Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Hasdrubal the Boetharch
Hasdrubal the Boetharch was a Carthaginian general during the Third Punic War. Little is known about him. "Boetharch" was a Carthaginian office, the exact function of, unclear but, not to be confused with the Greek boeotarch. Hasdrubal led the Carthaginian forces at the Siege of Carthage in 146 BC, their defeat by Scipio Aemilianus, proconsul of the Roman Republic, brought the war to a close. Hasdrubal's military skill was not to be doubted, as his army had been equipped, his work at defending Carthage cost the Romans a difficult campaign to suppress the defenders. His tactical skills, were dwarfed by his contemporaries Massinissa and Scipio. Hasdrubal had a wife and two sons, according to Polybius, threw themselves into a burning temple when they witnessed their army's defeat. Hasdrubal had surrendered himself to the Romans prior to his family's deaths, an act provoking their suicide, he was taken to Rome and displayed during Scipio's triumph, but allowed to live in peace in Italy. This may be the same general Hasdrubal, defeated near the town of Tunes by the Numidian king, just after war was declared.
Other Hasdrubals in Carthaginian history Havell, H. L. Republican Rome... BiblioBazaar, p. 321, ISBN 1-115-39574-2. Huss, Geschichte der Karthager, Munich: C. H. Beck. Mommsen, William Purdie Dickson, ed; the History of Rome, Vol. 3, New York: C. Scribner & Co, pp. 42–54. Book XXXVIII of Polybius's Histories, English trans. 7-8,20 Smith, William, ed. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Vol. II, C. C. Little & J. Brown, pp. 359–360. Media related to Hasdrubal at Wikimedia Commons Polybius, Fragments of Book XXXVIII, 7 Livius.org: Hasdrubal William Smith, "Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, Volume 2", C. C. Little and J. Brown, 1849
For the Renaissance painter Sofonisba Anguissola, see Sofonisba Anguissola. For the American activist Sophonisba Breckinridge, see Sophonisba Breckinridge. Sophonisba was a Carthaginian noblewoman who lived during the Second Punic War, the daughter of Hasdrubal Gisco Gisgonis. In an act that became legendary, Sophonisba poisoned herself rather than be humiliated in a Roman triumph; the form of the name Sophonisba is not known until the fifteenth century, in a few late manuscripts of Livy, but it is the better known form because of literature. Dio Cassius tells us that Sophoniba was a great beauty, betrothed to King Masinissa until 206. Masinissa was the leader of the Massylii Numidians. However, in 206, Masinissa allied himself to Rome. Dio Cassius suggests that this was because Hasdrubal found a better ally in Syphax, king of the Masaesyli, as was normal in those days, Hasdrubal used his daughter to conclude the diplomatic alliances with Syphax, who had himself been allied to Rome; because Masinissa meets Sophonisba for the first time after the defeat of Syphax, this account is criticized as being "most improbable" by H. E. Butler and H. H. Scullard.
Syphax was defeated and captured in 203 BC by Masinissa and Scipio Africanus in the Battle of the Great Plains on the Bagradas. Masinissa married her. Scipio, refused to agree to this arrangement, insisting on the immediate surrender of the princess so that she could be taken to Rome and appear in the triumphal parade. Masinissa, upbraided by Scipio for his weakness, was urged to leave her. Masinissa feared the Romans more. Thus, he swore his love to her, he told her that he could not free her from captivity or shield her from Roman wrath, so he asked her to die like a true Carthaginian princess. With great composure, she drank a cup of poison, her story much embellished, is told indirectly in Polybius. Polybius, never refers to Sophonisba by name in his allusions to her marriage to Syphax, in his extensive account of Laelius' maneuvers against Syphax; the historian had met Masinissa. It has been proposed that Polybius' account provides the basis for the Sophonisba story; when Polybius does refer to her, he uses the diminutive in a tone.
In one passage, Polybius ridicules Syphax for being less courageous than his own "child bride". Petrarch elaborated her story in his epic poem Africa, published posthumously in 1396; the playwright John Marston wrote The Wonder of Women a Roman tragedy based on the story of Sophonisba, in 1606 for the Children of the Queen's Revels. There are a number of paintings of Sophonisba drinking her poison, but the subject is very similar to that of Artemisia II of Caria drinking her husband's ashes, the Rembrandt in the Prado and a Donato Creti in the National Gallery are examples of works where the intended subject remains uncertain between the two. Sophonisba became the subject of tragedies from the 16th to the 19th centuries, along with the story of Cleopatra, furnished more dramas than any other; the first tragedy is credited to the Italian Galeotto Del Carretto, written in 1502, but issued posthumously in 1546. The first to appear, was Gian Giorgio Trissino's play of 1515 which, "in codifying the forms of Italian classical tragedy, helped consign Del Carretto's Sofonisba to oblivion."
In France, Trissino's version was adapted by Mellin de Saint-Gelais, may have served as the primary model for versions by Antoine de Montchrestien and Nicolas de Montreux. The tragedy by Jean Mairet is one of the first monuments of French "classicism", was followed by a version from Pierre Corneille; the story of Sophonisba served as subject for works by John Marston, David Murray, Nathaniel Lee, Daniel Caspar von Lohenstein, Henry Purcell, Antonio Caldara, Leonardo Leo, Luca Antonio Predieri, James Thomson, Niccolò Jommelli, Baldassare Galuppi, Tommaso Traetta, Antonio Boroni, Christopher Gluck, Maria Teresa Agnesi, Mattia Vento, François Joseph Lagrange-Chancel, revised by Voltaire, Christian Gottlob Neefe, António Leal Moreira, Joseph Joaquín Mazuelo, Vittorio Alfieri, Pietro Alessandro Guglielmi, Marcos Portugal, Ferdinando Paer, Vincenzo Federici, Luigi Petrali, Emanuel Geibel, Jeronim de Rada, Giuseppe Brunati, Dimitrie Cuclin, Vasco Graça Moura, others. Sophonisba appears in film, first in Giovanni Pastrone's 1914 silent film Cabiria and again in Carmine Gallone's 1937 epic movie Scipio Africanus: The Defeat of Hannibal.
Livy, Ab urbe condita libri xxix.23, xxx.8, 12-15.8 Livius.org: Sophoniba
Second Punic War
The Second Punic War referred to as The Hannibalic War and by the Romans the War Against Hannibal, was the second of three wars between Carthage and the Roman Republic, with the participation of Greek polities and Numidian and Iberian forces on both sides. It was one of the deadliest human conflicts of ancient times. Fought across the entire Western Mediterranean region for 17 years and regarded by ancient historians as the greatest war in history, it was waged with unparalleled resources and hatred, it saw hundreds of thousands killed, some of the most lethal battles in military history, the destruction of cities, massacres and enslavements of civilian populations and prisoners of war by both sides. The war began with the Carthaginian general Hannibal's conquest of the pro-Roman Iberian city of Saguntum in 219 BC, prompting a Roman declaration of war on Carthage in the spring of 218. Hannibal surprised the Romans by marching his army overland from Iberia to cross the Alps and invade Roman Italy, followed by his reinforcement by Gallic allies and crushing victories over Roman armies at Trebia in 218 and on the shores of Lake Trasimene in 217.
Moving to southern Italy in 216, Hannibal at Cannae annihilated the largest army the Romans had assembled. After the death or imprisonment of 130,000 Roman troops in two years, 40% of Rome's Italian allies defected to Carthage, giving her control over most of southern Italy. Macedon and Syracuse joined the Carthaginian side after Cannae and the conflict spread to Greece and Sicily. From 215–210 the Carthaginian army and navy launched repeated amphibious assaults to capture Roman Sicily and Sardinia but were repulsed. Against Hannibal's skill on the battlefield, the Romans adopted the Fabian strategy – the avoidance of battle against Hannibal and defeating his allies and the other Carthaginian generals instead. Roman armies recaptured all of the great cities that had joined Carthage and defeated a Carthaginian attempt to reinforce Hannibal at Metaurus in 207. Southern Italy was devastated by the combatants, with hundreds of thousands of civilians killed or enslaved. In Iberia, which served as a major source of silver and manpower for the Carthaginian army, a Roman expeditionary force under Publius Cornelius Scipio captured Carthago Nova, Carthage's capital city in Iberia, in 209.
Scipio's destruction of a Carthaginian army at Ilipa in 206 permanently ended Carthaginian rule in Iberia. He invaded Carthaginian Africa in 204, inflicting two severe defeats on Carthage and her allies at Utica and the Great Plains that compelled the Carthaginian senate to recall Hannibal's army from Italy; the final engagement between Scipio and Hannibal took place at Zama in Africa in 202 and resulted in Hannibal's defeat and the imposition of harsh peace conditions on Carthage, which ceased to be a great power and became a Roman client state until its final destruction by the Romans in 146 BC during the Third Punic War. The Second Punic War overthrew the established balance of power of the ancient world and Rome rose to become the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin for the next 600 years. Carthage's defeat in the First Punic War meant the loss of Carthaginian Sicily to Rome under the terms of the Roman-dictated 241 BC Treaty of Lutatius. Rome exploited Carthage's distraction during the Truceless War against rebellious mercenaries and Libyan subjects to break the peace treaty and annex Carthaginian Sardinia and Corsica to Rome in 238 BC.
Under the leadership of Hamilcar Barca and his family, Carthage defeated the rebels and began the Barcid conquest of Hispania from 237 BC onward. Control over Spain gave Carthage the silver mines, agricultural wealth, military facilities such as shipyards and territorial depth to stand up to future Roman demands with confidence; the Second Punic War was ignited by the dispute over the hegemony of Saguntum, a Hellenized Iberian coastal city with diplomatic contacts with Rome. After great tension within the city government, culminating in the assassination of the supporters of Carthage, Hannibal laid siege to the city of Saguntum in 219 BC; the city called for Roman aid. Following a prolonged siege of eight months and a bloody struggle, in which Hannibal himself was wounded, the Carthaginians took control of the city. Many of the Saguntians chose to commit suicide rather than face subjugation by the Carthaginians; the loss of Saguntum as a potential base of operations in Carthaginian Iberia was a serious setback to the main Roman strategic objective in Spain: the eviction of the Carthaginians from the peninsula.
The Roman Senate sent an embassy to the Carthaginian Senate that declared war on Carthage in early 218 BC over the attack on Rome's Saguntine ally. Before the war and Hasdrubal the Fair had made a treaty. Livy reports that it was agreed that the Iber should be the boundary between the two empires and that the liberty of the Saguntines should be preserved; the highest priority in Carthaginian strategy was to keep the war away from Carthage's agricultural heartland in Africa and protect the property of the wealthy Carthaginian landowners who controlled Carthaginian politics. Spanish mines and sources of manpower comprised the second pillar of the Carthaginian power base and their protection was essential to maintaining Carthage's status as an independent continental great power. Hannibal's invasion of Italy forced the Romans to abandon their intended invasion of Africa and de-prioritize the reinforcement of Roman armies in Spain. Most Roman troops during the war fought in Italy, which became the main theater of the war as a result of Hannibal's offensive.
Africa remained undisturbed by a Roman invasion army until 204 BC and the Roman military presence in Spain was confined to its northeastern corn
The Ofanto, known in ancient times as Aufidus or Canna, is a 170-kilometre river in southern Italy that flows through the regions of Campania and Apulia, into the Gulf of Manfredonia near Barletta. The river's source is on the Irpinia Plateau, at 715 metres above sea level, near Nusco and Torella dei Lombardi, in the province of Avellino. From there it runs southeast near Lioni before flowing into an artificial lake; the river forms the border between the province of Avellino and the province of Potenza except for a small extension of the province of Avellino near Calitri. The Atella flows into the Ofanto near this point as a right tributary of the river; the river curves north and flows near Monteverde before forming the border between the province of Foggia and the province of Potenza. It curves east for a distance and a right tributary, the Olivento, flows into it in this area; the river curves northeast and forms the border between the province of Foggia and the province of Barletta-Andria-Trani.
The river flows near Posta Piana, Canosa di Puglia, San Ferdinando di Puglia, Cannae before entering the Gulf of Manfredonia between Margherita di Savoia and Barletta. The Locone enters the Ofanto south of Cerignola as a right tributary of the river. At the end of its journey to the sea, the river ends in an estuary; the River Ofanto can have a torrential flow at times, with major floods along its course in the autumn and winter, thanks to heavy rainfall, but in the summer its flow can be remarkably slight. Despite its considerable length and the extent of its basin, the average flow of water at the river mouth is low, less than 15 cubic metres per second
Battle of Cannae
The Battle of Cannae was a major battle of the Second Punic War that took place on 2 August 216 BC in Apulia, in southeast Italy. The army of Carthage, under Hannibal and decisively defeated a larger army of the Roman Republic under the consuls Lucius Aemilius Paullus and Gaius Terentius Varro, it is regarded both as one of the greatest tactical feats in military history and as one of the worst defeats in Roman history. Having recovered from their losses at Trebia and Lake Trasimene, the Romans decided to engage Hannibal at Cannae, with 86,000 Roman and allied troops, they massed their heavy infantry in a deeper formation than usual, while Hannibal used the double-envelopment tactic and surrounded his enemy, trapping the majority of the Roman army, who were slaughtered. The loss of life on the Roman side was one of the most lethal single day. Only about 15,000 Romans, most of whom were from the garrisons of the camps and had not taken part in the battle, escaped death. Following the defeat and several other Italian city-states defected from the Roman Republic to Carthage.
As news of this defeat reached Rome, the city was gripped in panic. Authorities resorted to extraordinary measures, which included consulting the Sibylline Oracles, dispatching a delegation led by Quintus Fabius Pictor to consult the Delphic oracle in Greece, burying four people alive as a sacrifice to their Gods. To raise two new legions, the authorities lowered the draft age and enlisted criminals and slaves. Despite the extreme loss of men and equipment, a second massive defeat that same year at Silva Litana, the Romans refused to surrender to Hannibal, his offer to ransom survivors was brusquely refused. With grim determination the Romans fought for 14 more years until they achieved victory at the Battle of Zama. Although for most of the following decades the battle was seen as a major Roman disaster, by modern times Cannae acquired a mythic quality, is used as an example of the perfect defeat of an enemy army, it was studied by German strategists prior to World War II, General Norman Schwartzkopf claimed to have drawn inspiration from Hannibal's success for his devastatingly effective land offensive in the First Gulf War.
Shortly after the start of the Second Punic War, Hannibal crossed into Italy by traversing the Pyrenees and the Alps during the summer and early autumn of 218 BC. He won major victories over the Romans at Trebia and at Lake Trasimene. After these losses, the Romans appointed Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus as dictator to deal with the threat. Fabius used attrition warfare against Hannibal, cutting off his supply lines and avoiding pitched battles; these tactics proved unpopular with the Romans who, as they recovered from the shock of Hannibal's victories, began to question the wisdom of the Fabian strategy, which had given the Carthaginian army a chance to regroup. The majority of Romans were eager to see a quick conclusion to the war, it was feared that, if Hannibal continued plundering Italy unopposed, Rome's allies might defect to the Carthaginian side for self-preservation. Therefore, when Fabius came to the end of his term, the Senate did not renew his dictatorial powers and command was given to consuls Gnaeus Servilius Geminus and Marcus Atilius Regulus.
In 216 BC, when elections resumed, Gaius Terentius Varro and Lucius Aemilius Paullus were elected as consuls, placed in command of a newly raised army of unprecedented size and directed to engage Hannibal. Polybius wrote: The Senate determined to bring eight legions into the field, which had never been done at Rome before, each legion consisting of five thousand men besides allies.... Most of their wars are decided with their quota of allies, but on this occasion, so great was the alarm and terror of what would happen, they resolved to bring not only four but eight legions into the field. Rome employed four legions each year, each consisting of 4,000 foot soldiers and 200 cavalry. Perceiving the Carthaginian army as a real threat, for the first time the Senate introduced eight legions, each consisting of 5,000 foot soldiers and 300 cavalry, with allied troops numbering the same amount of foot soldiers but 900 cavalry per legion—more than triple the legion numbers. Eight legions—some 40,000 Roman soldiers and an estimated 2,400 cavalry—formed the core of this massive new army.
Livy quotes one source stating the Romans added only 10,000 men to their usual army. While no definitive number of Roman troops exists, all sources agree that the Carthaginians faced a larger foe. Consuls were each assigned two of the four legions to command employing all four legions at once to the same assignment. However, the Senate feared a real threat and not only deployed all four legions to the field but all eight, including allies. Ordinarily, each of the two consuls would command his own portion of the army, but since the two armies were combined into one, Roman law required them to alternate their command on a daily basis; the traditional account puts Varro in command on the day of the battle, much of the blame for the defeat has been laid on his shoulders. However, his low origins seem to be exaggerated in the sources, Varro may have been made a scapegoat by the aristocratic establishment, he lacked the powerful descendants that Paullus had, descendants who were willing and able to protect his reputation—most notably, Paullus was the grandfather of Scipio Aemilianus, the patron of Polybius.
In the sp
Dido was, according to ancient Greek and Roman sources, the founder and first queen of Carthage. She is known from the account given by the Roman poet Virgil in his epic, Aeneid. In some sources she is known as Elissa. Many names in the legend of Dido are of Punic origin, which suggests that the first Greek authors who mention this story have taken up Phoenician accounts. One suggestion is that Dido is an epithet from the same Semitic root as David, which means "Beloved". Others state Didô means "the wanderer". According to Marie-Pierre Noël, "Elishat/Elisha" is a name attested on Punic votives, it is composed of the Punic reflex of *ʾil- "god", the remote Phoenician creator god El a name for God in Judaism, "‐issa", which could be either "ʾiš" means "fire", or another word for "woman". Other works state. In Greek it appears as Theiossô; this understanding of the chronology related to Dido and her company resulted in the following dates for Dido and her immediate relations, as derived from F. M. Cross and Wm. H. Barnes: Baal-Eser II 846–841 BC Mattan I 840–832 BC 839 BC: Dido was born in Tyre 831 BC: Pygmalion begins to reign 825 BC: Dido flees Tyre in 7th year of Pygmalion, after the death of Acerbas 825 BC and some time thereafter: Dido and companions on Cyprus Between 825 BC and 814 BC: Tyrians build settlement on island of Cothon 814 BC: Dido founds Carthage on mainland 785 BC: Death of Pygmalion 759 BC: Dido died in Carthage The person of Dido can be traced to references by Roman historians to lost writings of Timaeus of Tauromenium in Sicily.
Historians gave both for the foundation of Carthage and the foundation of Rome. Appian in the beginning of his Punic Wars claims that Carthage was founded by a certain Zorus and Carchedon, but Zorus looks like an alternative transliteration of the city name Tyre and Carchedon is just the Greek form of Carthage. Timaeus made Carchedon's wife Elissa the sister of King Pygmalion of Tyre. Archaeological evidence of settlement on the site of Carthage before the last quarter of the 8th century BC has yet to be found. Paucity of material for this period may be explained by rejection of the Greek Dark Age theory; that the city is named at least indicates it was a colony. The only surviving full account before Virgil's treatment is that of Virgil's contemporary Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus in his Philippic histories as rendered in a digest or epitome made by Junianus Justinus in the 3rd century AD. Justin quoting or paraphrasing Trogus states, a king of Tyre whom Justin does not name, made his beautiful daughter Dido and son Pygmalion his joint heirs.
But on his death the people took Pygmalion alone as their ruler though Pygmalion was yet still a boy. Dido married Acerbas her uncle who as priest of Heracles—that is, Melqart—was second in power to King Pygmalion. Acerbas can be equated with the Zikarbaal king of Byblos mentioned in the Egyptian Tale of Wenamon. Rumor told that Acerbas had much wealth secretly buried and King Pygmalion had Acerbas murdered in hopes of gaining this wealth. Dido, desiring to escape Tyre, expressed a wish to move into Pygmalion's palace, but ordered the attendants whom Pygmalion sent to aid in the move, to throw all Acerbas' bags of gold into the sea as an offering to his spirit. In fact these bags contained only sand. Dido persuaded the attendants to join her in flight to another land rather than face Pygmalion's anger when he discovered what had become of Acerbas' wealth; some senators joined her in her flight. The party arrived at Cyprus. There the exiles seized about eighty young women who were prostituting themselves on the shore in order to provide wives for the men in the party.
Dido and her followers arrived on the coast of North Africa where Dido asked the Berber king Iarbas for a small bit of land for a temporary refuge until she could continue her journeying, only as much land as could be encompassed by an oxhide. They agreed. Dido cut the oxhide into fine strips so that she had enough to encircle an entire nearby hill, therefore afterwards named Byrsa "hide"; that would become their new home. Many of the local Berbers joined the settlement and both Berbers and envoys from the nearby Phoenician city of Utica urged the building of a city. In digging the foundations an ox's head was found, indicating a city that would be wealthy but subject to others. Accordingly, another area of the hill was dug instead where a horse's head was found, indicating that the city would be powerful in war, but when the new city of Carthage had been established and become prosperous, Iarbas, a native king of the Maxitani or Mauritani, demanded Dido for his wife or he would make war on Carthage.
Dido's envoys, fearing Iarbas, told Dido only that Iarbas' terms for peace were that someone from Carthage must dwell permanently with him to teach Phoenician ways and they added that of course no Carthaginian would agree to dwell with such savages. Dido condemned any who would feel that way when they should indeed give their lives for the city if necessary. Dido's envoys explained that Iarbas had requested Dido as wife. Dido was trapped by her words. Still, she preferred to stay faithful to her first husband and after creating a ceremonial funeral pyre and sacrificing many victi