Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
A fair known as a funfair, is a gathering of people for a variety of entertainment or commercial activities. It is of the essence of a fair that it is temporary with scheduled times lasting from an afternoon to several weeks. Variations of fairs include: Street fair, a fair that celebrates the character of a neighborhood and merchant oriented; as its name suggests, it is held on the main street of a neighborhood. Fête, an elaborate festival, party, or celebration. Festival, an event ordinarily coordinated and/or celebrated by a community or group with a theme e.g. music, season and/or on some characteristic or aspect of a community, or the region i.e beach, local harvest, etc. or state the community is in. This can include history, an prevalent ethnicity, religion, or a national holiday, e.g.. The Fourth of July. County fair or agricultural show, a public event exhibiting the equipment, animals and recreation associated with agriculture and animal husbandry. State fair, an annual competitive and recreational gathering of a U.
S. state's population held in late summer or early fall. It is a larger version of a county fair including only exhibits or competitors that have won in their categories at the more local county fairs. Trade fair, an exhibition organized so that companies in a specific industry can showcase and demonstrate their latest products and services, study activities of rivals, examine recent market trends and opportunities. Traveling carnival simply called a carnival, an amusement show made up of amusement rides, food vendors, merchandise vendors, games of chance and skill, thrill acts, animal acts. Traveling funfair, a small to medium-sized traveling show composed of stalls and other amusements; the Roman fairs were holidays. In the Roman provinces of Judea and Syria Palaestina, Jewish rabbis prohibited Jews from participating in fairs in certain towns because the religious nature of the fairs contravened the prescribed practice of Judaism. In the Middle Ages, many fairs developed as temporary markets and were important for long-distance and international trade, as wholesale traders travelled, sometimes for many days, to fairs where they could be sure to meet those they needed to buy from or sell to.
Fairs were tied to special Christian religious occasions, such as the Saint's day of the local church. Stagshaw in England, is documented to have held annual fairs as early as 1293 consisting of the sales of animals. Along with the main fair held on 4 July, the city hosted smaller fairs throughout the year where specific types of animals were sold, such as one for horses, one for lambs, one for ewes; the Kumbh Mela, held every twelve years, at Allahabad, Haridwar and Ujjain is one of the largest fairs in India, where more than 60 million people gathered in January 2001, making it the largest gathering anywhere in the world. Kumbha means Mela means fair in Sanskrit. In the United States, fairs draw in as many as 150 million people each summer. Children's competitions at an American fair range from breeding small animals to robotics, whilst the organization 4-H has become a traditional association; because of the great numbers of people attracted by fairs they were the scenes of riots and disturbances, so the privilege of holding a fair was granted by royal charter.
At first, they were allowed only in towns and places of strength, or where there was a bishop, sheriff or governor who could keep order. In time various benefits became attached to certain fairs, such as granting people the protection of a holiday and allowing them freedom from arrest in certain circumstances; the officials were authorized to mete out justice to those. The chaotic nature of the Stagshaw Bank Fair with masses of people and animals and stalls inspired the Newcastle colloquialism "like a Stagey Bank Fair" to describe a general mess; the American county fair is featured in E. B. White's Charlotte's Web. Art exhibition Lists of festivals "Fair". Encyclopædia Britannica. 10. 1911
Hanover or Hannover is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony. Its 535,061 inhabitants make it the thirteenth-largest city of Germany, as well as the third-largest city of Northern Germany after Hamburg and Bremen; the city lies at the confluence of the River Leine and its tributary Ihme, in the south of the North German Plain, is the largest city of the Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region. It is the fifth-largest city in the Low German dialect area after Hamburg, Dortmund and Bremen. Before it became the capital of Lower Saxony in 1946, Hanover was the capital of the Principality of Calenberg, the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover, the Province of Hanover of the Kingdom of Prussia, the Province of Hanover of the Free State of Prussia, of the State of Hanover. From 1714 to 1837, Hanover was by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title of the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
The city is a major crossing point of railway lines and highways, connecting European main lines in both the east-west and north-south directions. Hannover Airport lies north of the city, in Langenhagen, is Germany's ninth-busiest airport; the city's most notable institutions of higher education are the Hannover Medical School with its university hospital, the University of Hanover. The Hanover fairground, due to numerous extensions for the Expo 2000, is the largest in the world. Hanover hosts annual commercial trade fairs such as the Hanover Fair and up to 2018 the CeBIT; the IAA Commercial Vehicles show takes place every two years. It is the world's leading trade show for transport and mobility; every year Hanover hosts the Schützenfest Hannover, the world's largest marksmen's festival, the Oktoberfest Hannover. "Hanover" is the traditional English spelling. The German spelling is becoming more popular in English; the English pronunciation, with stress on the first syllable, is applied to both the German and English spellings, different from German pronunciation, with stress on the second syllable and a long second vowel.
The traditional English spelling is still used in historical contexts when referring to the British House of Hanover. Hanover was founded in medieval times on the east bank of the River Leine, its original name Honovere may mean "high bank". Hanover was a small village of ferrymen and fishermen that became a comparatively large town in the 13th century, receiving town privileges in 1241, due to its position at a natural crossroads; as overland travel was difficult, its position on the upper navigable reaches of the river helped it to grow by increasing trade. It was connected to the Hanseatic League city of Bremen by the Leine, was situated near the southern edge of the wide North German Plain and north-west of the Harz mountains, so that east-west traffic such as mule trains passed through it. Hanover was thus a gateway to the Rhine and Saar river valleys, their industrial areas which grew up to the southwest and the plains regions to the east and north, for overland traffic skirting the Harz between the Low Countries and Saxony or Thuringia.
In the 14th century the main churches of Hanover were built, as well as a city wall with three city gates. The beginning of industrialization in Germany led to trade in iron and silver from the northern Harz Mountains, which increased the city's importance. In 1636 George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, ruler of the Brunswick-Lüneburg principality of Calenberg, moved his residence to Hanover; the Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg was elevated by the Holy Roman Emperor to the rank of Prince-Elector in 1692, this elevation was confirmed by the Imperial Diet in 1708. Thus the principality was upgraded to the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, colloquially known as the Electorate of Hanover after Calenberg's capital, its Electors become monarchs of Great Britain. The first of these was George I Louis, who acceded to the British throne in 1714; the last British monarch who reigned in Hanover was William IV. Semi-Salic law, which required succession by the male line if possible, forbade the accession of Queen Victoria in Hanover.
As a male-line descendant of George I, Queen Victoria was herself a member of the House of Hanover. Her descendants, bore her husband's titular name of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Three kings of Great Britain, or the United Kingdom, were concurrently Electoral Princes of Hanover. During the time of the personal union of the crowns of the United Kingdom and Hanover, the monarchs visited the city. In fact, during the reigns of the final three joint rulers, there was only one short visit, by George IV in 1821. From 1816 to 1837 Viceroy Adolphus represented the monarch in Hanover. During the Seven Years' War, the Battle of Hastenbeck was fought near the city on 26 July 1757; the French army defeated the Hanoverian Army of Observation, leading to the city's occupation as part of the Invasion of Hanover. It was recaptured by Anglo-German forces led by Ferdinand of Brunswick the following year. After Napoleon imposed the Conv
Oktoberfest is the world's largest Volksfest. Held annually in Munich, Germany, it is a 16- to 18-day folk festival running from mid or late September to the first weekend in October, with more than six million people from around the world attending the event every year. Locally, it is called the Wiesn, after the colloquial name for the fairgrounds, Theresa's meadows; the Oktoberfest is an important part of Bavarian culture, having been held since the year 1810. Other cities across the world hold Oktoberfest celebrations that are modeled after the original Munich event. During the event, large quantities of Oktoberfest Beer are consumed: during the 16-day festival in 2013, for example, 7.7 million litres were served. Visitors enjoy numerous attractions, such as amusement rides and games. There is a wide variety of traditional foods available; the Munich Oktoberfest took place in the 16-day period leading up to the first Sunday in October. In 1994, this longstanding schedule was modified in response to German reunification.
As such, if the first Sunday in October falls on the 1st or the 2nd the festival would run until 3 October. Thus, the festival now runs for 17 days when the first Sunday is 2 October and 18 days when it is 1 October. In 2010, the festival lasted until the first Monday in October. Kronprinz Ludwig King Ludwig I, married Princess Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen on 12 October 1810; the citizens of Munich were invited to attend the festivities held on the fields in front of the city gates to celebrate the royal event. The fields were named Theresienwiese in honour of the Crown Princess, have kept that name since, although the locals have since abbreviated the name to the "Wiesn". Horse races, in the tradition of the 15th-century Scharlachrennen, were held on 18 October to honor the newlyweds, it is understood that Andreas Michael Dall'Armi, a Major in the National Guard, proposed the idea. However, the origins of the horse races, Oktoberfest itself, may have stemmed from proposals offered by Franz Baumgartner, a coachman and Sergeant in the National Guard.
The precise origins of the festival and horse races remain a matter of controversy, the decision to repeat the horse races and celebrations in 1811 launched what is now the annual Oktoberfest tradition. The fairground, once outside the city, was chosen due to its natural suitability; the Sendlinger Hill was used as a grandstand for 40,000 race spectators. The festival grounds remained undeveloped except for the king's tent; the tastings of "Traiteurs" and other wine and beer took place above the visitors in the stands on the hill. Before the race started, a performance was held in homage of the bridegroom and of the royal family in the form of a train of 16 pairs of children dressed in Wittelsbach costumes, costumes from the nine Bavarian townships and other regions; this was followed by the punishing race with 30 horses on an 11,200-foot long racetrack, concluded with the singing of a student choir. The first horse to cross the finish line belonged to Franz Baumgartner. Horse racing champion and Minister of State Maximilian von Montgelas presented Baumgartner with his gold medal.
In 1811, a show was added to promote Bavarian agriculture. In 1813, the festival was canceled due to the involvement of Bavaria in the Napoleonic Wars, after which the Oktoberfest grew from year to year; the horse races were accompanied by tree climbing, bowling alleys, swings and other attractions. In 1818, carnival booths appeared; the city fathers assumed responsibility for festival management in 1819, it was decided that Oktoberfest become an annual event. It was lengthened and the date pushed forward because days are longer and warmer at the end of September; the horse race continued until 1960, the agricultural show still exists today and is held every four years in the southern part of the festival grounds. To honour the marriage of Prince Ludwig and Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen, a parade took place for the first time in 1810. Since 1850, the parade has become an important component of the Oktoberfest. Eight thousand people—mostly from Bavaria—and dressed in traditional costumes walk from Maximilian Street through the centre of Munich to the Oktoberfest grounds.
The march is led by the Münchner Kindl. Since 1850, the statue of Bavaria has watched over the Oktoberfest; this worldly Bavarian patron was first sketched by Leo von Klenze in a classic style and Ludwig Michael Schwanthaler romanticised and "Germanised" the draft. The statue was constructed by Ferdinand von Miller. In 1853, the Bavarian Ruhmeshalle was completed. In 1854, the festival was cancelled. There was no Oktoberfest in 1866. In 1870, the Franco-Prussian War again forced the cancellation of the festival. In 1873, the festival was cancelled due to yet another cholera epidemic. In 1880, electric light illuminated more than 400 tents. In 1881, booths selling Bratwurst opened and the first beer was served in glass mugs in 1892. At the end of the 19th century, a re-organization took place; until there were games of skittles, large dance floors, trees for climbing in the beer booths. Organizers wanted more room for guests and musici
The Oktoberfest is a two-week festival held each year in Munich, Germany during late September and early October. It is attended by six million people each year and has inspired numerous similar events using the name Oktoberfest in Germany and around the world, many of which were founded by German immigrants or their descendants. Outside of Germany, the largest Oktoberfest is in Kitchener and surrounding cities in Waterloo Region, attracting over 700,000 visitors annually; the next largest Oktoberfest outside of Germany is regarded as being in Blumenau, Brazil with, Ohio, United States and the Denver Oktoberfest Denver, United States. In New York City, there is an Oktoberfest held under a big tent along the city's East River. However, the largest one depends on specific year's numbers and varies with sources. Oktoberfest is spreading to new geographical locations. One can find Oktoberfest celebrations mixing German traditions and beer with local culture outside of Germany; the National Beer Festival is Argentina's version of the German Oktoberfest.
It has taken place every October since 1963 in Córdoba. The party emerged by the hand of the first German immigrants; this festival attracts thousands of tourists for two consecutive weekends. In Australia, the universities are notorious in their celebrations of Oktoberfest every year, as students graduated and moved on, this rolled over into pubs and restaurants in the university areas. After the 2012 Oktoberfest Party the university council banned the celebration of the festival on university campus grounds. Following the end of many of the university based events a private event company, Nokturnl Events, launched'Oktoberfest in the Gardens' in the Supreme Court Gardens, Perth on 7 October 2011; the event has since expanded to Adelaide and Sydney. The event now attracts over 50,000 patrons annually making it the largest Oktoberfest celebration in Australia. Royal Melbourne Oktoberfest is held within the world heritage listed Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne. Oktoberfest In The Gardens is held in Melbourne Showgrounds.
Sydney have their instalment of this event located within Australia Technology Park. The Harmonie German Club, holds an Oktoberfest over a three-day period every year in October; the festival has been held for over 45 years, attracts a large number of visitors from Canberra and surrounding regions. In 2017 the event moved over the border to Queanbeyan in New South Wales and was held on 27 – 29 October. Brisbane celebrates its annual Brisbane Oktoberfest, considered Australia's largest German festival, it is held over the first two weekends in October and offers a variety of German beers and food, beer hall music and dance and singing performances. Since 1984, an annual Oktoberfest celebration has been held in the seaside village of Emu Park on Queensland's Capricorn Coast; the event is organised by the local Lions Club. In Brazil there are several Oktoberfests around the country, most of them in towns settled by Germans and Austrians in the Southern portion of the country. There are Oktoberfests in other portions of the country.
The Oktoberfest of Blumenau is one of the largest German festivals around the world, attracting around one million people every year. In Canada there is an annual nine-day celebration spread over 18 days in Ontario, it attracts over 700,000 visitors annually. While its most popular draws are the beer-based celebrations, other cultural and entertainment attractions fill the week; the most well-known is the parade held on Thanksgiving Day. As the only major parade on Canadian Thanksgiving, it is televised nationally. Coincidentally, the closing day of the Bavarian Oktoberfest falls on the German equivalent of Thanksgiving, Erntedankfest; the twin cities and surrounding area have a long history of German roots. Kitchener was named Berlin. A significant portion of the population of Kitchener and surrounding areas identify themselves as being of German descent, many still speak German. A common phrase at the celebrations is Gemütlichkeit, German for congeniality, or warm friendliness. Oktoberfest celebrations are held annually in Sherbrooke, Quebec at the beginning of October.
The one night event is held by Université de Sherbrooke's Engineering Students' Association. It draws 6,000 revellers each year. Two smaller events take place in the Greater Toronto Area: Toronto Oktoberfest at Ontario Place Unionville Oktoberfest Heritage Days in Unionville, Ontario In Chile bierfests are celebrated in Valdivia, Puerto Octay, Puerto Varas and Llanquihue and Malloco. Qingdao has the largest Oktoberfest celebration in all of China with celebrations since 1991. Around 4 million have participated. Beijing, held at the Paulaner Brauhaus in the Kempinski Hotel since 1993. Shanghai, at the Paulaner Brauhaus and held since 1997. Hong Kong, Marco Polo German Bierfest has been held since 1992; the celebration takes place in mid October to early November at Marco Polo Hong Kong Hotel in Harbour City, Tsim Sha Tsui. Other events take place in