A baritone is a type of classical male singing voice whose vocal range lies between the bass and the tenor voice types. From the Greek βαρύτονος, meaning heavy sounding, music for this voice is written in the range from the second F below middle C to the F above middle C in choral music, from the second A below middle C to the A above middle C in operatic music, but can be extended at either end; the baritone voice type is divided into the baryton-Martin baritone, lyric baritone, Verdi baritone, dramatic baritone, baryton-noble baritone, the bass-baritone. The first use of the term "baritone" emerged as baritonans, late in the 15th century in French sacred polyphonic music. At this early stage it was used as the lowest of the voices, but in 17th-century Italy the term was all-encompassing and used to describe the average male choral voice. Baritones took the range as it is known today at the beginning of the 18th century, but they were still lumped in with their bass colleagues until well into the 19th century.
Indeed, many operatic works of the 18th century have roles marked as bass that in reality are low baritone roles. Examples of this are to be found, for instance, in the operas and oratorios of George Frideric Handel; the greatest and most enduring parts for baritones in 18th-century operatic music were composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. They include Count Almaviva in The Marriage of Figaro, Guglielmo in Così fan tutte, Papageno in The Magic Flute and the lead in Don Giovanni. In theatrical documents, cast lists, journalistic dispatches that from the beginning of the 19th century till the mid 1820s, the terms primo basso, basse chantante, basse-taille were used for men who would be called baritones; these included the likes of Filippo Galli, Giovanni Inchindi, Henri-Bernard Dabadie. The basse-taille and the proper bass were confused because their roles were sometimes sung by singers of either actual voice part; the bel canto style of vocalism which arose in Italy in the early 19th century supplanted the castrato-dominated opera seria of the previous century.
It led to the baritone being viewed as a separate voice category from the bass. Traditionally, basses in operas had been cast as authority figures such as high priest. More than not, baritones found themselves portraying villains; the principal composers of bel canto opera are considered to be: Gioachino Rossini. The prolific operas of these composers, plus the works of Verdi's maturity, such as Un ballo in maschera, La forza del destino, Don Carlos/Don Carlo, the revised Simon Boccanegra, Aida and Falstaff, blazed many new and rewarding performance pathways for baritones. Figaro in Il barbiere is called the first true baritone role; however and Verdi in their vocal writing went on to emphasize the top fifth of the baritone voice, rather than its lower notes—thus generating a more brilliant sound. Further pathways opened up when the musically complex and physically demanding operas of Richard Wagner began to enter the mainstream repertory of the world's opera houses during the second half of the 19th century.
The major international baritone of the first half of the 19th century was the Italian Antonio Tamburini. He was a famous Don Giovanni in Mozart's eponymous opera as well as being a Bellini and Donizetti specialist. Commentators praised his voice for its beauty and smooth tonal emission, which are the hallmarks of a bel canto singer. Tamburini's range, was closer to that of a bass-baritone than to that of a modern "Verdi baritone", his French equivalent was Henri-Bernard Dabadie, a mainstay of the Paris Opera between 1819 and 1836 and the creator of several major Rossinian baritone roles, including Guillaume Tell. Dabadie sang in Italy, where he originated the role of Belcore in L'elisir d'amore in 1832; the most important of Tamburini's Italianate successors were all Verdians. They included: Giorgio Ronconi, who created the title role in Verdi's Nabucco Felice Varesi, who created the title roles in Macbeth and Rigoletto as well as Germont in La traviata Antonio Superchi, the originator of Don Carlo in Ernani Francesco Graziani, the original Don Carlo di Vargas in La forza del destino Leone Giraldoni, the creator of Renato in Un ballo in maschera and the first Simon Boccanegra Enrico Delle Sedie, London's first Renato Adriano Pantaleoni, renowned for his performances as Amonasro in Aida as well as other Verdi roles at La Scala, Milan Francesco Pandolfini, whose singing at La Scala during the 1870s was praised by Verdi Antonio Cotogni, a much lauded singer in Milan and Saint Petersburg, the first Italian Posa in Don Carlos and a great vocal pedagogue, too Filippo Coletti, creator of Verdi's Gusmano in Alzira, Francesco in I masnadieri, Germont in the second version of La traviata and for whom Verdi considered writing the opera'Lear'.
Haiphong Opera House
Haiphong Opera House is a French-built neoclassical opera house on Opera Square in Hai Phong, opened in 1912. The first performance of opera in Haiphong was held by a travelling troupe in the Hotel des Colonies in 1888. 1895-1897 a touring French opera company in Indochina, featuring Alexandra David-Néel as prima donna toured Haiphong with La Traviata and Carmen. Another touring company, while waiting for the 1902 Exposition of Hanoi to open, came to Haiphong, including Blanche Arral; the French colonial authorities cleared an old market in the square to make way for the Opera House, in construction from 1904 to 1912. The French architect deliberately copied the materials of the Palais Garnier in Paris; when it opened performances were put on by touring singers, alternating with performances at the Hanoi Opera House On August 23, 1945 the Opera House was venue for the first public meeting of the Viet Minh in Haiphong, followed by a march and occupation of key buildings not guarded by the Japanese.
The Opera House was shortly afterwards scene one of the first conflicts of the First Indochina War. On 20 November 1946, during the first days of the French attack on Hai Phong, 39 Viet Minh soldiers and Opera staff with antique muskets led by platoon commander Đặng Kim Nở fought French troops from the Opera House for three days and nights, killing 50 French soldiers before they were overcome; the Viet Minh evacuated the city on the 23 November under bombardment. Under French rule the Opera House had been for the colonial population. With the departure of the French population the Opera House turned more to local genres including classical Sino-Vietnamese hát tuồng opera, classical Vietnamese hát chèo drama, the popular cải lương folk musical, as well as Socialist theatre and musical; the Opera House holds concerts of Vietnamese music, both classical ca trù, neotraditional Vietnamese-Western, folk genres such as hát chầu văn and quan họ, popular songs
Hỏa Lò Prison
Hỏa Lò Prison was a prison used by the French colonists in French Indochina for political prisoners, by North Vietnam for U. S. prisoners of war during the Vietnam War. During this period it was known to American POWs as the Hanoi Hilton; the prison was demolished during the 1990s. The name Hỏa Lò translated as "fiery furnace" or "Hell's hole" means "stove"; the name originated from the street name phố Hỏa Lò, due to the concentration of stores selling wood stoves and coal-fire stoves along the street from pre-colonial times. The prison was built in Hanoi by the French, in dates ranging from 1886–1889 to 1898 to 1901, when Vietnam was still part of French Indochina; the French called the prison Maison Centrale – Central House-, still the designation of prisons for dangerous and/or long sentence detainees in France. It was located near Hanoi's French Quarter, it was intended to hold Vietnamese prisoners political prisoners agitating for independence who were subject to torture and execution. A 1913 renovation expanded its capacity from 460 inmates to 600.
It was often overcrowded, holding some 730 prisoners on a given day in 1916, a figure which rose to 895 in 1922 and 1,430 in 1933. By 1954 it held more than 2000 people; the central urban location of the prison became part of its early character. During the 1910s through 1930s, street peddlers made an occupation of passing outside messages in through the jail's windows and tossing tobacco and opium over the walls. Within the prison itself and ideas passed. Indeed, many of the future leading figures in Communist North Vietnam spent time in Maison Centrale during the 1930s and 1940s. Following the defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu and the 1954 Geneva Accords the French left Hanoi and the prison came under the authority of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Thereafter the prison served as an education center for revolutionary doctrine and activity, it was kept around after the French left to mark its historical significance to the North Vietnamese. During the Vietnam War, the first U. S. prisoner to be sent to Hỏa Lò was Lieutenant Junior Grade Everett Alvarez Jr., shot down on August 5, 1964.
From the beginning, U. S. POWs endured miserable conditions, including poor unsanitary conditions; the prison complex was sarcastically nicknamed the "Hanoi Hilton" by the American POWs, in reference to the well-known Hilton Hotel chain. There is some disagreement among the first group of POWs who coined the name but F8D pilot Bob Shumaker was the first to write it down, carving "Welcome to the Hanoi Hilton" on the handle of a pail to greet the arrival of Air Force Lieutenant Robert Peel. Beginning in early 1967, a new area of the prison was opened for incoming American POWs; these names were chosen because many pilots had trained at Nellis Air Force Base, located in proximity to Las Vegas. American pilots were already in bad shape by the time they were captured, injured either during their ejection or in landing on the ground; the Hanoi Hilton was one site used by the North Vietnamese Army to house and interrogate captured servicemen American pilots shot down during bombing raids. Although North Vietnam was a signatory of the Third Geneva Convention of 1949, which demanded "decent and humane treatment" of prisoners of war, severe torture methods were employed, such as rope bindings, irons and prolonged solitary confinement.
When prisoners of war began to be released from this and other North Vietnamese prisons during the Johnson administration, their testimonies revealed widespread and systematic abuse of prisoners of war. Regarding treatment at Hỏa Lò and other prisons, the North Vietnamese countered by stating that prisoners were treated well and in accordance with the Geneva Conventions. During 1969, they broadcast a series of coerced statements from American prisoners that purported to support this notion; the North Vietnamese maintained that their prisons were no worse than prisons for POWs and political prisoners in South Vietnam, such as the one on Côn Sơn Island. Mistreatment of Viet Cong and North Vietnamese prisoners and South Vietnamese dissidents in South Vietnam's prisons was indeed frequent, as was North Vietnamese abuse of South Vietnamese prisoners and their own dissidents. Beginning in late 1969, treatment of the prisoners at Hỏa Lò and other camps became less severe and more tolerable. Following the late 1970 attempted rescue operation at Sơn Tây prison camp, most of the POWs at the outlying camps were moved to Hỏa Lò, so that the North Vietnamese had fewer camps to protect.
This created the "Camp Unity" communal living area at Hỏa Lò, which reduced the isolation of the POWs and improved their morale. Everett Alvarez Jr. Mexican American the 2nd longest held U. S. POW, enduring over 8 years of captivity John L. Borling, USAF pilot, POW for 6 1⁄2 years, retired Major General Charles G. Boyd, USAF pilot, POW for 7 years, retired General. George Thomas Coker, US Navy pilot Bud Day, USAF pilot, Medal of Honor and Air Force Cross recipient, political activist, was cellmates with McCain Jeremiah Denton, US Navy pilot, Senator Leon F. "Lee" Ellis, USAF fighter pilot, motivational speaker a
Temple of Literature, Hanoi
The Temple of Literature is a Temple of Confucius in Hanoi, northern Vietnam. The temple hosts Vietnam's first national university; the temple was built in 1070 at the time of Emperor Lý Thánh Tông. It is one of several temples in Vietnam, dedicated to Confucius and scholars; the temple is located to the south of the Imperial Citadel of Thăng Long. The various pavilions, halls and stelae of doctors are places where offering ceremonies, study sessions and the strict exams of the Đại Việt took place; the temple is featured on the back of the 100,000 Vitnamese đồng banknote. Just before the Vietnamese New Year celebration Tết, calligraphists will assemble outside the temple and write wishes in Hán characters; the art works are used as home decorations for special occasions. The temple was built in 1070 and was reconstructed during the Trần dynasty and in the subsequent dynasties. For nearly two centuries, despite wars and disasters, the temple has preserved ancient architectural styles of many dynasties as well as precious relics.
Major restorations have taken place in 1920, 1954 and 2000."In the autumn of the year Canh Tuat, the second year of Than Vu, in the 8th lunar month, during the reign of King Lý Thánh Tông, the Văn Miếu was built. The statues of Confucius, his four best disciples: Yan Hui, Zengzi and Mencius, as well as the Duke of Zhou, were carved and 72 other statues of Confucian scholars were painted. Ceremonies were dedicated to them in each of the four seasons; the Crown Princes studied here."In 1076, Vietnam's first university, the "Quốc Tử Giám" or Imperial Academy, was established within the temple during the reign of Lý Nhân Tông to educate Vietnam's bureaucrats, nobles and other members of the elite. The university remained open from 1076 to 1779. In 1802, the Nguyễn dynasty's monarchs founded the Huế capital where they established a new imperial academy; the academy at the Hanoi temple became a school of the Hoài Đức District. Under the French protectorate, the Văn Miếu - Quốc Tử Giám was registered as a Monument historique in 1906.
During the period of 1945- 1954, the French demolished parts of the temple to make room for the sick and wounded since the hospitals were full during times of war. Campaigns of restoration were pursued in 1920 and 1947 under the responsibility of École française d'Extrême-Orient; the temple layout is similar to that of the temple at Qufu, Confucius' birthplace. It covers an area of over 54000 square metres, including the Văn lake, Giám park and the interior courtyards which are surrounded by a brick wall. In front of the Great Gate are four tall pillars. On either side of the pillars are two stelae commanding horsemen to dismount; the gate opens onto three pathways. The centre path was reserved for the monarch and above the center path there is a big bronze bell, The path to the left is for the administrative Mandarins and the path to the right is for military Mandarins; the interior of the site is divided into five courtyards. The first two courtyards are quiet areas with ancient trees and trimmed lawns, where scholars would relax away from the bustle of the outside world.
The bell located above the main gate was used to signify that an important person was coming through and was added to the Văn Miếu in the 19th century. The bell could only be touched by monks. On the bell several patterns can be found including an outline of a phoenix, which represents beauty, a dragon, which represents power. Both of these symbols are used to represent the Queen. A bell can be found in all of the pagodas in Vietnam; the first courtyard extends from the Great Portico to the Dai Trung, flanked by two smaller gates: the Dai Tai gate and the Thanh Duc gate. The second courtyard contains the Khue Van pavilion, a unique architectural work built in 1805 and a symbol of present-day Hanoi; the Khue Van pavilion is built on four white-washed stone stilts. At the top is a red-coloured with two circular windows and an elaborate roof. Inside, a bronze bell hangs from the ceiling to be rung on auspicious occasions. Beside the Khue Van pavilion are the Bi Van gate; these two gates are dedicated to the beauty of both its content and its form.
In the first and second courtyards there are topiaries. One enters the third courtyard from the Khue Van pavilion. In the third courtyard is the Thien Quang well. On either side of the well stand two great halls which house the treasures of the temple. In 1484, the Emperor Lê Thánh Tông erected 116 steles of carved blue stone turtles with elaborate motifs to honour talent and encourage study; the Turtle is one of the nation's four holy creatures - the others are the Dragon, the Unicorn and the Phoenix. The turtle is a symbol of wisdom; the shape and size of the turtle changed with the passage of time. The doctors' steles are a valuable historical resource for the study of culture and sculpture in Vietnam. 82 stelae remain. They depict the names and birth places of 1307 graduates of 82 triennial royal exams. Between 1442 and 1779, eighty-one exams were held by the Lê dynasty and one was held by the Mạc dynasty; the ancient Chinese engravings on each stele praise the merits of the monarch and cite the reason for holding royal exams.
They record the mandarins who were tasked with o
Eugene Onegin (opera)
Eugene Onegin, Op. 24, is an opera in 3 acts, composed by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. The libretto, organised by the composer himself closely follows certain passages in Alexander Pushkin's novel in verse, retaining much of his poetry. Tchaikovsky's friend Konstantin Shilovsky contributed M. Triquet's verses in Act 2, Scene 1, while Tchaikovsky himself arranged the text for Lensky's arioso in Act 1, Scene 1, all of Prince Gremin's aria in Act 3, Scene 1. Eugene Onegin is a well-known example of lyric opera, to which Tchaikovsky added music of a dramatic nature; the story concerns a selfish hero who lives to regret his blasé rejection of a young woman's love and his careless incitement of a fatal duel with his best friend. The opera was first performed in Moscow in 1879. There are several recordings of it, it is performed; the work's title refers to the protagonist. In May 1877, the opera singer Yelizaveta Lavrovskaya spoke to Tchaikovsky about creating an opera based on the plot of Pushkin's verse novel Eugene Onegin.
At first this idea seemed wild according to his memoirs. Tchaikovsky felt that the novel wasn't properly strong in plot – a dandy rejects a young country girl, she grows into a worldly woman, he tries to seduce her but it is too late; the strength of the novel resided in its character development and social commentary, as well as in the beauty of its literary delivery. Soon enough however and after a sleepless night, Tchaikovsky came to embrace the idea, he was soon growing excited about the suggestion and created the scenarios in one night before starting the composition of the music. Tchaikovsky, with some minor involvement by Konstantin Shilovsky, used original verses from Pushkin's novel and chose scenes that involved the emotional world and fortunes of his heroes, calling the opera "lyrical scenes." The opera is episodic. Since the original story was so well known, Tchaikovsky knew his audience could fill in any details that he omitted. A similar treatment is found in Puccini's La bohème.
The composer finished the opera by January 1878. Tchaikovsky worried whether the public would accept his opera, which lacked traditional scene changes, he believed that its performance required maximum sincerity. With this in mind, he entrusted the first production to the students of the Moscow Conservatory; the premiere took place on 29 March 1879 at the Maly Theatre, conducted by Nikolai Rubinstein, with set designs by Karl Valts. Two years the first performance at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow took place on 23 January 1881 with conductor Eduard Nápravník. Outside Russia the initial reception was lukewarm, it was slow to conquer other European cities, being seen as a Russian curiosity; the first performance outside Russia took place on 6 December 1888 in Prague, conducted by Tchaikovsky himself, although the rehearsals had been the responsibility of Adolf Čech. It was sung in Czech and translated by Marie Červinková-Riegrová; the first performance in Hamburg, on 19 January 1892, was conducted by Gustav Mahler, in the composer's presence.
Tchaikovsky received curtain calls at the end. He attributed its success to Mahler, whom he described as "not some average sort, but a genius burning with a desire to conduct"; the first performance in England took place on 17 October 1892 at the Olympic Theatre in London with Henry J. Wood conducting; this performance was sung to a text translated by H. S. Edwards. Vienna first saw Eugene Onegin on 19 November 1897; the United States premiere was given on 24 March 1920 at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City. The opera was sung in Italian. Source: Tchaikovsky Research Woodwinds: Piccolo, 2 Flutes, 2 Oboes, 2 Clarinets, 2 Bassoons Brass: 4 Horns, 2 Trumpets, 3 Trombones Strings: Violins I, Violins II, Cellos, Double Basses, Harp Percussion: Timpani Time: The 1820s Place: St Petersburg and surrounding countryside Scene 1: The garden of the Larin country estate Madame Larina and the nurse Filippyevna are sitting outside in the garden, they can hear Madame Larina's two daughters and her younger sister Olga, singing a love song.
Madame Larina begins to reminisce about her own marriage. A group of peasants enter, celebrate the harvest with songs and dances. Tatyana and Olga watch. Tatyana is absorbed by the story. Madame Larina tells Tatyana that real life is different from her novels. Filippyevna announces that visitors have arrived: Olga's fiancé Lensky, a young poet, his friend Eugene Onegin, visiting the area from St Petersburg; the pair are shown in and Lensky introduces Onegin to the Larin family. Onegin is surprised that Lensky has chosen the extrovert Olga rather than her more subtle elder sister as his fiancée. Tatyana for her part is and attracted to Onegin. Lensky expresses his delight at seeing Olga and she responds flirtatiously. Onegin tells Tatyana of his boredom in the country and describes the death of his uncle and his subsequent inheritance of a nearby estate. Filippyevna recognizes. Scene 2: Tatyana's room Tatyana is dressed for bed. Restless and unable to sleep, she asks her nurse Filippyevna to tell her about her youth and early marriage.
Tatyana confesses. Left alone, Tatyana pours out her feelings in a letter to Onegin, she tells him that she loves him and believ
St. Joseph's Cathedral, Hanoi
St. Joseph's Cathedral is a church on Nha Chung Street in the Hoàn Kiếm District of Hanoi, Vietnam, its a late 19th-century Gothic Revival church that serves as the cathedral of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hanoi to nearly 4 million Catholics in the country. The cathedral was named after the patron saint of Vietnam and Indochina. Construction began in 1886, with the architectural style described as resembling Notre Dame de Paris; the church was one of the first structures built by the French colonial government in Indochina when it opened in December 1886. It is the oldest church in Hanoi; the cathedral conducts mass several times during the day. For Sunday evening mass at 6:00 PM, large crowds spill out into the streets; the prayer hymns are broadcast and Catholics who are unable to enter the cathedral congregate in the street and listen to hymns. The cathedral is situated west in a small square within the Old Quarter. Nearby, there are small apartment blocks. Centrally located at the end of the Nha Tho Street and the corner of Pho Nha Chung, the cathedral, the headquarters of Archdiocese of Vietnam has control over 480 churches and chapels, 113 parishes, serves 400,000 Catholics.
The main gate to the cathedral is opened during mass and during the rest of time the entry is only through a side door in the compound wall of the Diocese. From this point to the cathedral is a walk to the side door and ring a bell to enter the cathedral. In 1872, the French under Jean Dupuis captured the Hanoi Citadel, before Francis Garnier conquered the rest of the city. A decade passed. Construction of the cathedral most started after this time and it was completed in December 1886, a year before the federation of French Indochina was established as part of its colonial empire, it was built by the French missionary and apostolic vicar of Tonkin Paul-François Puginier who obtained permission from the colonial French administration. It was built on the site of Bao Thien Pagoda, a sacred Buddhist temple that served as an "administrative center" of Tonkin during the pre-French colonial era. In order to facilitate the construction of the church, the pagoda—which was built at the time when the city was founded during the Lý Dynasty in the 11th century—was demolished.
The cathedral was consecrated on December 24, 1886. After the Viet Minh took control of North Vietnam following the Geneva Accords in 1954, the Catholic Church suffered decades of persecution. Priests were arrested, church property was seized and expropriated. St. Joseph's Cathedral was not spared and it was closed down until Christmas Eve of 1990, when Mass was permitted to be celebrated there again. In 2008, protests related to religious symbols occurred at the lot next to the cathedral. Built with stone slabs and in brick with concrete facing, the façade consists of two towers, square in shape, rising to a height of 103 ft and each tower fitted with five bells; the cathedral was built in a Gothic Revival style. The twin bell towers have drawn comparisons to the ones at Notre Dame de Paris; the exterior walls of the church are made of granite stone slabs. Over the years, the cathedral's exterior has become worn down due to heavy pollution. Windows have pointed arches; the cathedral's stained glass windows were produced in France before being transported to Vietnam.
The ceiling is rib vaulted like those seen in medieval Europe. The nave is weathered and the sanctuary looks shiny and is made of gilt trimmed wood, similar to that of Phat Diem Cathedral and has royal Hue architectural embellishments. A statue of Virgin Mary is kept in palanquin according to the local custom, seen to the left of the nave, it is at the end of the church street, an upscale market area with boutiques and silks. Roman Catholicism in Vietnam Archdiocese of Hanoi
Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum
The Chairman Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum is a mausoleum which serves as the resting place of Vietnamese Revolutionary leader Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi, Vietnam. It is a large building located in the center of Ba Dinh Square, where Ho, Chairman of the Workers' Party of Vietnam from 1951 until his death in 1969, read the Declaration of Independence on 2 September 1945, establishing the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, it is known as Ba Đình Mausoleum and is open to the public. Construction work began on September 2, 1973, the mausoleum was formally inaugurated on August 29, 1975, it was inspired by Lenin's Mausoleum in Moscow but incorporates distinct Vietnamese architectural elements, such as the sloping roof. The exterior is made of grey granite, while the interior is grey and red polished stone; the mausoleum's portico has the words "Chủ tịch Hồ Chí Minh" inscribed across it. The banner beside says "Nước Cộng Hòa Xã Hội Chủ Nghĩa Việt Nam Muôn Năm"; the structure is 41.2 meters wide. Flanking the mausoleum are two platforms with seven steps for parade viewing.
The plaza in front of the mausoleum is divided into 240 green squares separated by pathways. The gardens surrounding the mausoleum have nearly 250 different species of plants and flowers, all from different regions of Vietnam; the embalmed body of Ho Chi Minh is preserved in the cooled, central hall of the mausoleum, protected by a military honour guard. The body lies in a glass case with dim lights; the mausoleum is open to the public every day. In 2012, a CNN travel writer listed the Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum among ten of "the world's ugliest buildings". Ho Chi Minh Museum, located next to the mausoleum Mai Dịch Cemetery Tomb of Võ Nguyên Giáp in Quảng Bình Province 37625751 Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum on OpenStreetMap