Bavaria the Free State of Bavaria, is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner. With an area of 70,550.19 square kilometres, Bavaria is the largest German state by land area comprising a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With 13 million inhabitants, it is Germany's second-most-populous state after North Rhine-Westphalia. Bavaria's main cities are Nuremberg; the history of Bavaria includes its earliest settlement by Iron Age Celtic tribes, followed by the conquests of the Roman Empire in the 1st century BC, when the territory was incorporated into the provinces of Raetia and Noricum. It became a stem duchy in the 6th century AD following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, it was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire, became an independent kingdom, joined the Prussian-led German Empire while retaining its title of kingdom, became a state of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year 555. In the 17th century AD, the Duke of Bavaria became a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1806 to 1918. In 1946, the Free State of Bavaria re-organised itself on democratic lines after the Second World War. Bavaria has a unique culture because of the state's Catholic majority and conservative traditions. Bavarians have traditionally been proud of their culture, which includes a language, architecture, festivals such as Oktoberfest and elements of Alpine symbolism; the state has the second largest economy among the German states by GDP figures, giving it a status as a rather wealthy German region. Modern Bavaria includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia and Swabia; the Bavarians emerged in a region north of the Alps inhabited by Celts, part of the Roman provinces of Raetia and Noricum. The Bavarians spoke Old High German, unlike other Germanic groups, they did not migrate from elsewhere. Rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by the Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century; these peoples may have included the Celtic Boii, some remaining Romans, Allemanni, Thuringians, Scirians, Heruli.
The name "Bavarian" means "Men of Baia" which may indicate Bohemia, the homeland of the Celtic Boii and of the Marcomanni. They first appear in written sources circa 520. A 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the diocese was named after an ancient Bohemian king, Boiia, in the 14th century BC. From about 554 to 788, the house of Agilolfing ruled the Duchy of Bavaria, ending with Tassilo III, deposed by Charlemagne. Three early dukes are named in Frankish sources: Garibald I may have been appointed to the office by the Merovingian kings and married the Lombard princess Walderada when the church forbade her to King Chlothar I in 555, their daughter, became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords. Garibald's successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the eastern frontier against the expansion of Slavs and Avars around 600. Tassilo's son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between 610 and 616.
After Garibald II little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as 680. From 696 onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and strengthen Christianity in his duchy, his son, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in 714, married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand. At Theodo's death the duchy was reunited under his grandson Hugbert. At Hugbert's death the duchy passed from neighboring Alemannia. Odilo issued a law code for Bavaria, completed the process of church organization in partnership with St. Boniface, tried to intervene in Frankish succession disputes by fighting for the claims of the Carolingian Grifo, he was defeated near Augsburg in 743 but continued to rule until his death in 748. Saint Boniface completed the people's conversion to Christianity in the early 8th century. Tassilo III succeeded his father at the age of eight after an unsuccessful attempt by Grifo to rule Bavaria.
He ruled under Frankish oversight but began to function independently from 763 onwards. He was noted for founding new monasteries and for expanding eastwards, fighting Slavs in the eastern Alps and along the River Danube and colonising these lands. After 781, his cousin Charlemagne began to pressure Tassilo to submit and deposed him in 788; the deposition was not legitimate. Dissenters attempted a coup against Charlemagne at Tassilo's old capital of Regensburg in 792, led by his own son Pépin the Hunchback; the king had to drag Tassilo out of imprisonment to formally renounce his rights and titles at the Assembly of Frankfurt in 794. This is the last appearance of Tassilo in the sources, he died a monk; as all of his family were forced into monasteries, this was the end of the Agilolfing dynasty. For the next 400 years numerous families held the duchy for more than three generations. With the revolt of duke Henry the Quarrelsome in 976, Bavaria lost large territories in the south and
Whiteface Mountain is the fifth-highest mountain in the U. S. state of New York, one of the High Peaks of the Adirondack Mountains. Set apart from most of the other High Peaks, the summit offers a 360-degree view of the Adirondacks and clear-day glimpses of Vermont and Canada, where the skyscrapers of Montreal, 80 miles away, can be seen on a clear day. Located in the town of Wilmington, about 13 miles from Lake Placid, the mountain's east slope is home to a major ski area which hosted the alpine skiing competitions of the 1980 Winter Olympics. Unique among the High Peaks, Whiteface features a developed summit and seasonal accessibility by motor vehicle. Whiteface Memorial Highway reaches a parking area at an elevation of 4,600 feet, with the remaining 267 feet being obtained by tunnel and elevator. Conceived and initiated prior to the Great Depression, Whiteface Castle and the Whiteface Mountain Veterans Memorial Highway were funded by the state of New York, though the timing of the project led to a widespread belief that they were Depression-era public works projects arising from the New Deal.
Construction on the toll road began in 1929, after passage of a necessary amendment to the state constitution, with a groundbreaking ceremony featuring then-New York State Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt. Costing 1.2 million dollars and ending vertically within 300 feet of the summit the roadway is 5 miles long and features an impressively steep 8% average grade. Opened July 20, 1935, in a ceremony featuring Roosevelt, by President, the highway was dedicated to veterans of the Great War; the Highway is open to vehicles from May to October. Whiteface Castle, built with granite excavated during the road construction, dominates the summit area. From the adjacent parking lot there are two routes to the summit proper; the first route is the Stairway Ridge Trail, a footpath with handrails and intermittent cement and stone steps 0.2 miles long. The second is a 424-foot long tunnel into the core of the mountain. At the end of the tunnel is an elevator, which rises 276 feet 27 stories, to the summit. Whiteface was part of the post-World War II growth in recreational skiing attributed to the efforts of returning veterans of the U.
S. Army's 10th Mountain Division, it is a major ski area, run by the Olympic Regional Development Authority. Known for its big-mountain skiing, Whiteface is ranked as one of the top ski resorts in the Northeast, it was a prime venue of the 1980 Winter Olympics, hosting all six of the alpine ski events. Whiteface hosts major alpine ski events, such as the US Alpine Skiing Championships, most in 2010, is a U. S. Olympic Training Site. Whiteface's highest lift unloads at 4,386 feet, a vertical drop of 3,166 ft to the base area at 1,220 ft, its hike-to terrain, The Slides, is 264 ft higher at 4,650 ft, providing Whiteface with the greatest continuous vertical drop in eastern North America at 3,430 feet. This is more vertical than Aspen in Colorado, its neighbor, Little Whiteface, tops in elevation at 3,676 ft. Whiteface has a total of 22 miles of ski terrain, spread out over 88 trails. 314 acres of skiing area includes 35 in-bounds, off-piste double-black diamond wilderness terrain skiing on "The Slides", 85.5 acres of tree skiing, 35 acres of expert extreme adventure terrain.
The Slides is an unmaintained wilderness area, open due to safety hazards. They can only be accessed by hiking from the top of the Summit Quad. Whiteface has a separate area for beginners known as Bear Den Mountain. In recent years there have been major improvements in grooming. Whiteface contains 88 trails accessible by one gondola, nine chairlifts, one conveyor lift; some 98 % of the trails are covered excluding the glades and the Slides. The Slides are double-black diamond runs that are only open at the end of the skiing season due to avalanche danger, they are between 40 degrees with high natural hazards vertically for over 1,250 feet. The Slides are considered to be one of the most challenging ski slopes that are marked on a trail map in the Northeast. In summer, Whiteface Mountain offers mountain biking. Whiteface Mountain website Wilmington Historical Society Photos U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Whiteface Mountain Peakbagger.com: Whiteface Mountain Summitpost.org: Whiteface Mountain The History of Whiteface Mountain Ski Center
Lake Placid, New York
Lake Placid is a village in the Adirondack Mountains in Essex County, New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,521; the village of Lake Placid is near the center of the town of North Elba, 50 miles southwest of Plattsburgh. Lake Placid, along with nearby Saranac Lake and Tupper Lake, comprise what is known as the Tri-Lakes region. Lake Placid hosted the 1980 Winter Olympics. Lake Placid hosted the 2000 Goodwill Games, the 1972 Winter Universiade and will host the 2023 Winter Universiade. Lake Placid was founded in the early 19th century to develop an iron ore mining operation. By 1840, the population of "North Elba" was six families. In 1845, Gerrit Smith arrived in North Elba and not only bought a great deal of land around the village but granted large tracts to former slaves, he demonstrated his support of Abolitionism. The abolitionist John Brown heard about Smith's reforms, left his anti-slavery activities in Kansas to buy 244 acres of land in North Elba; this parcel became known as the "Freed Slave Utopian Experiment," Timbucto.
Shortly before his execution in 1859, John Brown asked to be buried on his farm, preserved as the John Brown Farm State Historic Site. As leisure time increased in the late 19th century, Lake Placid was discovered as a resort by the wealthy, who were drawn to the fashionable Lake Placid Club. Melvil Dewey, who invented the Dewey Decimal System, designed what was called "Placid Park Club" in 1895; this inspired the village to change its name to Lake Placid, which became an incorporated village in 1900. Dewey kept the club open through the winter in 1905, which aided the development of winter sports in the area. Nearby Saranac Lake had hosted an international winter sporting event as early as 1889, was used year-round by patients seeking treatment for tuberculosis at sanatoria; the fresh, clean mountain air was considered good for them and was a common treatment for tuberculosis at the time. By 1921, the Lake Placid area could boast a ski jump, speed skating venue, ski association. In 1929, Dr. Godfrey Dewey, Melvil's son, convinced the International Olympic Committee Lake Placid had the best winter sports facilities in the United States.
The Lake Placid Club was the headquarters for the IOC for the 1932 and the 1980 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid. In addition to the John Brown Farm and Gravesite, the Mount Van Hoevenberg Olympic Bobsled Run, New York Central Railroad Adirondack Division Historic District, United States Post Office are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Lake Placid hosted the Winter Olympics in 1932 and 1980. During the 1932 games, the trails outside of the village served for the cross-country skiing events and the cross-country skiing part of the Nordic combined event. Lake Placid, St Moritz, Innsbruck are the only sites to have twice hosted the Winter Olympic Games. Jack Shea, a resident of the village, became the first person to win two gold medals when he doubled in speed skating at the 1932 Winter Olympics, he carried the Olympic torch through Lake Placid in 2002 shortly before his death. His grandson, Jimmy Shea, competed in the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah, in his honor, winning gold in the Skeleton.
In the U. S. the village is remembered as the site of the 1980 USA–USSR hockey game. Dubbed the "Miracle on Ice", a group of American college students and amateurs upset the favored Soviet national ice hockey team, 4–3, two days won the gold medal. Another highpoint during the Games was the performance of American speed-skater Eric Heiden, who won five gold medals. Lake Placid decided against it. Lake Placid shifted its interest toward bidding for the 2020 Winter Youth Olympics, but it again did not submit a bid. Lake Placid is well known among winter-sports enthusiasts for both Alpine and Nordic. Whiteface Mountain, in nearby Wilmington about 13 miles from Lake Placid, offers skiing, gondola rides, mountain biking, is the only one of the High Peaks that can be reached by an auto road. Whiteface Mountain has a vertical elevation of 3,430 feet, the highest vertical elevation of mountains in Eastern North America; the area has one of only 16 bobsled runs in the Western Hemisphere. In 2010, U. S. News & World Report highlighted Lake Placid as one of the "6 Forgotten Vacation Spots" in North America.
Many people use Lake Placid as a base from which to climb the 46 High Peaks in the Adirondack Mountains. Those who complete these climbs may join the Adirondack 46ers. Lake Placid built its first golf course in 1898, one of the first in the U. S. and has more courses than any other venue in the Adirondacks. Many of its courses were designed by well-known golf course architects, such as John Van Kleek, Seymour Dunn, Alexander H. Findlay, Alister MacKenzie; the geographic features of the Adirondacks were considered reminiscent of the Scottish landscape, where the game started, thus a fitting canvas for original play, or "mountain golf." Lake Placid is near the West Branch of the Ausable River, a well-known stretch of water for fly fishing. More than 6 miles of the West Branch are designated as year-round catch-and-release, artificial-lures-only water. Since 1999 it has been a site for the annual Ironman Lake Placid Triathlon, the second oldest Ironman in North America and one of only ten official Ironman Triathlons to be held in the continental U.
S. ESPN's Great Outdoor Games were inaugurated here in July 2000.
FIS Alpine World Ski Championships
The FIS Alpine World Ski Championships are an alpine skiing competition organized by the International Ski Federation. The first world championships in alpine skiing were held in 1931. During the 1930s, the event was held annually in Europe, until interrupted by the outbreak of World War II, preventing a 1940 event. An event was held in 1941, but included competitors only from nations from the Axis powers or nations not at war with them; the results were cancelled by the FIS in 1946 because of the limited number of participants, so they are not considered official. Following the war, the championships were connected with the Olympics for several decades. From 1948 through 1982, the competition was held in even-numbered years, with the Winter Olympics acting as the World Championships through 1980, a separate competition held in even-numbered non-Olympic years; the 1950 championships in the United States at Aspen were the first held outside of Europe and the first official championships separate of the Olympics since 1939.
The combined event was dropped after 1948 with the addition of the giant slalom in 1950, but returned in 1954 as a "paper" race which used the results of the three events: downhill, giant slalom, slalom. During Olympic years from 1956 through 1980, FIS World Championship medals were awarded in the combined, but not Olympic medals; the combined returned as a separately run event in 1982 with its own downhill and two-run slalom, the Super-G was added to the program in 1987. There were no World Championships in 1983 or 1984 and since 1985, they have been scheduled in odd-numbered years, independent of the Winter Olympics. A lack of snow in southern Spain in 1995 caused a postponement to the following year. A total of 12 countries have hosted the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships, including those which were shared with the Winter Olympics. All of the top-7 on the list of nations which have won FIS World Cup races have been selected as host at least twice; the World Championships have been held only once in the Southern Hemisphere, in 1966 in Portillo, Chile in August.
The list does not include the unofficial 1941 event. Note: The men's Super G in 1993 and the team event in 2009 were cancelled due to adverse weather conditions, no medals were awarded. Participants with five or more medals in the individual disciplines at the Alpine Skiing World Championships are: 1 Note: Medals earned in the 1930s, when it was an annual event. 1 Note: Medals earned in the 1930s. 2 Note: Medals from the non-recognized 1941 championship not included Top 10 skiers who won more gold medals at the Alpine Skiing World Championships are listed below. Boldface denotes highest medal count among all skiers per type. * including one medal in the Mixed team event ** including two medals in the Mixed team event The tables for both genders include medals won at the nine Winter Olympics from 1948 through 1980, though these were World Championships. The mixed team events is not included for both genders, therefore there is special table for these team competitions. There are two cumulative medal tables – the first one includes medals won at the nine Winter Olympics from 1948 through 1980, the second one don't includes these medals.
All tables are current through 2019. Alpine skiing at the Winter Olympics Alpine skiing World Cup FIS-ski.com – official results for the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships Ski-DB.com – Men's World Champions Ski-DB.com – Women's World Champions Neveclub.it – FIS World Champions News
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating; the Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896; the IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for snow and ice sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a disability, the Youth Olympic Games for athletes aged 14 to 18, the five Continental games, the World Games for sports that are not contested in the Olympic Games.
The Deaflympics and Special Olympics are endorsed by the IOC. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic and technological advancements; the abuse of amateur rules by the Eastern Bloc nations prompted the IOC to shift away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercialisation of the Games. World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, 1944 Games. Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games; the Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees, organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, organises and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter; the IOC determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies.
Over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold and bronze, respectively; the Games have grown so much. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, bribery, a terrorist attack in 1972; every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame. The Games constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world; the Ancient Olympic Games were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, Greece. Competition was among representatives of several kingdoms of Ancient Greece; these Games featured athletic but combat sports such as wrestling and the pankration and chariot racing events. It has been written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished.
This cessation of hostilities was known as truce. This idea is a modern myth; the truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were travelling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by Zeus. The origin of the Olympics is shrouded in legend. According to legend, it was Heracles who first called the Games "Olympic" and established the custom of holding them every four years; the myth continues that after Heracles completed his twelve labours, he built the Olympic Stadium as an honour to Zeus. Following its completion, he walked in a straight line for 200 steps and called this distance a "stadion", which became a unit of distance; the most accepted inception date for the Ancient Olympics is 776 BC. The Ancient Games featured running events, a pentathlon, wrestling and equestrian events. Tradition has it that a cook from the city of Elis, was the first Olympic champion; the Olympics were of fundamental religious importance, featuring sporting events alongside ritual sacrifices honouring both Zeus and Pelops, divine hero and mythical king of Olympia.
Pelops was famous for his chariot race with King Oenomaus of Pisatis. The winners of the events were immortalised in poems and statues; the Games were held every four years, this period, known as an Olympiad, was used by Greeks as one of their units of time measurement. The Games were part of a cycle known as the Panhellenic Games, which included the Pythian Games, the Nemean Games, the Isthmian Games; the Olympic Games reached their zenith in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, but gradually declined in importance as the Romans gained power and influence in Gr
Axamer Lizum is a village in Austria, located southwest of Innsbruck in Tirol. At the 1964 Winter Olympics, it hosted all of the alpine skiing events, except for the men's downhill, at Patscherkofel, southeast of Innsbruck. Twelve years in 1976, it hosted the same alpine skiing events. 1964 Winter Olympics official report. Pp. 78, 82-85. 1976 Winter Olympics official report. Pp. 198–201. & Official website Official website - Winter. Ski and snowboard in Axamer Lizum. & Alpine Ski Maps - Innsbruck - winter
Alpine skiing at the 1984 Winter Olympics
Alpine Skiing at the 1984 Winter Olympics consisted of six alpine skiing events, held 13–19 February in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia. The men's races were at Bjelašnica and the women's at Jahorina. Due to weather delays, both downhill races were postponed several days and run after the giant slalom races; this was the first Winter Olympics since 1936 which did not serve as the world championships for alpine skiing. It was the last Olympic program with just six events for alpine skiing, they had accepted promotional payments directly, rather than through their national ski federations. Absent was Marc Girardelli, who had not yet gained his citizenship from Luxembourg and was not allowed to compete for his native Austria. Eight nations won medals in alpine skiing, the United States led the medal table with three gold and two silver. Perrine Pelen was the only racer to win multiple medals, taking a bronze. Host nation Yugoslavia won its first alpine medal in the Winter Olympics with Jure Franko's silver in the men's giant slalom.
Czechoslovakia's medal, won by Olga Charvátová in the women's downhill, was its only Olympic medal won in alpine skiing. Source: Source: Source: Source: Forty-two nations sent alpine skiers to compete in the events in Sarajevo. Egypt, Mexico and Senegal made their Olympic alpine skiing debuts. Below is a list of the competing nations. Alpine skiing at the 1984 Winter Paralympics FIS-Ski.com – 1984 Winter Olympics – Alpine skiing