees at this time included Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Dietrich Marcks. In 1910 Gropius left the firm of Behrens and together with fellow employee Adolf Meyer established a practice in Berlin. Together they share credit for one of the seminal modernist buildings created during this period: the Faguswerk in Alfeld-an-der-Leine, Germany, a shoe last factory.
Although Gropius and Meyer only designed the facade, the glass curtain walls of this building demonstrated both the modernist principle that form reflects function and Gropius's concern with providing healthful conditions for the working class. The factory is now regarded as one of the crucial founding monuments of European modernism. Gropius was commissioned in 1913 to design a car for the Prussian Railroad Locomotive Works in Königsberg; this locomotive was unique and the first of its kind in Germany and in Europe. Other works of this early period include the office and factory building for the Werkbund Exhibition in Cologne. In 1913, Gropius published an article about "The Development of Industrial Buildings," which included about a dozen photographs of factories and grain elevators in North America. A influential text, this article had a strong influence on other European modernists, including Le Corbusier and Erich Mendelsohn, both of whom reprinted Gropius's grain elevator pictures between 1920 and 1930.
Gropius's career was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I in 1914. He was drafted August 1914 and served as a sergeant major at the Western front during the war years and as a lieutenant in the signal corps. Gropius was awarded the Iron Cross twice after fighting for four years. Gropius like his father and his great-uncle Martin Gropius before him, became an architect. Gropius's career advanced in the postwar period. Henry van de Velde, the master of the Grand-Ducal Saxon School of Arts and Crafts in Weimar was asked to step down in 1915 due to his Belgian nationality, his recommendation for Gropius to succeed him led to Gropius's appointment as master of the school in 1919. It was this academy which Gropius transformed into the world-famous Bauhaus, attracting a faculty that included Paul Klee, Johannes Itten, Josef Albers, Herbert Bayer, László Moholy-Nagy, Otto Bartning and Wassily Kandinsky. In principle, the Bauhaus represented an opportunity to extend beauty and quality to every home through well designed industrially produced objects.
The Bauhaus program was experimental and the emphasis was theoretical. One example product of the Bauhaus was the armchair F 51, designed for the Bauhaus's directors room in 1920 – nowadays a re-edition in the market, manufactured by the German company TECTA/Lauenfoerde. In 1919, Gropius was involved in the Glass Chain utopian expressionist correspondence under the pseudonym "Mass." More notable for his functionalist approach, the "Monument to the March Dead," designed in 1919 and executed in 1920, indicates that expressionism was an influence on him at that time. In 1923, Gropius designed his famous door handles, now considered an icon of 20th-century design and listed as one of the most influential designs to emerge from Bauhaus. Gropius designed the new Bauhaus Dessau school building in 1925-26 on commission from the city of Dessau, he collaborated with Carl Fieger, Ernst Neufert and others within his private architectural practice. He designed large-scale housing projects in Berlin and Dessau in 1926–32 that were major contributions to the New Objectivity movement, including a contribution to the Siemensstadt project in Berlin.
Gropius moved to Berlin. Hannes Meyer to
Jewish Autonomous Oblast
The Jewish Autonomous Oblast is a federal subject of Russia in the Russian Far East, bordering Khabarovsk Krai and Amur Oblast in Russia and Heilongjiang province in China. Its administrative center is the town of Birobidzhan. At its height in the late 1940s, the Jewish population in the region peaked at around 46,000–50,000, around 25% of the entire population; as of the 2010 Census, JAO's population was 176,558 people, or 0.1% of the total population of Russia. By 2010, according to data provided by the Russian Census Bureau, there were only 1,628 Jews remaining in the JAO, while ethnic Russians made up 92.7% of the JAO population. Judaism is practiced by only 0.2% of the population of the JAO. Article 65 of the Constitution of Russia provides, it is one of two official Jewish territories in the other being Israel. In 1858 the northern bank of the Amur River, including the territory of today's Jewish Autonomous Oblast, became incorporated into the Russian Empire pursuant to the Treaty of Aigun and the Convention of Peking.
In December 1858 the Russian government authorized the formation of the Amur Cossack Host to protect the south-east boundary of Siberia and communications on the Amur and Ussuri rivers. This military colonization included settlers from Transbaikalia. Between 1858 and 1882 many settlements consisting of wooden houses were founded, it is estimated. Expeditions of scientists, including geographers, ethnographers and botanists such as Mikhail Ivanovich Venyukov, Leopold von Schrenck, Karl Maximovich, Gustav Radde, Vladimir Leontyevich Komarov promoted research in the area. In 1899, construction began on the regional section of the Trans-Siberian Railway connecting Chita and Vladivostok; the project produced the foundation of new settlements. Between 1908 and 1912 stations opened at Volochayevka, Bira, Londoko, In, Tikhonkaya; the railway construction finished in October 1916 with the opening of the 2,590-metre Khabarovsk Bridge across the Amur at Khabarovsk. During this time, before the 1917 revolutions, most local inhabitants were farmers.
The only industrial enterprise was the Tungussky timber mill, although gold was mined in the Sutara River, there were some small railway workshops. In 1922, during the Russian Civil War, the territory of the future Jewish Autonomous Oblast became the scene of the Battle of Volochayevka. Although Judaism as a religion ran counter to the Bolshevik party's policy of atheism, Vladimir Lenin wanted to appease minority groups to gain their support and provide examples of tolerance. In 1924, the unemployment rate among Jews exceeded 30% as a result of pogroms but as a result of the policies of the USSR, which prohibited people from being craftspeople and small businessmen. With the goal of getting Jews back to work to be more productive members of society, the government established Komzet, the committee for the agricultural settlement of Jews; the Soviet government entertained the idea of resettling all Jews in the USSR in a designated territory where they would be able to pursue a lifestyle, "socialist in content and national in form".
The Soviets wanted to offer an alternative to Zionism, the establishment of Palestine as a Jewish homeland. Socialist Zionists such as Ber Borochov were gaining followers at that time and Zionism was a rival ideology to Marxism among left-wing Jews; the location, considered in the early 1920s was Crimea, which had a significant Jewish population Two Jewish districts were formed in Crimea and three in south Ukraine. However, an alternative scheme, perceived as more advantageous, was put into practice. Birobidzhan, in what is now the JAO, was chosen by the Soviet leadership as the site for the Jewish region; the choice of this area was a surprise to Komzet. This area was infiltrated by China, while Japan wanted Russia to lose the provinces of the Soviet Far East. At the time, there were only about 30,000 inhabitants in the area descendants of Trans-Baikal Cossacks resettled there by tsarist authorities, Koreans and the Tungusic peoples; the Soviet government wanted to increase settlement in the remote Soviet Far East along the vulnerable border with China.
General Pavel Sudoplatov writes about the government's rationale behind picking the area in the Far East: ″The establishment of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in Birobidzhan in 1928 was ordered by Stalin only as an effort to strengthen the Far Eastern border region with an outpost, not as a favour to the Jews. The area was penetrated by Chinese and White Russian terrorist groups, the idea was to shield the territory by establishing a settlement whose inhabitants would be hostile to White Russian émigrés the Cossacks; the status of this region was defined shrewdly as an autonomous district, not an autonomous republic, which meant that no local legislature, high court, or government post of ministerial rank was permitted. It was an autonomous area, but a bare frontier, not a political center.″On 28 March 1928, the Presidium of the General Executive Committee of the USSR passed the decree "On the attaching for Komzet of free territory near the Amur River in the Far East for settlement of the working Jews."
The decree meant "a possibility of establishment of a Jewish administrative territorial unit on the territory of the called region". T
Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
The Historical Dictionary of Switzerland is an encyclopedia on the history of Switzerland that aims to take into account the results of modern historical research in a manner accessible to a broader audience. The encyclopedia is published by a foundation under the patronage of the Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Swiss Historical Society and is financed by national research grants. Besides a staff of 35 at the central offices, the contributors include 100 academic advisors, 2500 historians and 100 translators; the encyclopedia is being edited in three national languages of Switzerland: German and Italian. The first of 13 volumes was published in 2002; the last volume was published in 2014. The 36,000 headings are grouped in: Biographies Articles on families and genealogy Articles on places Subject articles The on-line edition has been available since 1998, it makes accessible, for free, but no illustrations. It lists all 36,000 topics that are to be covered. Lexicon Istoric Retic is a two volume version with a selection of articles published in Romansh.
It includes articles not available in the other languages. The first volume was published in 2010, the second in 2012. An on-line version is available. Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz, Schwabe AG, Basel, ISBN 3-7965-1900-8 Dictionnaire historique de la Suisse, Editions Gilles Attinger, Hauterive, ISBN 2-88256-133-4 Dizionario storico della Svizzera, Armando Dadò editore, Locarno, ISBN 88-8281-100-X Lexicon Istoric Retic, Kommissionsverlag Desertina, Chur, ISBN 978-3-85637-390-0, ISBN 978-3-85637-391-7 Media related to Historical Dictionary of Switzerland at Wikimedia Commons DHS/HLS/DSS online edition in German and Italian Lexicon Istoric Retic online edition in Romansh
World Monuments Fund
World Monuments Fund is a private, non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation of historic architecture and cultural heritage sites around the world through fieldwork, grantmaking and training. Founded in 1965, WMF is headquartered in New York, has offices and affiliates around the world, including Cambodia, Peru, Portugal and the United Kingdom. In addition to hands-on management, the affiliates identify and manage projects, negotiate local partnerships, attract local support to complement funds provided by donors; the International Fund for Monuments was an organization created by Colonel James A. Gray after his retirement from the U. S. Army in 1960. Gray had conceived of a visionary project to arrest the settlement of the Leaning Tower of Pisa by freezing the soil underneath, formed the organization in 1965 as a vehicle for the implementation of this idea. Though this project did not materialize, an opportunity arose for the young organization to participate in the conservation of the rock-hewn churches of Lalibela in Ethiopia.
In 1966 Gray secured the support of philanthropist Lila Acheson Wallace, who offered $150,000 to the International Fund for Monuments and UNESCO for this project. The project continued until the Communist overthrow of Haile Selassie I and the subsequent expulsion of foreigners from Ethiopia. After Ethiopia, Gray's interests shifted to Easter Island in Chile. Gray formed the Easter Island Committee, with Norwegian ethnographer and adventurer Thor Heyerdahl as its honorary chairman. Gray arranged to have one of the monolithic human figures known as moai exhibited in the United States. With the help of anthropologist William Mulloy, Gray selected an 8-foot-tall, five-ton head, exhibited in front of the Seagram Building in New York and in the Pan American Union building in Washington, D. C. An important chapter for the organization started with its involvement in the broad international effort led by UNESCO for the protection of the city of Venice, Italy from catastrophic flooding. After the high tide of 4 November 1966, the city, including the historic Piazza San Marco, was inundated for more than twenty-four hours.
The International Fund for Monuments set up a Venice Committee, with Professor John McAndrew of Wellesley College as chairman and Gray as executive secretary. On the part of the Committee, appeals were made to the American public, local chapters set up in American cities; this early initiative led to the formation of the independent organization Save Venice in 1971. These efforts helped establish a reputation for IFM. In Spain, the organization formed a Committee for Spain under the leadership of American diplomat and U. S. Ambassador to Spain in 1965–67 Angier Biddle Duke. At the invitation of UNESCO in the 1970s IFM became involved in architectural conservation in Nepal, where the organization adopted the Mahadev temple complex in Gokarna, in Nepal's Kathmandu Valley; the 14th-century temple building was surveyed, rotten timbers were replaced, the foundations were strengthened. Sculpted wooden architectural elements were painstakingly cleaned of layers of a motor oil coating, applied annually for protection.
At the request of UNESCO, IFM launched a project for the preservation of the Citadelle Laferrière, a large mountaintop fortress near Milot, Haiti. The site was the keystone of a defensive system constructed in the early period of Haitian independence to protect the young state from French attempts to reclaim it as a colony. Local artisans reconstructed wooden and tile roofs over the grand gallery and batteries using traditional carpentry methods, consolidated the stone galleries of the fortress. IFM sponsored a traveling exhibition and a film about the history of the Citadelle, used for educational purposes in the United States. Through donations and matching funds, WMF has worked with local community and government partners worldwide to safeguard and conserve places of historic value for future generations. To date, WMF has worked at more than 500 sites in 91 countries, including many UNESCO World Heritage Sites. WMF has worked at internationally famous tourist attractions as well as lesser-known sites.
Prominent projects are many temples at Angkor, starting in 1990, including Preah Khan and Phnom Bakheng. WMF has participated in projects in the United States, including Ellis Island, Taos Pueblo, Mesa Verde National Park, the Mount Lebanon Shaker Society, many sites in New Orleans and the Gulf Coast; every two years WMF publishes the World Monuments Watch. Since the first list was compiled in 1996, this program has drawn international attention to cultural heritage sites around the world threatened by neglect, armed conflict, commercial development, natural disasters, climate change. Through the World Monuments Watch, WMF fosters community support for the protection of endangered sites, attracts technical and financial support for the sites; the sites are nominated by international and local preservation groups and professionals, including local authorities. Sites of all types, including secular and religious architecture, archaeologic
Bernau bei Berlin
Bernau bei Berlin is a German town in the Barnim district. The town is located about 10 km northeast of Berlin. Archaeological excavations of Mesolithic prove the fact that this area has been inhabited since about 8800 BC; the city was first mentioned in 1232. The true reasons of its founding are not known. According to a legend Albert I of Brandenburg permitted the founding of the city in 1140 because of the good beer, offered to him, it is true. Therefore, it was forbidden by law to pollute this river with waste and excrement before the days the brewing took place. Bernau had its boom years before the Thirty Years' War. Large parts of the defensive wall with town gate and wet moats are relics of that time; these helped Bernau defend itself against attackers, e.g. the Hussites in 1432. Following the plague and war Bernau was bleak. Frederick I of Prussia settled 25 Huguenotic families in 1699. In 1842 a railway line was opened. One of the first electrical suburban railway lines in the world began operation in 1924.
This line of the Berlin S-Bahn connected Bernau with the Stettiner Bahnhof in Berlin. The ADGB Trade Union School, designed by Bauhaus director Hannes Meyer, opened in 1930, it was inscribed as part of the World Heritage Site the Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar and Bernau in July 2017. The Waldsiedlung is a district of the city where the political leaders of the GDR lived isolated from the people; the museum of local history has two locations. One is the town gate with the former prison Hungerturm, it is one of three town gates, that were part of the defensive wall. Today armours and instruments of torture of the Middle Ages are shown there. Common furniture of several epochs and utensils of the executioner are exhibited in the Henkerhaus to demonstrate the life in the small town. In 2005 the Wolf Kahlen Museum opened. Media art from 40 years is shown. In 2005 Annelie Grund created the monument for the victims of witch-hunt; the church St. Marien dominates the skyline of the town; the nave was built in the 15th century.
Large parts of the defensive walls and wet moats of the Middle Ages are preserved. The defensive wall is supplemented by the Pulverturm and a town gate; until the 1960s the city centre, enclosed by the defensive wall, consisted of small old buildings with timber framed construction. Most of them were in a bad state because no funds were available in the GDR to renovate these buildings, it was decided to change Bernau into an exemplary city of socialist architecture. Nearly all the old houses were torn down in the 1960s and 1970s and new so-called Plattenbauten were built; the new houses had a maximum of four storeys to fit in with the architecture to the historic structure of the city. The former ADGB school is located in the northeast of the town, it is the largest building in the Bauhaus style besides the Bauhaus itself. Breitscheidstraße The line S2 of the Berlin S-Bahn connects Bernau with Berlin Friedrichstraße's station, in the center of that city Regional rail services connect Bernau with Eberswalde, Stralsund, Frankfurt in northbound direction and with Berlin Hauptbahnhof, Berlin Lichtenberg and Elsterwerda in southbound direction.
Long-distance trains go to Stralsund, Dortmund, Düsseldorf and Amsterdam. The Bundesautobahn A11 from Berlin to Prenzlau and Szczecin has the two exits Bernau Nord and Bernau Süd. Bernau bei Berlin is twinned with: Champigny-sur-Marne, France Meckhenheim, Germany Skwierzyna, Poland Konrad Wolf, film director, President of the Academy of Arts, was the first city commander of Bernau after the Second World War at the age of 19, honorary citizen since 1975 Charlotte Mäder, athlete Hans-Jürgen Buchner and composer Jeanette Biedermann, entertainer Marianne Buggenhagen, several times Paralympics winner, lives in Bernau Wolf Kahlen, performance and media artist, opened his museum in Bernau in 2005 Günther Maleuda, President of the GDR in the turn-time of the GDR Hannes Meyer, built the Bundesschule des Allgemeine Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbundes in Bernau from 1928 to 1930 Andreas Müller, youth judge in Bernau Johanna Olbrich, lived out her final years in Bernau Liepnitzsee Media related to Bernau bei Berlin at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Basel is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine. Basel is Switzerland's third-most-populous city with about 180,000 inhabitants. Located where the Swiss and German borders meet, Basel has suburbs in France and Germany; as of 2016, the Swiss Basel agglomeration was the third-largest in Switzerland, with a population of 541,000 in 74 municipalities in Switzerland. The initiative Trinational Eurodistrict Basel of 62 suburban communes including municipalities in neighboring countries, counted 829,000 inhabitants in 2007; the official language of Basel is German, but the main spoken language is the local Basel German dialect. The city is known for its many internationally renowned museums, ranging from the Kunstmuseum, the first collection of art accessible to the public in Europe and the largest museum of art in the whole of Switzerland, to the Fondation Beyeler; the University of Basel, Switzerland's oldest university, the city's centuries-long commitment to humanism, have made Basel a safe haven at times of political unrest in other parts of Europe for such notable people as Erasmus of Rotterdam, the Holbein family, Friedrich Nietzsche and in the 20th century Hermann Hesse and Karl Jaspers.
The city of Basel is Switzerland's second-largest economic centre after the city of Zürich and has the highest GDP per capita in the country, ahead of the cantons of Zug and Geneva. In terms of value, over 94% of Basel City's goods exports are in the chemical and pharmaceutical sectors. With production facilities located in the neighboring Schweizerhalle, Basel accounts for 20% of Swiss exports and generates one third of the national product. Basel has been the seat of a Prince-Bishopric since the 11th century, joined the Swiss Confederacy in 1501; the city has been a commercial hub and an important cultural centre since the Renaissance, has emerged as a centre for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries in the 20th century. In 1897, Basel was chosen by Theodor Herzl as the location for the first World Zionist Congress, altogether the congress has been held there ten times over a time span of 50 years, more than in any other location; the city is home to the world headquarters of the Bank for International Settlements.
In 2019 Basel, was ranked among the ten most liveable cities in the world by Mercer together with Zürich and Geneva. There are traces of a settlement at the Rhine knee from the early La Tène period. In the 2nd century BC, there was a village of the Raurici at the site of Basel-Gasfabrik, to the northwest of the Old City identical with the town of Arialbinnum mentioned on the Tabula Peutingeriana; the unfortified settlement was abandoned in the 1st century BC in favour of an oppidum on the site of Basel Minster in reaction to the Roman invasion of Gaul. In Roman Gaul, Augusta Raurica was established some 20 km from Basel as the regional administrative centre, while a castra was built on the site of the Celtic oppidum; the city of Basel grew around the castra. In AD 83, Basel was incorporated into the Roman province of Germania Superior. Roman control over the area deteriorated in the 3rd century, Basel became an outpost of the Provincia Maxima Sequanorum formed by Diocletian; the Germanic confederation of the Alemanni attempted to cross the Rhine several times in the 4th century, but were repelled.
However, in the great invasion of AD 406, the Alemanni appear to have crossed the Rhine river a final time and settling what is today Alsace and a large part of the Swiss Plateau. From that time, Basel has been an Alemannic settlement; the Duchy of Alemannia fell under Frankish rule in the 6th century, by the 7th century, the former bishopric of Augusta Raurica was re-established as the Bishopric of Basel. Based on the evidence of a third solidus with the inscription Basilia fit, Basel seems to have minted its own coins in the 7th century. Under bishop Haito, the first cathedral was built on the site of the Roman castle replaced by a Romanesque structure consecrated in 1019. At the partition of the Carolingian Empire, Basel was first given to West Francia, but it passed to East Francia with the treaty of Meerssen of 870; the city was plundered and destroyed by a Magyar invasion in 917. The rebuilt city became part of Upper Burgundy, as such was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire in 1032.
From the donation by Rudolph III of Burgundy of the Moutier-Grandval Abbey and all its possessions to Bishop Adalbero II of Metz in 999 until the Reformation, Basel was ruled by prince-bishops. In 1019, the construction of the cathedral of Basel began under Holy Roman Emperor. In 1225–1226, a bridge, now known as the Middle Bridge, was constructed by Bishop Heinrich von Thun and Lesser Basel founded as a bridgehead to protect the bridge; the bridge was funded by Basel's Jewish community who had settled there a century earlier. For many centuries to come Basel possessed the only permanent bridge over the river "between Lake Constance and the sea"; the Bishop allowed the furriers to establish a guild in 1226. About 15 guilds were established in the 13th century, they increased the town's, hence the bishop's, reputation and income from the taxes and duties on goods in Basel's expanding market. The plague came to Europe in 1347, but did not reach Basel until June 1349. The
The Weimar Republic is an unofficial historical designation for the German state from 1918 to 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar; the official name of the republic remained Deutsches Reich unchanged from 1871, because of the German tradition of substates. Although translated as "German Empire", the word Reich here better translates as "realm", in that the term does not have monarchical connotations in itself; the Reich was changed from a constitutional monarchy into a republic. In English, the country was known as Germany. Germany became a de facto republic on 9 November 1918 when Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated the German and Prussian thrones with no agreement made on a succession by his son Crown Prince Wilhelm, became a de jure republic in February 1919 when the position of President of Germany was created. A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for Germany was written and adopted on 11 August 1919. In its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism as well as contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War.
Resentment in Germany towards the Treaty of Versailles was strong on the political right where there was great anger towards those who had signed the Treaty and submitted to fulfill the terms of it. The Weimar Republic fulfilled most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles although it never met its disarmament requirements and paid only a small portion of the war reparations. Under the Locarno Treaties, Germany accepted the western borders of the country by abandoning irredentist claims on France and Belgium, but continued to dispute the eastern borders and sought to persuade German-speaking Austria to join Germany as one of Germany's states. From 1930 onwards President Hindenburg used emergency powers to back Chancellors Heinrich Brüning, Franz von Papen and General Kurt von Schleicher; the Great Depression, exacerbated by Brüning's policy of deflation, led to a surge in unemployment. In 1933, Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler as Chancellor with the Nazi Party being part of a coalition government.
The Nazis held two out of the remaining ten cabinet seats. Von Papen as Vice Chancellor was intended to be the "éminence grise" who would keep Hitler under control, using his close personal connection to Hindenburg. Within months, the Reichstag Fire Decree and the Enabling Act of 1933 had brought about a state of emergency: it wiped out constitutional governance and civil liberties. Hitler's seizure of power was permissive of government by decree without legislative participation; these events brought the republic to an end – as democracy collapsed, the founding of a single-party state began the dictatorship of the Nazi era. The Weimar Republic is so called because the assembly that adopted its constitution met at Weimar, from 6 February 1919 to 11 August 1919, but this name only became mainstream after 1933. Between 1919 and 1933 there was no single name for the new state that gained widespread acceptance, why the old name Deutsches Reich remained though hardly anyone used it during the Weimar period.
To the right of the spectrum the politically engaged rejected the new democratic model and cringed to see the honour of the traditional word Reich associated with it. The Catholic Centre party, Zentrum favoured the term Deutscher Volksstaat while on the moderate left the Chancellor's SPD preferred Deutsche Republik. By 1925, Deutsche Republik was used by most Germans, but for the anti-democratic right the word Republik was, along with the relocation of the seat of power to Weimar, a painful reminder of a government structure, imposed by foreign statesmen, along with the expulsion of Kaiser Wilhelm in the wake of massive national humiliation; the first recorded mention of the term Republik von Weimar came during a speech delivered by Adolf Hitler at a National Socialist German Worker's Party rally in Munich on 24 February 1929—it was a few weeks that the term Weimarer Republik was first used in a newspaper article. Only during the 1930s did the term become mainstream, both within and outside Germany.
According to historian Richard J. Evans: The continued use of the term'German Empire', Deutsches Reich, by the Weimar Republic....conjured up an image among educated Germans that resonated far beyond the institutional structures Bismarck created: the successor to the Roman Empire. After the introduction of the republic, the flag and coat of arms of Germany were altered to reflect the political changes; the Weimar Republic without the symbols of the former Monarchy. This left the black eagle with one head, facing to the right, with open wings but closed feathers, with a red beak and claws and white highlighting. By reason of a decision of the Reich's Government I hereby announce, that the Imperial coat of arms on a gold-yellow shield shows the one headed black eagle, the head turned to the right, the wings open but with closed feathering, beak and claws in red color. If the Reich's Eagle is shown without a frame, the same charg