Dido was, according to ancient Greek and Roman sources, the founder and first queen of Carthage. She is known from the account given by the Roman poet Virgil in his epic, Aeneid. In some sources she is known as Elissa. Many names in the legend of Dido are of Punic origin, which suggests that the first Greek authors who mention this story have taken up Phoenician accounts. One suggestion is that Dido is an epithet from the same Semitic root as David, which means "Beloved". Others state Didô means "the wanderer". According to Marie-Pierre Noël, "Elishat/Elisha" is a name attested on Punic votives, it is composed of the Punic reflex of *ʾil- "god", the remote Phoenician creator god El a name for God in Judaism, "‐issa", which could be either "ʾiš" means "fire", or another word for "woman". Other works state. In Greek it appears as Theiossô; this understanding of the chronology related to Dido and her company resulted in the following dates for Dido and her immediate relations, as derived from F. M. Cross and Wm. H. Barnes: Baal-Eser II 846–841 BC Mattan I 840–832 BC 839 BC: Dido was born in Tyre 831 BC: Pygmalion begins to reign 825 BC: Dido flees Tyre in 7th year of Pygmalion, after the death of Acerbas 825 BC and some time thereafter: Dido and companions on Cyprus Between 825 BC and 814 BC: Tyrians build settlement on island of Cothon 814 BC: Dido founds Carthage on mainland 785 BC: Death of Pygmalion 759 BC: Dido died in Carthage The person of Dido can be traced to references by Roman historians to lost writings of Timaeus of Tauromenium in Sicily.
Historians gave both for the foundation of Carthage and the foundation of Rome. Appian in the beginning of his Punic Wars claims that Carthage was founded by a certain Zorus and Carchedon, but Zorus looks like an alternative transliteration of the city name Tyre and Carchedon is just the Greek form of Carthage. Timaeus made Carchedon's wife Elissa the sister of King Pygmalion of Tyre. Archaeological evidence of settlement on the site of Carthage before the last quarter of the 8th century BC has yet to be found. Paucity of material for this period may be explained by rejection of the Greek Dark Age theory; that the city is named at least indicates it was a colony. The only surviving full account before Virgil's treatment is that of Virgil's contemporary Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus in his Philippic histories as rendered in a digest or epitome made by Junianus Justinus in the 3rd century AD. Justin quoting or paraphrasing Trogus states, a king of Tyre whom Justin does not name, made his beautiful daughter Dido and son Pygmalion his joint heirs.
But on his death the people took Pygmalion alone as their ruler though Pygmalion was yet still a boy. Dido married Acerbas her uncle who as priest of Heracles—that is, Melqart—was second in power to King Pygmalion. Acerbas can be equated with the Zikarbaal king of Byblos mentioned in the Egyptian Tale of Wenamon. Rumor told that Acerbas had much wealth secretly buried and King Pygmalion had Acerbas murdered in hopes of gaining this wealth. Dido, desiring to escape Tyre, expressed a wish to move into Pygmalion's palace, but ordered the attendants whom Pygmalion sent to aid in the move, to throw all Acerbas' bags of gold into the sea as an offering to his spirit. In fact these bags contained only sand. Dido persuaded the attendants to join her in flight to another land rather than face Pygmalion's anger when he discovered what had become of Acerbas' wealth; some senators joined her in her flight. The party arrived at Cyprus. There the exiles seized about eighty young women who were prostituting themselves on the shore in order to provide wives for the men in the party.
Dido and her followers arrived on the coast of North Africa where Dido asked the Berber king Iarbas for a small bit of land for a temporary refuge until she could continue her journeying, only as much land as could be encompassed by an oxhide. They agreed. Dido cut the oxhide into fine strips so that she had enough to encircle an entire nearby hill, therefore afterwards named Byrsa "hide"; that would become their new home. Many of the local Berbers joined the settlement and both Berbers and envoys from the nearby Phoenician city of Utica urged the building of a city. In digging the foundations an ox's head was found, indicating a city that would be wealthy but subject to others. Accordingly, another area of the hill was dug instead where a horse's head was found, indicating that the city would be powerful in war, but when the new city of Carthage had been established and become prosperous, Iarbas, a native king of the Maxitani or Mauritani, demanded Dido for his wife or he would make war on Carthage.
Dido's envoys, fearing Iarbas, told Dido only that Iarbas' terms for peace were that someone from Carthage must dwell permanently with him to teach Phoenician ways and they added that of course no Carthaginian would agree to dwell with such savages. Dido condemned any who would feel that way when they should indeed give their lives for the city if necessary. Dido's envoys explained that Iarbas had requested Dido as wife. Dido was trapped by her words. Still, she preferred to stay faithful to her first husband and after creating a ceremonial funeral pyre and sacrificing many victi
Hasdrubal the Fair
Hasdrubal the Fair was a Carthaginian military leader and politician, governor in Iberia after Hamilcar Barca's death, founder of Cartagena. Livy's History of Rome records he was the brother-in-law of the Carthaginian leader Hannibal and son-in-law of Hamilcar Barca. Hasdrubal followed Hamilcar in his campaign against the governing aristocracy at Carthage at the close of the First Punic War, in his subsequent career of conquest in Hispania. In 237 BC, they parted towards the Peninsula, but around 231–230 BC Hasdrubal interceded in Hamilcar's name making the Numidian tribes from Northern Africa submit to the Barcid family. After Hamilcar's death in 228 BC while besieging Helike, a Greek town in Hispania, Hasdrubal succeeded him in the command, following Carthage's instructions, Hamilcar's sons being too young – Hannibal, the elder, was nineteen, he preferred diplomacy to war campaigns. According to the diplomatic customs of the time, Hasdrubal demanded the handing over of hostages to make himself sure of the submission of their places of origin.
Thus, he extended the newly acquired empire by skillful diplomacy, consolidating it by founding the important city and naval base of Qart Hadasht, which the Romans called Carthago Nova as the capital of the new province, by establishing a treaty with the Roman Republic which fixed the River Ebro as the boundary between the two powers. This treaty was caused because a Greek colony and Iberian Sagunto, fearful of the continuous growth of Punic power in Iberia, asked Rome for help. Hasdrubal accepted reluctantly, as Punic dominion in Iberia was not yet sufficiently established to jeopardise its future expansion in a premature conflict. Seven years after Hamilcar's death, Hasdrubal the Fair was assassinated in 221 BC by a slave of the Celtic king Tagus, who thus avenged the death of his own master. Hasdrubal's successor was the son of Hamilcar, Hannibal Barca. Other Hasdrubals in Carthaginian history Huss, Geschichte der Karthager, Munich: C. H. Beck. Diodorus of Sicily: History Appian: Roman History.
Biblioteca Clásica Gredos 84. Polybius: Histories. Biblioteca Clásica Gredos 38 y 43. Titus Livius: History of Rome. Libro de Bolsillo Alianza Editorial 1595 1–2. Livius.org: Hasdrubal the Fair
For the Renaissance painter Sofonisba Anguissola, see Sofonisba Anguissola. For the American activist Sophonisba Breckinridge, see Sophonisba Breckinridge. Sophonisba was a Carthaginian noblewoman who lived during the Second Punic War, the daughter of Hasdrubal Gisco Gisgonis. In an act that became legendary, Sophonisba poisoned herself rather than be humiliated in a Roman triumph; the form of the name Sophonisba is not known until the fifteenth century, in a few late manuscripts of Livy, but it is the better known form because of literature. Dio Cassius tells us that Sophoniba was a great beauty, betrothed to King Masinissa until 206. Masinissa was the leader of the Massylii Numidians. However, in 206, Masinissa allied himself to Rome. Dio Cassius suggests that this was because Hasdrubal found a better ally in Syphax, king of the Masaesyli, as was normal in those days, Hasdrubal used his daughter to conclude the diplomatic alliances with Syphax, who had himself been allied to Rome; because Masinissa meets Sophonisba for the first time after the defeat of Syphax, this account is criticized as being "most improbable" by H. E. Butler and H. H. Scullard.
Syphax was defeated and captured in 203 BC by Masinissa and Scipio Africanus in the Battle of the Great Plains on the Bagradas. Masinissa married her. Scipio, refused to agree to this arrangement, insisting on the immediate surrender of the princess so that she could be taken to Rome and appear in the triumphal parade. Masinissa, upbraided by Scipio for his weakness, was urged to leave her. Masinissa feared the Romans more. Thus, he swore his love to her, he told her that he could not free her from captivity or shield her from Roman wrath, so he asked her to die like a true Carthaginian princess. With great composure, she drank a cup of poison, her story much embellished, is told indirectly in Polybius. Polybius, never refers to Sophonisba by name in his allusions to her marriage to Syphax, in his extensive account of Laelius' maneuvers against Syphax; the historian had met Masinissa. It has been proposed that Polybius' account provides the basis for the Sophonisba story; when Polybius does refer to her, he uses the diminutive in a tone.
In one passage, Polybius ridicules Syphax for being less courageous than his own "child bride". Petrarch elaborated her story in his epic poem Africa, published posthumously in 1396; the playwright John Marston wrote The Wonder of Women a Roman tragedy based on the story of Sophonisba, in 1606 for the Children of the Queen's Revels. There are a number of paintings of Sophonisba drinking her poison, but the subject is very similar to that of Artemisia II of Caria drinking her husband's ashes, the Rembrandt in the Prado and a Donato Creti in the National Gallery are examples of works where the intended subject remains uncertain between the two. Sophonisba became the subject of tragedies from the 16th to the 19th centuries, along with the story of Cleopatra, furnished more dramas than any other; the first tragedy is credited to the Italian Galeotto Del Carretto, written in 1502, but issued posthumously in 1546. The first to appear, was Gian Giorgio Trissino's play of 1515 which, "in codifying the forms of Italian classical tragedy, helped consign Del Carretto's Sofonisba to oblivion."
In France, Trissino's version was adapted by Mellin de Saint-Gelais, may have served as the primary model for versions by Antoine de Montchrestien and Nicolas de Montreux. The tragedy by Jean Mairet is one of the first monuments of French "classicism", was followed by a version from Pierre Corneille; the story of Sophonisba served as subject for works by John Marston, David Murray, Nathaniel Lee, Daniel Caspar von Lohenstein, Henry Purcell, Antonio Caldara, Leonardo Leo, Luca Antonio Predieri, James Thomson, Niccolò Jommelli, Baldassare Galuppi, Tommaso Traetta, Antonio Boroni, Christopher Gluck, Maria Teresa Agnesi, Mattia Vento, François Joseph Lagrange-Chancel, revised by Voltaire, Christian Gottlob Neefe, António Leal Moreira, Joseph Joaquín Mazuelo, Vittorio Alfieri, Pietro Alessandro Guglielmi, Marcos Portugal, Ferdinando Paer, Vincenzo Federici, Luigi Petrali, Emanuel Geibel, Jeronim de Rada, Giuseppe Brunati, Dimitrie Cuclin, Vasco Graça Moura, others. Sophonisba appears in film, first in Giovanni Pastrone's 1914 silent film Cabiria and again in Carmine Gallone's 1937 epic movie Scipio Africanus: The Defeat of Hannibal.
Livy, Ab urbe condita libri xxix.23, xxx.8, 12-15.8 Livius.org: Sophoniba
Polybius was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work The Histories, which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail. The work describes the rise of the Roman Republic to the status of dominance in the ancient Mediterranean world and includes his eyewitness account of the Sack of Carthage in 146 BC. Polybius is important for his analysis of the mixed constitution or the separation of powers in government, influential on Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws and the framers of the United States Constitution. Polybius was born around 200 BC in Megalopolis, when it was an active member of the Achaean League, his father, was a prominent, land-owning politician and member of the governing class who became strategos of the Achaean League. Polybius was able to observe first hand the political and military affairs of Megalopolis, he developed an interest in horse riding and hunting, diversions that commended him to his Roman captors. In 182 BC, he was given quite an honor when he was chosen to carry the funeral urn of Philopoemen, one of the most eminent Achaean politicians of his generation.
In either 169 BC or 170 BC, Polybius was elected hipparchus, an event which presaged election to the annual strategia. His early political career was devoted towards maintaining the independence of Megalopolis. Polybius’ father, was a prominent advocate of neutrality during the Roman war against Perseus of Macedon. Lycortas attracted the suspicion of the Romans, Polybius subsequently was one of the 1,000 Achaean nobles who were transported to Rome as hostages in 167 BC, was detained there for 17 years. In Rome, by virtue of his high culture, Polybius was admitted to the most distinguished houses, in particular to that of Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus, the conqueror in the Third Macedonian War, who entrusted Polybius with the education of his sons and Scipio Aemilianus. Polybius remained on cordial terms with his former pupil Scipio Aemilianus and was among the members of the Scipionic Circle; when Scipio defeated the Carthaginians in the Third Punic War, Polybius remained his counsellor.
The Achaean hostages were released in 150 BC, Polybius was granted leave to return home, but the next year he went on campaign with Scipio Aemilianus to Africa, was present at the Sack of Carthage in 146, which he described. Following the destruction of Carthage, Polybius journeyed along the Atlantic coast of Africa, as well as Spain. After the destruction of Corinth in the same year, Polybius returned to Greece, making use of his Roman connections to lighten the conditions there. Polybius was charged with the difficult task of organizing the new form of government in the Greek cities, in this office he gained great recognition. In the succeeding years, Polybius resided in Rome, completing his historical work while undertaking long journeys through the Mediterranean countries in the furtherance of his history, in particular with the aim of obtaining firsthand knowledge of historical sites, he interviewed veterans to clarify details of the events he was recording and was given access to archival material.
Little is known of Polybius' life. He wrote about this war in a lost monograph. Polybius returned to Greece in his life, as evidenced by the many existent inscriptions and statues of him there; the last event mentioned in his Histories seems to be the construction of the Via Domitia in southern France in 118 BC, which suggests the writings of Pseudo-Lucian may have some grounding in fact when they state, " fell from his horse while riding up from the country, fell ill as a result and died at the age of eighty-two". Polybius’ Histories cover the period from 264 BC to 146 BC, its main focus is the period from 220 BC to 167 BC, describing Rome's efforts in subduing its arch-enemy and thereby becoming the dominant Mediterranean force. Books I through V of The Histories are the introduction for the years during his lifetime, describing the politics in leading Mediterranean states, including ancient Greece and Egypt, culminating in their ultimate συμπλοκή or interconnectedness. In Book VI, Polybius describes the political and moral institutions that allowed the Romans to succeed.
He describes the Second Punic Wars. Polybius concludes the Romans are the pre-eminent power because they have customs and institutions which promote a deep desire for noble acts, a love of virtue, piety towards parents and elders, a fear of the gods, he chronicled the conflicts between Hannibal and Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus such as the Battle of Ticinus, the Battle of the Trebia, the Siege of Saguntum, the Battle of Lilybaeum, the Battle of Rhone Crossing. In Book XII, Polybius discusses the worth of Timaeus’ account of the same period of history, he asserts Timaeus' point of view is inaccurate and biased in favor of Rome. Therefore, Polybius's Histories is useful in analyzing the different Hellenistic versions of history and of use as a credible illustration of actual events during the Hellenistic period. In the seventh volume of his Histories, Polybius defines the historian's job as the analysis of documentation, the review of relevant geographical information, political experience.
Polybius held that historians should only chronicle events whose participants the historian was able to interview, was among the first to champion the notion of factual integrity in historical wri
Marsala is an Italian town located in the Province of Trapani in the westernmost part of Sicily. Marsala is the fifth in Sicily; the town is famous for its Marsala wine. A feature of the area is the Stagnone Lagoon Natural Reserve — a marine area with salt ponds. Marsala is built on the ruins of the ancient Carthaginian city of Lilybaeum, includes in its territory the archaeological site of the island of Motya, an ancient Phoenician town; the modern name derived from the Arabic مَرْسَى عَلِيّ, or مَرْسَى اللّٰه. Situated at the extreme western point of Sicily, the town was founded on Lilibeo Cape from where the Aegadian Islands and the Stagnone Lagoon can be seen; the territory of Marsala, 241 square kilometres, has a rich landscape heritage. The city of Marsala had a population of about 86,000 until the end of 1970, when Petrosino, a village part of Marsala, decided to become a self-governing town after a local referendum; the area of Marsala is classified as a seismic zone 2. In the last 200 years three earthquakes of medium-high intensity were recorded: 18 May 1828 – magnitude 5.17 15 January 1968 – Belice earthquake which in Marsala reached VII Mercalli scale.
7 June 1981 – magnitude 4.60 with epicentre in Borgo Elefante in Mazara del Vallo, about 20 kilometres from the town-centre of Marsala. Marsala has a hot-summer mediterranean climate, similar to most coastal towns in Sicily, with hot and dry summers coupled with moderately wet and mild winters. Weather in Marsala is similar to that of nearby Trapani. Summers are warm with a record maximum temperature of 37 °C in August 2017. In the summer, due to how dry it is, it is not unusual to experience the effect of Sirocco wind, which brings dust and sand from the Sahara. Winters are rainy and cooler with temperatures ranging between minimum of 1 °C and 21 °C. Snowfall occurs rarely, since the temperature has never dropped below freezing, although snow has fallen before, for example in December 2014. In 397 BC the Phoenician colony of Motya on the southwestern coast of Sicily was invaded and destroyed by the Syracusan tyrant Dionysius I; the survivors founded a town on the mainland nearby, the site of modern-day Marsala, which they called by a Punic name meaning "Town that Looks on Libya".
This was recorded in Latin as Lilybaeum. The First Punic War began here when the Punic army landed at Lilybaion in 265–264 BCE marched across Sicily to Messina, where the opening clash of the war took place; the Punic fortress Lilybaion was never conquered although it was besieged several times, e.g. by Pyrrhus of Epirus and by the Romans. In 241 BC it was given to the Romans as part of the peace treaty ending the First Punic War and became one of the most important towns in Sicily; the commercial centre was enriched with mansions and public buildings and dubbed splendidissima urbs by Cicero, who served as quaestor in the region between 76 and 75 BC. Ravaged by Vandals during the 5th century AD, the town was annexed in the 6th century to Justinian's Byzantine Empire. In this period the town was struck by dysentery, raided by pirates, neglected by Constantinople; the arrival of Arabic Berbers at the nearby Granitola mount in the 8th century entailed the resumption of commerce and the start of the rebirth of the town.
The town was renamed Marsa ʿAlī "ʿAlī's harbour" or maybe, Marsa ʿāliyy, "Big harbour", for the width of the ancient harbour, placed near Punta d'Alga. Another possible derivation is Marsa Allāh, "God's harbour". Another theory is that Marsala comes from mare salis, "salt pans by the sea" from the presence of salt pans along the whole northern coast, although mention of this theory cannot be found in contemporary references and the installation of the bigger salt ponds on the group of islands composing the contemporary single island "Isola Lunga" was made just during the 19th century. Since the end of the 11th century, the area has been conquered by Norman and Aragonese troops. During this time, Marsala became wealthy through trade; however the blocking up of the harbour of Punta Alga, decreed by Emperor Charles V so as to stop Saracen forays, brought an end to this period of prosperity. The development of Marsala wine at the end of the 18th century, headed by English merchants settled in Sicily improved local trade.
This triggered an economic expansion in Marsala, including the funding of infrastructure projects such as the current harbour of Margitello. On 11 May 1860 Giuseppe Garibaldi landed at Marsala. On 11 May 1943, in the lead-up to the World War II Allied invasion of Sicily, an Allied bombardment of the town permanently damaged its Baroque centre and claimed many victims: "Marsala Wiped Off the Map" titled the New York Times on 13 May 1943; the archaeological area of Marsala has been investigated both through excavations and topographic studies. Lilybaeum, the ancient town, took up a rectangular area on Capo Boeo, a low and rocky promontory sloping down towards the sea; the urban layout of the town can be dated back to the 2nd century BC, taking the shape of a Roman camp, with modern-day Viale Vittorio Veneto the Decumanus Maximus and Viale Cesare Battisti the Cardo Maximus. In 350 BC the newly formed town of Ma
From the 4th century BC on, new types of oared warships appeared in the Mediterranean Sea, superseding the trireme and transforming naval warfare. Ships became large and heavy, including some of the largest wooden ships hitherto constructed; these developments were spearheaded in the Hellenistic Near East, but to a large extent shared by the naval powers of the Western Mediterranean, more Carthage and the Roman Republic. While the wealthy successor kingdoms in the East built huge warships and Rome, in the intense naval antagonism during the Punic Wars, relied on medium-sized vessels. At the same time, smaller naval powers employed an array of small and fast craft, which were used by the ubiquitous pirates. Following the establishment of complete Roman hegemony in the Mediterranean after the Battle of Actium, the nascent Roman Empire faced no major naval threats. In the 1st century AD, the larger warships were retained only as flagships, were supplanted by the light liburnians until, by Late Antiquity, the knowledge of their construction had been lost.
Most of the warships of the era were distinguished by their names, which were compounds of a number and a suffix. Thus the English term quinquereme derives from Latin quinque-rēmis and has the Greek equivalent πεντ-ήρης. Both are compounds featuring a prefix meaning "five": Latin quinque, ancient Greek πέντε; the Roman suffix is from rēmus, "oar": "five-oar". As the vessel cannot have had only five oars, the word must be a figure of speech meaning something else. There are a number of possibilities; the -ηρης occurs only in suffix form, deriving from ἐρέσσειν, "to row". As "rower" is eretēs and "oar" is eretmon, -ērēs does not mean either of those but, being based on the verb, must mean "rowing"; this meaning is no clearer than the Latin. Whatever the "five-oar" or the "five-row" meant was lost with knowledge of the construction, is, from the 5th century on, a hotly debated issue. For the history of the interpretation efforts and current scholarly consensus, see below. In the great wars of the 5th century BC, such as the Persian Wars and the Peloponnesian War, the trireme was the heaviest type of warship used by the Mediterranean navies.
The trireme was propelled with one oarsman each. During the early 4th century BC however, variants of the trireme design began to appear: the invention of the quinquereme and the hexareme is credited by the historian Diodorus Siculus to the tyrant Dionysius I of Syracuse, while the quadrireme was credited by Aristotle to the Carthaginians. Far less is known with certainty about the construction and appearance of these ships than about the trireme. Literary evidence is fragmentary and selective, pictorial evidence unclear; the fact that the trireme had three levels of oars led medieval historians, long after the specifics of their construction had been lost, to speculate that the design of the "four", the "five" and the other ships would proceed logically, i.e. that the quadrireme would have four rows of oars, the quinquereme five, etc. However, the eventual appearance of bigger polyremes, made this theory implausible. During the Renaissance and until the 19th century, it came to be believed that the rowing system of the trireme and its descendants was similar to the alla sensile system of the contemporary galleys, comprising multiple oars on each level, rowed by one oarsman each.
20th-century scholarship disproved that theory, established that the ancient warships were rowed at different levels, with three providing the maximum practical limit. The higher numbers of the "fours", "fives", etc. were therefore interpreted as reflecting the number of files of oarsmen on each side of the ship, not an increased number of rows of oars. The most common theory on the arrangement of oarsmen in the new ship types is that of "double-banking", i.e. that the quadrireme was derived from a bireme by placing two oarsmen on each oar, the quinquereme from a trireme by placing two oarsmen on the two uppermost levels, the hexareme by placing two rowers on every level. Other interpretations of the quinquereme include a bireme warship with three and two oarsmen on the upper and lower oar banks, or a monoreme with five oarsmen; the "double-banking" theory is supported by the fact that the 4th-century quinqueremes were housed in the same ship sheds as the triremes, must therefore have had similar width, which fits with the idea of an evolutionary progression from the one type to the other.
The reasons for the evolution of the polyremes are not clear. The most forwarded argument is one of lack of skilled manpower: the trireme was a ship built for ramming, successful ramming tactics depended chiefly on the constant maintenance of a trained oar crew, something which few states aside from Athens with its radical democracy had the funds or the social structure to do. Using multiple oarsmen reduced the number of such trained men needed in each crew: only the rower at the tip of the oar had to be sufficiently trained, he could lead the others, who provided additional motive power; this system was in use in Renaissance galleys, but jars with the evidence of ancient crews continuing to be trained by their commanders. The increased number of oarsmen required a broader hull, which on the one hand reduced the ships' speed, but on t
Hasdrubal the Boetharch
Hasdrubal the Boetharch was a Carthaginian general during the Third Punic War. Little is known about him. "Boetharch" was a Carthaginian office, the exact function of, unclear but, not to be confused with the Greek boeotarch. Hasdrubal led the Carthaginian forces at the Siege of Carthage in 146 BC, their defeat by Scipio Aemilianus, proconsul of the Roman Republic, brought the war to a close. Hasdrubal's military skill was not to be doubted, as his army had been equipped, his work at defending Carthage cost the Romans a difficult campaign to suppress the defenders. His tactical skills, were dwarfed by his contemporaries Massinissa and Scipio. Hasdrubal had a wife and two sons, according to Polybius, threw themselves into a burning temple when they witnessed their army's defeat. Hasdrubal had surrendered himself to the Romans prior to his family's deaths, an act provoking their suicide, he was taken to Rome and displayed during Scipio's triumph, but allowed to live in peace in Italy. This may be the same general Hasdrubal, defeated near the town of Tunes by the Numidian king, just after war was declared.
Other Hasdrubals in Carthaginian history Havell, H. L. Republican Rome... BiblioBazaar, p. 321, ISBN 1-115-39574-2. Huss, Geschichte der Karthager, Munich: C. H. Beck. Mommsen, William Purdie Dickson, ed; the History of Rome, Vol. 3, New York: C. Scribner & Co, pp. 42–54. Book XXXVIII of Polybius's Histories, English trans. 7-8,20 Smith, William, ed. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Vol. II, C. C. Little & J. Brown, pp. 359–360. Media related to Hasdrubal at Wikimedia Commons Polybius, Fragments of Book XXXVIII, 7 Livius.org: Hasdrubal William Smith, "Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, Volume 2", C. C. Little and J. Brown, 1849