Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
A fungus is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals. A characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants and some protists is chitin in their cell walls. Similar to animals, fungi are heterotrophs. Fungi do not photosynthesize. Growth is their means of mobility, except for spores, which may travel through the water. Fungi are the principal decomposers in ecological systems; these and other differences place fungi in a single group of related organisms, named the Eumycota, which share a common ancestor, an interpretation, strongly supported by molecular phylogenetics. This fungal group oomycetes; the discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi is known as mycology. In the past, mycology was regarded as a branch of botany, although it is now known fungi are genetically more related to animals than to plants.
Abundant worldwide, most fungi are inconspicuous because of the small size of their structures, their cryptic lifestyles in soil or on dead matter. Fungi include symbionts of plants, animals, or other fungi and parasites, they may become noticeable when fruiting, either as molds. Fungi perform an essential role in the decomposition of organic matter and have fundamental roles in nutrient cycling and exchange in the environment, they have long been used in the form of mushrooms and truffles. Since the 1940s, fungi have been used for the production of antibiotics, more various enzymes produced by fungi are used industrially and in detergents. Fungi are used as biological pesticides to control weeds, plant diseases and insect pests. Many species produce bioactive compounds called mycotoxins, such as alkaloids and polyketides, that are toxic to animals including humans; the fruiting structures of a few species contain psychotropic compounds and are consumed recreationally or in traditional spiritual ceremonies.
Fungi can break down manufactured materials and buildings, become significant pathogens of humans and other animals. Losses of crops due to fungal diseases or food spoilage can have a large impact on human food supplies and local economies; the fungus kingdom encompasses an enormous diversity of taxa with varied ecologies, life cycle strategies, morphologies ranging from unicellular aquatic chytrids to large mushrooms. However, little is known of the true biodiversity of Kingdom Fungi, estimated at 2.2 million to 3.8 million species. Of these, only about 120,000 have been described, with over 8,000 species known to be detrimental to plants and at least 300 that can be pathogenic to humans. Since the pioneering 18th and 19th century taxonomical works of Carl Linnaeus, Christian Hendrik Persoon, Elias Magnus Fries, fungi have been classified according to their morphology or physiology. Advances in molecular genetics have opened the way for DNA analysis to be incorporated into taxonomy, which has sometimes challenged the historical groupings based on morphology and other traits.
Phylogenetic studies published in the last decade have helped reshape the classification within Kingdom Fungi, divided into one subkingdom, seven phyla, ten subphyla. The English word fungus is directly adopted from the Latin fungus, used in the writings of Horace and Pliny; this in turn is derived from the Greek word sphongos, which refers to the macroscopic structures and morphology of mushrooms and molds. The word mycology is derived from the Greek logos, it denotes the scientific study of fungi. The Latin adjectival form of "mycology" appeared as early as 1796 in a book on the subject by Christiaan Hendrik Persoon; the word appeared in English as early as 1824 in a book by Robert Kaye Greville. In 1836 the English naturalist Miles Joseph Berkeley's publication The English Flora of Sir James Edward Smith, Vol. 5. Refers to mycology as the study of fungi. A group of all the fungi present in a particular area or geographic region is known as mycobiota, e.g. "the mycobiota of Ireland". Before the introduction of molecular methods for phylogenetic analysis, taxonomists considered fungi to be members of the plant kingdom because of similarities in lifestyle: both fungi and plants are immobile, have similarities in general morphology and growth habitat.
Like plants, fungi grow in soil and, in the case of mushrooms, form conspicuous fruit bodies, which sometimes resemble plants such as mosses. The fungi are now considered a separate kingdom, distinct from both plants and animals, from which they appear to have diverged around one billion years ago; some morphological and genetic features are shared with other organisms, while others are unique to the fungi separating them from the other kingdoms: Shared features: With other euka
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. With a population of 581,980 inhabitants as of 2017, it is Germany's tenth most populous city. Leipzig is located about 160 kilometres southwest of Berlin at the confluence of the White Elster, Pleiße and Parthe rivers at the southern end of the North German Plain. Leipzig has been a trade city since at least the time of the Holy Roman Empire; the city sits at the intersection of the Via Regia and the Via Imperii, two important medieval trade routes. Leipzig was once one of the major European centers of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing. Leipzig became a major urban center within the German Democratic Republic after the Second World War, but its cultural and economic importance declined. Events in Leipzig in 1989 played a significant role in precipitating the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe through demonstrations starting from St. Nicholas Church. Since the reunification of Germany, Leipzig has undergone significant change with the restoration of some historical buildings, the demolition of others, the development of a modern transport infrastructure.
Leipzig today is an economic centre, the most livable city in Germany, according to the GfK marketing research institution and has the second-best future prospects of all cities in Germany, according to HWWI and Berenberg Bank. Leipzig Zoo is one of the most modern zoos in Europe and ranks first in Germany and second in Europe according to Anthony Sheridan. Since the opening of the Leipzig City Tunnel in 2013, Leipzig forms the centrepiece of the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland public transit system. Leipzig is listed as a Gamma World City, Germany's "Boomtown" and as the European City of the Year 2019. Leipzig has long been a major center for music, both classical as well as modern "dark alternative music" or darkwave genres; the Oper Leipzig is one of the most prominent opera houses in Germany. It was founded in 1693, making it the third oldest opera venue in Europe after La Fenice and the Hamburg State Opera. Leipzig is home to the University of Music and Theatre "Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy", it was during a stay in this city that Friedrich Schiller wrote his poem "Ode to Joy".
The Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra, established in 1743, is one of the oldest symphony orchestras in the world. Johann Sebastian Bach is one among many major composers who lived in Leipzig; the name Leipzig is derived from the Slavic word Lipsk, which means "settlement where the linden trees stand". An older spelling of the name in English is Leipsic; the Latin name Lipsia was used. The name is cognate with Lipetsk in Liepāja in Latvia. In 1937 the Nazi government renamed the city Reichsmessestadt Leipzig. Since 1989 Leipzig has been informally dubbed "Hero City", in recognition of the role that the Monday demonstrations there played in the fall of the East German regime – the name alludes to the honorary title awarded in the former Soviet Union to certain cities that played a key role in the victory of the Allies during the Second World War; the common usage of this nickname for Leipzig up until the present is reflected, for example, in the name of a popular blog for local arts and culture, Heldenstadt.de.
More the city has sometimes been nicknamed the "Boomtown of eastern Germany", "Hypezig" or "The better Berlin" for being celebrated by the media as a hip urban centre for the vital lifestyle and creative scene with many startups. Leipzig was first documented in 1015 in the chronicles of Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg as urbs Libzi and endowed with city and market privileges in 1165 by Otto the Rich. Leipzig Trade Fair, started in the Middle Ages, has become an event of international importance and is the oldest surviving trade fair in the world. There are records of commercial fishing operations on the river Pleiße in Leipzig dating back to 1305, when the Margrave Dietrich the Younger granted the fishing rights to the church and convent of St Thomas. There were a number of monasteries in and around the city, including a Franciscan monastery after which the Barfußgäßchen is named and a monastery of Irish monks near the present day Ranstädter Steinweg; the foundation of the University of Leipzig in 1409 initiated the city's development into a centre of German law and the publishing industry, towards being the location of the Reichsgericht and the German National Library.
During the Thirty Years' War, two battles took place in Breitenfeld, about 8 kilometres outside Leipzig city walls. The first Battle of Breitenfeld took place in 1631 and the second in 1642. Both battles resulted in victories for the Swedish-led side. On 24 December 1701, an oil-fueled street lighting system was introduced; the city employed light guards who had to follow a specific schedule to ensure the punctual lighting of the 700 lanterns. The Leipzig region was the arena of the 1813 Battle of Leipzig between Napoleonic France and an allied coalition of Prussia, Russia and Sweden, it was the largest battle in Europe before the First World War and the coalition victory ended Napoleon's presence in Germany and would lead to his first exile on Elba. The Monument to the Battle of the Nations celebrating the centenary of this event was completed in 1913. In addition to stimulating German nationalism, the war had a major impact in mobilizing a civic spirit in numerous volunteer activities. Many volunteer militi
For people with the surname, see Wolgast. Wolgast is a town in the district of Vorpommern-Greifswald, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, it is situated on the bank of the river Peenestrom, vis-a-vis the island of Usedom on the Baltic coast that can be accessed by road and railway via a movable bascule bridge. In December 2004, the town had a population of 12,725; the precursor of present-day Wolgast was a Slavic Wendish stronghold located on an island within the Peenestrom sound. Contemporary sources called it Hologost, Woligost, Wologost, Wolegust, Walogost, Waløgost, Walagust, Walægust, Wolgast, Valagust, Wołogoszcz or Valegust. Wilhelm Ferdinand Gadebusch traces the name through Wendish to mean a "large grove", it is unclear which of the tribes documented in the area the population belonged to, the Veleti/Lutici or Rani. In 1123/24, prince Henry of the Obodrites used the stronghold as a stepping stone in his campaign against the Rani. In 1128, after the Pomeranian duke Wartislaw I had subdued the area, the Wends were baptized by Otto of Bamberg on his second Pomeranian mission, while Wartislaw was present in the stronghold.
In this context, Wolgast was described as a opulentissima civitas by the chronicler Ebo, it is however unclear whether this should be read as meaning opulent or mighty "castle" or "town". Otto destroyed a local temple devoted to Gerowit, a god of war, replaced it with a church; the thesis that this first church was a predecessor of today's St. Peter's church has not yet been confirmed. Wolgast was made the seat of a Pomeranian castellany, played an important role in the 12th-century warfare between Pomeranians and the Danes. In 1162, Wolgast was targeted by an allied Danish-Rani fleet, temporarily had to accept Danish suzerainty. In 1164, in the context of the battle of Verchen, a Danish force took control of Wolgast, left it to a mixed Rani-Pomeranian-Obrodite garrison after peace was restored. Yet, the Rani were soon expelled by the Pomeranians, the Obodrites left the scene; the Danes attacked Wolgast again in the summer of 1167, again either in late 1167 or in 1168, devastated the area. In 1177, another Danish assault on Wolgast failed, but a campaign in 1179 was successful, though the Danish fleet accepted money instead of a surrender.
In 1184, Wolgast was unsuccessfully besieged by the Danes, but came under Danish control in 1185 when the Pomeranian duke accepted Danish suzerainty. While t Danes lost control over most of Pomerania in 1227, Wolgast remained a Danish bridgehead until either 1241/43 or 1250. On the mainland opposite to island with the castle, a new planned town was built in the course of the Ostsiedlung, it is not known when this city of Wolgast was granted German town law, though its existence is confirmed by a letter written in or before 1259. The original charter was issued by both Pomeranian dukes of the time, Wartislaw III and Barnim I, a confirmation of the Lübeck law was issued in 1282 by duke Bogislaw IV. Wolgast was residence of the Pomeranian dukes from 1285 until the ruling House of Pomerania became extinct in 1637. Capital of Pomerania-Wolgast, a longtime inner partition of the duchy, Wolgast Castle was built as a residential palace in Renaissance style on an island hence called Castle Island; the ducal line of Pomerania-Wolgast became extinct.
During the Thirty Years' War, the Swedish Empire occupied Wolgast in 1630 and kept it as a part of Swedish Pomerania until 1815. The former ducal palace decayed, the town was burned down in 1713 by Russian forces during the Great Northern War, in retaliation for Swedish arson in Altona. Only the church, four chapels and four more buildings were spared by the fire. Most houses of the Old Town therefore date back to the 18th and 19th centuries, the townhall was renewed after the fire in baroque style. After the Swedish withdrawal from Pomerania in 1815, the city was integrated into the Prussian Province of Pomerania. Last remnants of the palace were removed in 1849. Wolgast prospered throughout the 19th century as a port for grain trade. Wolgast lost its status as a Kreis capital on June 12, 1994, when Kreis Wolgast was merged into Kreis Ostvorpommern, which became part of Vorpommern-Greifswald in 2011; the town's history is presented in the Stadtgeschichtliches Museum in a building at the market place nicknamed Kaffeemühle.
The former house of painter Philipp Otto Runge is a museum by now. Barnim VII, Duke of Pomerania Duke of Pomerania Ernst Ludwig, Duke of Pomerania duke of Pomerania Barnim X, Duke of Pomerania a duke of Pomerania Casimir VI, Duke of Pomerania a non-reigning duke of Pomerania Philipp Julius, Duke of Pomerania duke of Pomerania Johann Philipp Palthen a Western Pomeranian historian and philologist Philipp Otto Runge a Romantic German painter and draughtsman Karl Gustav Homeyer a German jurist Adolf Friedrich Stenzler a German Indologist Theodor Marsson a German pharmacist and botanist Willy Stöwer a German artist and author Hans-Ulrich Grapenthin a German former footballer who played 308 games for FC Carl Zeiss Jena Axel Kruse a former German association footballer and American football player. Franka Dietzsch a former German discus thrower Johannes Sellin a German handball player Dubilski, Petra. Die Ostseeküste: Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. DuMont. ISBN 3-7701-5926-8. Wolgast, Eike. Hochstift und Reformation: Studien zur
Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicine and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as toxicity or infection. A biologist specializing in mycology is called a mycologist. Mycology branches into the field of phytopathology, the study of plant diseases, the two disciplines remain related because the vast majority of plant pathogens are fungi. Mycology was a branch of botany because, although fungi are evolutionarily more related to animals than to plants, this was not recognized until a few decades ago. Pioneer mycologists included Elias Magnus Fries, Christian Hendrik Persoon, Anton de Bary, Lewis David von Schweinitz. Many fungi produce toxins and other secondary metabolites. For example, the cosmopolitan genus Fusarium and their toxins associated with fatal outbreaks of alimentary toxic aleukia in humans were extensively studied by Abraham Joffe.
Fungi are fundamental for life on earth in their roles as symbionts, e.g. in the form of mycorrhizae, insect symbionts, lichens. Many fungi are able to break down complex organic biomolecules such as lignin, the more durable component of wood, pollutants such as xenobiotics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. By decomposing these molecules, fungi play a critical role in the global carbon cycle. Fungi and other organisms traditionally recognized as fungi, such as oomycetes and myxomycetes are economically and important, as some cause diseases of animals as well as plants. Apart from pathogenic fungi, many fungal species are important in controlling the plant diseases caused by different pathogens. For example, species of the filamentous fungal genus Trichoderma considered as one of the most important biological control agents as an alternative to chemical based products for effective crop diseases management. Field meetings to find interesting species of fungi are known as'forays', after the first such meeting organized by the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club in 1868 and entitled "A foray among the funguses".
Some fungi can cause disease in humans and other animals - The study of pathogenic fungi that infect animals is referred to as medical mycology. It is presumed. Mushrooms were first written about in the works of Euripides; the Greek philosopher Theophrastos of Eresos was the first to try to systematically classify plants. It was Pliny the Elder, who wrote about truffles in his encyclopedia Naturalis historia; the word mycology comes from the Greek: μύκης, meaning "fungus" and the suffix -λογία, meaning "study". The Middle Ages saw little advancement in the body of knowledge about fungi. Rather, the invention of the printing press allowed some authors to disseminate superstitions and misconceptions about the fungi, perpetuated by the classical authors; the start of the modern age of mycology begins with Pier Antonio Micheli's 1737 publication of Nova plantarum genera. Published in Florence, this seminal work laid the foundations for the systematic classification of grasses and fungi; the term mycology and the complementary mycologist were first used in 1836 by M.
J. Berkeley. For centuries, certain mushrooms have been documented as a folk medicine in China and Russia. Although the use of mushrooms in folk medicine is centered on the Asian continent, people in other parts of the world like the Middle East and Belarus have been documented using mushrooms for medicinal purposes. Certain mushrooms polypores like lingzhi mushroom were thought to be able to benefit a wide variety of health ailments. Medicinal mushroom research in the United States is active, with studies taking place at City of Hope National Medical Center, as well as the Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center. Current research focuses on mushrooms that may have hypoglycemic activity, anti-cancer activity, anti-pathogenic activity, immune system-enhancing activity. Recent research has found that the oyster mushroom contains the cholesterol-lowering drug lovastatin, mushrooms produce large amounts of vitamin D when exposed to ultraviolet light, that certain fungi may be a future source of taxol.
To date, lovastatin, griseofulvin and psilocybin are the most famous drugs that have been isolated from the fifth kingdom of life. Ethnomycology Fungal biochemical test List of mycologists List of mycology journals Mushroom hunting Mycotoxicology Pathogenic fungi Protistology Geoffrey Clough Ainsworth. Introduction to the History of Mycology. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-21013-3. Professional organizations BMS: British Mycological Society MSA: Mycological Society of America Amateur organizations MSSF: Mycological Society of San Francisco North American Mycological Association Puget Sound Mycological Society Oregon Mycological Society IMA Illinois Mycological Association Miscellaneous links Online lectures in mycology University of South Carolina The WWW Virtual Library: Mycology MykoWeb links page Mycological Glossary at the Illinois Mycological Association FUNGI Magazine for professionals and amateurs - largest circulating U. S. publication concerning all things mycological] Fungal Cell Biology Group at University of Edinburgh, UK.
Mycological Marvels Cornell University, Mann Library
University of Greifswald
The University of Greifswald is a public research university located in Greifswald, Germany, in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Founded in 1456, it is one of the oldest universities in Europe, with generations of notable alumni and staff having studied or worked in Greifswald; as the fourth oldest university in present Germany, it was temporarily the oldest university of the Kingdoms of Sweden and Prussia, respectively. Two thirds of the 10,414 students are from outside the state. Due to the small-town atmosphere, the pronounced architectural presence of the alma mater across town, the young, academic flair in the streets, Greifswald is described as a "university with a town built around it" rather than a town with a university; the University of Greifswald was founded on 17 October 1456 with the approval of the Holy Roman Empire and the Pope. This was possible due to the great commitment of Greifswald's lord mayor, Heinrich Rubenow, to become the university's first rector, with the support of Duke Wartislaw IX of Pomerania and Bishop Henning Iven of the local St Nicolas' Cathedral.
The founding took place in the local cathedral, remodeled by Caspar David Friedrich and his brother and can still be visited today. The founding of the university was made possible by a decree that restricted teaching activity at the University of Rostock. Several professors left Rostock for Greifswald to continue their work there, where Heinrich Rubenow took the chance of establishing his own university; the university consisted of the four traditional divisions: Theology, Philosophy and Law. In Germany, there are only three older universities by count of the years of existence: the University of Heidelberg, the University of Leipzig, the University of Rostock. International co-operation with other institutions of higher education in northern Europe existed in the earliest years and accelerated by the transnational trading network Hanse. From 1456 until 1526, 476 Scandinavians were enrolled at Greifswald University and 22 faculty members as well as six rectors came from Scandinavia; this was a high percentage compared to the total number of students at the time.
Sources suggest a segregated life of Swedish students in the German university though. The early sixteenth century saw significant co-operation of the university, the Lutheran church, the city and the Duchy of Pomerania. Professors of theology served as pastors in the three cathedrals. Professors of medicine served as personal physicians of the duke. Professors of law were working at the local courts while professors of the faculty of philosophy taught the sons and daughters of the ducal family; the landed nobility funded university-related purposes such as scholarships and student bursaries. The Reformation was introduced at the university in 1539. Johannes Bugenhagen, an alumnus of the university, was an important figure during the German and Scandinavian reformation as well as a good friend of Martin Luther. After the secularisation of the monastery at Eldena near Greifswald, Duke Philipp I of Pomerania gave all revenue created by the now secularised Amt Eldena to the university, his successor, Duke Ernst Ludwig, began the construction of a college building, which could only be completed after his death.
Duke Philipp Julius presented the university a gown, used by the rector on ceremonial occasions up until recently. In 1604, the Greifswald University Library became the first centralised university library in Germany; the university signed a contract with a book printer from Wittenberg, for the amount of 2,000 Gulden. This contract lasted nearly a century due to the disruption caused by the Thirty Years' War. Hence, the university now owns prestigious early prints of authors and printers such as Johannes Gutenberg or Thomas Thorild; the phrase cuius regio, eius religio as applied to the outcome of the Protestant Reformation is attributed to the early seventeenth century jurist Joachim Stephani of the University of Greifswald. The Duke of Pomerania had not paid the professors; as a solution, he gave the Amt Eldena to the university – a total of 140 square kilometres of land. After the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 the western part of Pomerania, including Greifswald and its university, became a fief held by Sweden.
1806–1815 it was formally a part of Sweden. Without losing its character as a German university, it was influenced by Swedish educational policies until 1815. During the second half of the eighteenth century Greifswald was a cultural and scientific bridge between Germany and Sweden. More than 1,500 Swedes studied at Greifswald University; the first university course in the English language in Germany was held in Greifswald in the year 1777. The main administrative building – still in use today – was built during the "good old Swedish years" by Andreas Mayer, a mathematician by profession, in the style of North German Baroque; when Swedish Pomerania became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1815, the University of Greifswald became the oldest university on Prussian territory. Prussia recognised the potential of science and universities, thus extensive building activity and growing financial support enabled the University of Greifswald to grow further both in size and reputation. In 1856, on the occasion of the 400th anniversary of the university's founding, a monument was unveiled in the presence of King Frederick William IV of Prussia.
The monument is still at its place, was restore
Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and animals, including insects. The gut metagenome is the aggregate of all the genomes of gut microbiota; the gut is one niche. In humans, the gut microbiota has the largest numbers of bacteria and the greatest number of species compared to other areas of the body. In humans, the gut flora is established at one to two years after birth, by which time the intestinal epithelium and the intestinal mucosal barrier that it secretes have co-developed in a way, tolerant to, supportive of, the gut flora and that provides a barrier to pathogenic organisms; the relationship between some gut flora and humans is not commensal, but rather a mutualistic relationship. Some human gut microorganisms benefit the host by fermenting dietary fiber into short-chain fatty acids, such as acetic acid and butyric acid, which are absorbed by the host. Intestinal bacteria play a role in synthesizing vitamin B and vitamin K as well as metabolizing bile acids and xenobiotics.
The systemic importance of the SCFAs and other compounds they produce are like hormones and the gut flora itself appears to function like an endocrine organ, dysregulation of the gut flora has been correlated with a host of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. The composition of human gut microbiota changes over time, when the diet changes, as overall health changes. A systematic review from 2016 examined the preclinical and small human trials that have been conducted with certain commercially available strains of probiotic bacteria and identified those that had the most potential to be useful for certain central nervous system disorders; the microbial composition of the gut microbiota varies across the digestive tract. In the stomach and small intestine few species of bacteria are present; the colon, in contrast, contains a densely-populated microbial ecosystem with up to 1012 cells per gram of intestinal content. These bacteria represent between 1000 different species. However, 99 % of the bacteria come from about 40 species.
As a consequence of their abundance in the intestine, bacteria make up to 60% of the dry mass of feces. Fungi, protists and viruses are present in the gut flora, but less is known about their activities. Over 99% of the bacteria in the gut are anaerobes, but in the cecum, aerobic bacteria reach high densities, it is estimated that these gut flora have around a hundred times as many genes in total as there are in the human genome. Many species in the gut have not been studied outside of their hosts because most cannot be cultured. While there are a small number of core species of microbes shared by most individuals, populations of microbes can vary among different individuals. Within an individual, microbe populations stay constant over time though some alterations may occur with changes in lifestyle and age; the Human Microbiome Project has set out to better describe the microflora of the human gut and other body locations. The four dominant bacterial phyla in the human gut are Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria.
Most bacteria belong to the genera Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus, Peptostreptococcus, Bifidobacterium. Other genera, such as Escherichia and Lactobacillus, are present to a lesser extent. Species from the genus Bacteroides alone constitute about 30% of all bacteria in the gut, suggesting that this genus is important in the functioning of the host. Fungal genera that have been detected in the gut include Candida, Aspergillus, Rhodotorula, Pleospora, Sclerotinia and Galactomyces, among others. Rhodotorula is most found in individuals with inflammatory bowel disease while Candida is most found in individuals with hepatitis B cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis B. Archaea constitute another large class of gut flora which are important in the metabolism of the bacterial products of fermentation. Industralization is associated with changes in the microbiota and the reduction of diversity could drive certain species to extinction. An enterotype is a classification of living organisms based on its bacteriological ecosystem in the human gut microbiome not dictated by age, body weight, or national divisions.
There are indications. Three human enterotypes have been proposed. Due to the high acidity of the stomach, most microorganisms cannot survive there; the main bacterial inhabitants of the stomach include: Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Peptostreptococcus, types of yeast. Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative spiral bacterium that establishes on gastric mucosa causing chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease and is a carcinogen for gastric cancer; the small intestine contains a trace amount of microorganisms due to the proximity and influence of the stomach. Gram-positive cocci and rod-shaped bacteria are the predominant microorganisms found in the small intestine. However, in the distal portion of the small intestine alkaline conditions support gram-negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae; the bacterial flora of the small intestine aid in a wide range of intestinal functions. The bacterial flora provide regulatory signals that enable the utility of the gut. Overgrowth of bacteria in the small intestine can lead to intestinal failure.
In addition the large intestine contains the largest bacterial ecosystem in the human bod