George IV of the United Kingdom
George IV was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later. From 1811 until his accession, he served as Prince Regent during his father's final mental illness. George IV led an extravagant lifestyle, he was a patron of new forms of leisure and taste. He commissioned John Nash to build the Royal Pavilion in Brighton and remodel Buckingham Palace, Sir Jeffry Wyattville to rebuild Windsor Castle, his charm and culture earned him the title "the first gentleman of England", but his dissolute way of life and poor relationships with his parents and his wife, Caroline of Brunswick, earned him the contempt of the people and dimmed the prestige of the monarchy. He forbade Caroline to attend his coronation and asked the government to introduce the unpopular Pains and Penalties Bill in a desperate, unsuccessful attempt to divorce her. For most of George's regency and reign, Lord Liverpool controlled the government as Prime Minister.
George's ministers found his behaviour selfish and irresponsible. At all times he was much under the influence of favourites. Taxpayers were angry at his wasteful spending during the Napoleonic Wars, he act as a role model for his people. Liverpool's government presided over Britain's ultimate victory, negotiated the peace settlement, attempted to deal with the social and economic malaise that followed. After Liverpool's retirement, George was forced to accept Catholic emancipation despite opposing it, his only legitimate child, Princess Charlotte, died before him in 1817 and so he was succeeded by his younger brother, William. George was born at St James's Palace, London, on 12 August 1762, the first child of the British king George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; as the eldest son of a British sovereign, he automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay at birth. On 18 September of the same year, he was baptised by Archbishop of Canterbury, his godparents were the Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the Duke of Cumberland and the Dowager Princess of Wales.
George was a talented student, learned to speak French and Italian, in addition to his native English. At the age of 18 he was given a separate establishment, in dramatic contrast with his prosaic, scandal-free father, threw himself with zest into a life of dissipation and wild extravagance involving heavy drinking and numerous mistresses and escapades, he was a witty conversationalist, drunk or sober, showed good, but grossly expensive, taste in decorating his palace. The Prince of Wales turned 21 in 1783, obtained a grant of £60,000 from Parliament and an annual income of £50,000 from his father, it was far too little for his needs – the stables alone cost £31,000 a year. He established his residence in Carlton House, where he lived a profligate life. Animosity developed between the prince and his father, who desired more frugal behaviour on the part of the heir apparent; the King, a political conservative, was alienated by the prince's adherence to Charles James Fox and other radically inclined politicians.
Soon after he reached the age of 21, the prince became infatuated with Maria Fitzherbert. She was a commoner, six years his elder, twice widowed, a Roman Catholic; the prince was determined to marry her. This was in spite of the Act of Settlement 1701, which barred the spouse of a Catholic from succeeding to the throne, the Royal Marriages Act 1772, which prohibited his marriage without the King's consent; the couple went through a marriage ceremony on 15 December 1785 at her house in Park Street, Mayfair. The union was void, as the King's consent was not granted. However, Fitzherbert believed that she was the prince's canonical and true wife, holding the law of the Church to be superior to the law of the State. For political reasons, the union remained secret and Fitzherbert promised not to reveal it; the prince was plunged into debt by his exorbitant lifestyle. His father refused to assist him, forcing him to quit Carlton House and live at Fitzherbert's residence. In 1787, the prince's political allies proposed to relieve his debts with a parliamentary grant.
The prince's relationship with Fitzherbert was suspected, revelation of the illegal marriage would have scandalised the nation and doomed any parliamentary proposal to aid him. Acting on the prince's authority, the Whig leader Charles James Fox declared that the story was a calumny. Fitzherbert was not pleased with the public denial of the marriage in such vehement terms and contemplated severing her ties to the prince, he appeased her by asking another Whig, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, to restate Fox's forceful declaration in more careful words. Parliament, granted the prince £161,000 to pay his debts and £60,000 for improvements to Carlton House. In the summer of 1788 the King's mental health deteriorated as the result of the hereditary disease porphyria, he was nonetheless able to discharge some of his duties and to declare Parliament prorogued from 25 September to 20 November. During the prorogation he became deranged, posing a threat to his own life, when Parliament reconvened in November the King could not deliver th
Princess Alexandra of Hanover (1882–1963)
Princess Alexandra of Hanover and Cumberland was the wife of Frederick Francis IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, the last ruling Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Alexandra was the second eldest daughter and third child of Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover and Princess Thyra of Denmark, the youngest daughter of Christian IX of Denmark and Louise of Hesse-Kassel. Alexandra was a great-great-granddaughter of George III of the United Kingdom and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Alexandra married on 7 June 1904 in Gmunden, Austria-Hungary to Frederick Francis IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, son of Frederick Francis III, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and his wife Grand Duchess Anastasia Mikhailovna of Russia; the bridegroom gave Alexandra a aquamarine tiara by Faberge. Alexandra and Frederick Francis had five children: Friedrich Franz, Hereditary Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Married Karin Elisabeth von Schaper, daughter of Walter von Schaper and his wife Baroness Louise von Münchhausen.
The couple had no issue. Duke Christian Louis of Mecklenburg. Married Princess Barbara of Prussia, daughter of Prince Sigismund of Prussia and Princess Charlotte of Saxe-Altenburg; the couple had issue. Duchess Olga of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Duchess Thyra of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Duchess Anastasia of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Married Prince Friedrich Ferdinand of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, son of Prince Albrecht of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and Countess Ortrud of Ysenburg and Büdingen; the couple had issue. In 1913, a fire broke out at Schwerin Castle while the Grand Duke, Grand Duchess, guests were dining there. Everyone was able to make it out safely, although the Grand Duke and Grand Duchess had to rush through flying sparks when making their escape. There were a reported $750,000 in damages, in which countless works of art, as well as important rooms were utterly destroyed. Certain reports blamed the fire on a vengeful servant, although an official court announcement stated it was an electrical issue.
29 September 1882 – 7 June 1904: Her Royal Highness Princess Alexandra of Hanover and Cumberland 7 June 1904 – 17 November 1945: Her Royal Highness The Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin 17 November 1945 – 30 August 1963: Her Royal Highness The Dowager Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Royal Highness is a style used to address or refer to some members of royal families princes or princesses. Monarchs and their consorts are styled Majesty; when used as a direct form of address, spoken or written, it takes the form "Your Royal Highness". When used as a third-person reference, it is gender-specific and, in plural, Their Royal Highnesses. By the 17th century, all local rulers in Italy adopted the style Highness, once used by kings and emperors only. According to Denis Diderot's Encyclopédie, the style of Royal Highness was created on the insistence of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, Cardinal-Infante of Spain, a younger son of King Philip III of Spain; the Archduke was travelling through Italy on his way to the Low Countries and, upon meeting Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy, refused to address him as Highness unless the Duke addressed him as Royal Highness. Thus, the first use of the style Royal Highness was recorded in 1633. Gaston, Duke of Orléans, younger son of King Henry IV of France, encountered the style in Brussels and assumed it himself.
His children used the style, considering it their prerogative as grandchildren of France. By the 18th century, Royal Highness had become the prevalent style for members of a continental reigning dynasty whose head bore the hereditary title of king or queen; the titles of family members of non-hereditary rulers were less clear, varying until rendered moot in the 19th century. After dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, several of Germany's prince-electors and other now sovereign rulers assumed the title of grand duke and with it, for themselves, their eldest sons and consorts, the style of Royal Highness; the vast majority of African royalty that make use of titles such as prince and sheikh, eschew the attendant styles that one would ordinarily be accustomed to seeing or hearing in accompaniment. In the cases of the aforesaid titles, they only exist as courtesies and may or may not have been recognised by a reigning fons honorum. However, some traditional leaders and their family members use royal styles when acting in their official roles as representatives of sovereign or constituent states, distinguishing their status from others who may use or claim traditional titles.
For example, the Nigerian traditional rulers of the Yoruba are styled using the HRH The X of Y method though they are confusingly known as kings in English and not the princes that the HRH style suggests. The chiefly appellation Kabiyesi is used as the equivalent of the HRH and other such styles by this class of royalty when rendering their full titles in the Yoruba language. Furthermore, the wives of the king of the Zulu peoples, although all entitled to the title of queen, do not share their husband's style of Majesty but instead are each addressed as Royal Highness, with the possible exception of the great wife; the title of Archduke or Archduchess of Austria was known to be complemented with the style of Royal Highness to all non-reigning of the members of the House of Habsburg and the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. Though the Habsburgs held the Imperial crown of the Holy Roman Empire, it was nominally an elective office that could not be hereditarily transmitted, so the non-reigning family members took their style from them being members of the hereditary Royal family of Hungary and Bohemia, etc.
This changed when Francis I of Austria dissolved the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, as the Archduchy of Austria was elevated to an Empire in 1804, the members of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine abandoned the style of Royal Highness in favour of the style of Imperial and Royal Highness to reflect the creation of the Empire of Austria. At the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the Former Empress Marie Louise of France was restored to her Imperial and Royal Style and granted the title of Duchess of Parma and Guastalla, as well as being restored to her premarital title of Archduchess and Imperial Princess of Austria, Royal Princess of Hungary and Bohemia; the title of "Prince/Princess of the Netherlands" with the accompanying style of H. R. H. is or may be granted by law to the following classes of persons: A former monarch upon abdication. The heir apparent to the throne; the husband of the monarch. The spouse of the heir apparent; the legitimate children of the monarch and the wife of any legitimate son of the monarch.
The legitimate children of the heir apparent. A separate title of "Prince/Princess of Orange-Nassau" may be granted by law to members of the Dutch royal house or, as a personal and non-hereditary title to former members of the royal house within three months of loss of membership. A Prince/Princess of Orange-Nassau, not a Prince/Princess of the Netherlands is addressed as "His/Her Highness" without the predicate "royal"; that is the case for example of the children of Princess Margriet, younger daughter of the late Queen Juliana. Members of the royal house or former members of the royal house within 3 months of loss of their membership may be inducted by royal decree into the Dutch nobility with a rank lower than prince/princess and the accompanying style of "His/Her Highborn Lord/Lady"; that is the case for example of the children of the younger brother of King Willem-Alexander, Prince Constantijn, who were given the titles of "Count/Countess of Orange-Nassau" and the
George III of the United Kingdom
George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire before becoming King of Hanover on 12 October 1814, he was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, but unlike his two predecessors, he was born in Great Britain, spoke English as his first language, never visited Hanover. His life and with it his reign, which were longer than those of any of his predecessors, were marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdoms, much of the rest of Europe, places farther afield in Africa, the Americas and Asia. Early in his reign, Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years' War, becoming the dominant European power in North America and India. However, many of Britain's American colonies were soon lost in the American War of Independence.
Further wars against revolutionary and Napoleonic France from 1793 concluded in the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. In the part of his life, George III had recurrent, permanent, mental illness. Although it has since been suggested that he had bipolar disorder or the blood disease porphyria, the cause of his illness remains unknown. After a final relapse in 1810, a regency was established. George III's eldest son, Prince of Wales, ruled as Prince Regent until his father's death, when he succeeded as George IV. Historical analysis of George III's life has gone through a "kaleidoscope of changing views" that have depended on the prejudices of his biographers and the sources available to them; until it was reassessed in the second half of the 20th century, his reputation in the United States was one of a tyrant. George was born in London at Norfolk House in St James's Square, he was the grandson of King George II, the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, Augusta of Saxe-Gotha.
As he was born two months prematurely and thought unlikely to survive, he was baptised the same day by Thomas Secker, both Rector of St James's and Bishop of Oxford. One month he was publicly baptised at Norfolk House, again by Secker, his godparents were the King of Sweden, his uncle the Duke of Saxe-Gotha and his great-aunt the Queen of Prussia. Prince George grew into a healthy but shy child; the family moved to Leicester Square, where George and his younger brother Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany, were educated together by private tutors. Family letters show that he could read and write in both English and German, as well as comment on political events of the time, by the age of eight, he was the first British monarch to study science systematically. Apart from chemistry and physics, his lessons included astronomy, French, history, geography, commerce and constitutional law, along with sporting and social accomplishments such as dancing and riding, his religious education was wholly Anglican.
At age 10, George took part in a family production of Joseph Addison's play Cato and said in the new prologue: "What, tho' a boy! It may with truth be said, A boy in England born, in England bred." Historian Romney Sedgwick argued that these lines appear "to be the source of the only historical phrase with which he is associated". George's grandfather, King George II, disliked the Prince of Wales, took little interest in his grandchildren. However, in 1751 the Prince of Wales died unexpectedly from a lung injury at the age of 44, George became heir apparent to the throne, he inherited his father's title of Duke of Edinburgh. Now more interested in his grandson, three weeks the King created George Prince of Wales. In the spring of 1756, as George approached his eighteenth birthday, the King offered him a grand establishment at St James's Palace, but George refused the offer, guided by his mother and her confidant, Lord Bute, who would serve as Prime Minister. George's mother, now the Dowager Princess of Wales, preferred to keep George at home where she could imbue him with her strict moral values.
In 1759, George was smitten with Lady Sarah Lennox, sister of the Duke of Richmond, but Lord Bute advised against the match and George abandoned his thoughts of marriage. "I am born for the happiness or misery of a great nation," he wrote, "and must act contrary to my passions." Attempts by the King to marry George to Princess Sophie Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel were resisted by him and his mother. The following year, at the age of 22, George succeeded to the throne when his grandfather, George II, died on 25 October 1760, two weeks before his 77th birthday; the search for a suitable wife intensified. On 8 September 1761 in the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace, the King married Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, whom he met on their wedding day. A fortnight on 22 September both were crowned at Westminster Abbey. George remarkably never took a mistress, the couple enjoyed a genuinely happy marriage until his mental illness struck, they had 15 children -- six daughters. In 1762, George purchased Buckingham House for use as a family retreat.
His other residences were Windsor Castle. St James's Palace was retained for
Kingdom of Hanover
The Kingdom of Hanover was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era. It succeeded the former Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, joined 38 other sovereign states in the German Confederation in June 1815; the kingdom was ruled by the House of Hanover, a cadet branch of the House of Welf, in personal union with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until 1837. Since its monarch resided in London, a viceroy handled the administration of the Kingdom of Hanover; the personal union with the United Kingdom ended in 1837 upon the accession of Queen Victoria because females could not inherit the Hanoverian throne, so her uncle became the ruler of Hanover. Hanover backed the losing side in the Austro-Prussian War and was conquered by Prussia in 1866, subsequently becoming a Prussian province. Along with the rest of Prussia, Hanover became part of the German Empire upon unification in January 1871.
Revived as the State of Hanover in 1946, the state was subsequently merged with some smaller states to form the current state of Lower Saxony in West Germany Germany. The territory of Hanover had earlier been a principality within the Holy Roman Empire before being elevated into an electorate in 1708, when Hanover was formed by union of the dynastic divisions of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, excepting the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. After his accession in 1714, George Louis of the House of Hanover ascended the throne of Great Britain as George I, Hanover was joined in a personal union with Great Britain. Descendants of Hanoverians who fought alongside the British in the War of 1812 remain in Canada. In 1803, Hanover was conquered by the Prussian armies in the Napoleonic Wars; the Treaties of Tilsit in 1807 joined it to territories from Prussia and created the Kingdom of Westphalia, ruled by Napoleon's youngest brother Jérôme Bonaparte. French control lasted until October 1813.
The Battle of Leipzig shortly thereafter spelled the definitive end of the Napoleonic client states, the electorate was restored to the House of Hanover. The terms of the Congress of Vienna in 1814 not only restored Hanover, but elevated it to an independent kingdom with its Prince-Elector, George III of Great Britain, as King of Hanover; the new kingdom was greatly expanded, becoming the fourth-largest state in the German Confederation and the second-largest in north Germany. Under George III's six-year reign, he never visited the Kingdom. Having succumbed to dementia prior to the elevation of Hanover, it is unlikely he understood that he had gained an additional kingship nor did he take any role in its governance. Functional administration of Hanover was handled by a viceroy, which during the years of George III's reign and the reigns of kings George IV and William IV from 1816 to 1837, was Adolph Frederick, George III's youngest surviving son; when Queen Victoria succeeded to the British throne in 1837, the 123-year personal union of Great Britain and Hanover ended.
Salic law operated in Hanover, excluding accession to the throne by a female while any male of the dynasty survived. During the Austro-Prussian War, Hanover attempted to maintain a neutral position, along with some other member states of the German Confederation. Hanover's vote in favor of the mobilisation of Confederation troops against Prussia on 14 June 1866 prompted Prussia to declare war; the outcome of the war led to the dissolution of Hanover as an independent kingdom and it was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia, becoming the Prussian Province of Hanover. Along with the rest of Prussia, it became part of the German Empire in 1871. After George V fled Hanover in 1866, he raised forces loyal to him in the Netherlands, called the Guelphic Legion, they were disbanded in 1870. George refused to accept the Prussian takeover of his realm and claimed he was still the legitimate king of Hanover, his only son, Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, inherited this claim upon George's death in 1878.
Ernest Augustus was first in line to the throne of the Duchy of Brunswick, whose rulers had been a junior branch of the House of Hanover. In 1884, that branch became extinct with the death of a distant cousin of Ernest Augustus. However, since Ernest Augustus refused to renounce his claim to annexed Hanover, the Bundesrat of the German Empire ruled that he would disturb the peace of the empire if he ascended the throne of Brunswick; as a result, Brunswick was ruled by a regency until 1913, when his son named Ernest Augustus, married the German Emperor's daughter, Princess Viktoria Luise and swore allegiance to the German Empire. The Duke renounced his claim to Brunswick in favor of his son, the Bundesrat allowed the younger Ernest Augustus to take possession of Brunswick as a kind of dowry compensation for Hanover; the German-Hanoverian Party, which at times supported secession from the Reich, demanded a separate status for the province in the Reichstag. The party existed. With Prussia in agony and on the verge of official dissolution, in 1946 Hanoverian politicians took advantage of the opportunity and advocated that the Control Commission for Germany - British Element revi
Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh
Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh was the eleventh child and fourth daughter of King George III of the United Kingdom and his consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. She married her first cousin, Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, when both were 40, was his widow in life. In her last years, her niece Queen Victoria was on the throne as the fourth monarch during Mary's life, after her father and two of her brothers, George IV and William IV of the United Kingdom. Princess Mary was the last survivor of George III's fifteen children, she was the only one of George III's children to be photographed. She died on 30 April 1857 at London. Princess Mary was born on 25 April 1776, at London, her father was the reigning British monarch, George III. Her mother was the daughter of Charles, reigning Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Mary was baptized on 19 May 1776, in the Great Council Chamber at St. James's Palace, by Frederick Cornwallis, The Archbishop of Canterbury.
Her godparents were: Landgrave Frederick of Hesse-Cassel The Duchess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg Princess Charles of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. The King was a devoted father, finding time to visit the royal nursery. Engaging in active play with his young children, he behaved quite informally in contrast to the dignified Queen Charlotte, who had more difficulty abandoning the formal behaviour expected of their class. Despite her outer reserve, Charlotte took a role as conscientious as her husband in their children's upbringing. For the royal princesses, the Queen oversaw their welfare and development of moral values. Faced with less time due to her public duties and close marriage to the King, she appointed Lady Charlotte Finch to manage the royal nursery and administer her ideas. According to Flora Fraser, Mary was considered to be the most beautiful daughter of George III. Mary danced a minuet for the first time in public at the age of sixteen in June 1791, during a court ball given for the king's birthday.
In the spring of 1792 she debuted at court. Around 1796 Mary fell in love with the Dutch Prince Frederick, while he and his family lived in exile in London. Frederik was a son of William V, Prince of Orange, the Dutch stadholder, younger brother to the future King William I of the Netherlands; however Frederik and Mary never wed because George III stipulated that her elder sisters should marry first. In 1799 Prince Frederik died of an infection while serving in the army, Mary was allowed to go into official mourning. Mary's youngest sister and beloved companion Princess Amelia called her "Mama's tool" because of her obedient nature. Amelia's premature death in 1810 devastated her sister, who had nursed her devotedly during her painful illness. Mary's upbringing was sheltered and she spent most of her time with her parents and sisters. King George and Queen Charlotte were keen to shelter their children the girls. Mary, married on 22 July 1816, to her first cousin, Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, the son of George III's brother, Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh.
On their wedding day, Mary's brother, The Prince Regent, raised the bridegroom's style from Highness to Royal Highness, an attribute to which Mary's rank as daughter of the King entitled her. William Frederick had sought to marry Mary's niece Princess Charlotte of Wales; the historian A. W. Purdue suggests that Mary's motive for marrying her cousin sprang from her dislike of Queen Charlotte's restrictive household. Princess Charlotte observed that the duke "is much in love, & and tells me he is the happiest creature on earth. I won't say does as much, but being her own mistress, having her own house, & being able to walk in the streets all delights her in their several ways." The couple lived at Bagshot Park, but after William's death she moved to White Lodge in Richmond Park. They had no children together. Mary was the last surviving child of George III, was said to be the favourite aunt of her niece, Queen Victoria. Princess Mary was quite close to her eldest brother, she shared his dislike toward his wife, their cousin Caroline of Brunswick.
When the latter left for Italy, Princess Mary congratulated her brother "on the prospect of a good riddance. Heaven grant that she may not return again and that we may never see more of her." Princess Mary died on 30 April 1857 at Gloucester House, aged 81. At the time of her death, she was the last surviving child as well as the longest-lived child of King George III and Queen Charlotte. 25 April 1776 – 22 July 1816: Her Royal Highness The Princess Mary 22 July 1816 – 30 November 1834: Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh 30 November 1834 – 30 April 1857: Her Royal Highness The Dowager Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh As of 1789, as a daughter of the sovereign, Mary had use of the arms of the kingdom, differenced by a label argent of three points, the centre point bearing a rose gules, the outer points each bearing a canton gules. List of British princesses Works cited "Archival material relating to Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh". UK National Archives
Princess Augusta of Cambridge
Princess Augusta of Cambridge was a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of George III. She married into the Grand Ducal House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and became the Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Princess Augusta was born on 19 July 1822 at the Palace of Hanover, her father was Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, the seventh son of George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Her mother was Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel; as a male line granddaughter of the British monarch, she was styled as a British princess with the prefix Her Royal Highness. The young princess was baptized at the same palace on 16 August 1822, by Rev Edward Curtis Kemp. Three of her godparents were present at the baptism: Princess Caroline, Landgravine Frederick of Hesse-Kassel Princess Louisa of Nassau-Usingen a Princess Louisa, a Landgravine of Hesse, being her maternal aunt either by marriage or bloodThe rest were not present being represented by proxies: The Duke of York all of her five living paternal aunts Queen Charlotte of Württemberg The Princess Augusta Sophia The Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg The Duchess of Gloucester The Princess Sophia The Electress of Hesse The Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg Princess Charlotte, Landgravine William of Hesse-Kassel The Princess spent her earlier years in Hanover, where her father was the viceroy on behalf of his brother, George IV.
Princess Augusta had one brother, Prince George 2nd Duke of Cambridge. As such, Princess Augusta was a first cousin of Queen Victoria and aunt to Mary of Teck consort of George V. On 28 June 1843, Princess Augusta married her first cousin, Frederick William of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, at Buckingham Palace, London. Upon marriage, Augusta became HRH The Hereditary Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and, on 6 September 1860, HRH The Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz following the death of her father-in-law; the marriage of the Grand Duke and Grand Duchess produced two children: Duke Frederick William of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Duke Adolphus Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Although she spent most of her adult life in Germany, the Grand Duchess Augusta retained close personal ties to the British Royal Family, she visited her mother, the Duchess of Cambridge, at her Kensington Palace apartments. After her mother's death in 1889, the Grand Duchess acquired a house in London's Buckingham Gate area, where she spent a portion of the year until advanced old age made it impossible for her to travel abroad.
In making preparations for the coronation of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra in 1901, the Duke of Norfolk consulted her on matters of etiquette and attire. This was due to her presence at the coronation of King William IV and Queen Adelaide seventy-one years earlier, she kissed the Queen's hand. She was able to provide details of the coronation of Queen Victoria; the Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was close to her niece, the future Queen Mary. However, old age prevented her from attending the coronation of King George V and Queen Mary on 22 June 1911. Following the outbreak of World War I, the British Government suspended the annuity she had been receiving as a member of the British Royal Family under the Annuity, Duchess of Mecklenburgh Strelitz Act 1843. During the war, the Swedish Embassy passed letters from the Queen to her aunt, who still lived in Germany; as an elderly lady, she was known for being cantankerous. She was known as being quite shrewd and intelligent. In his book, Queen Mary, the Queen's official biography, James Pope-Hennessy reports that the Queen's Aunt Augusta was not fond of the new science of photography, fearing it would intrude into the private lives of Royal personages.
The Dowager Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz died on 5 December 1916 in Neustrelitz and was buried in Mirow. As the longest-lived grandchild of George III, she was the last link to the British branch of the House of Hanover. At the time of her death, she was 94 years, 4 months and 16 days old, making her the longest-lived British Princess of the Blood Royal until Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone, a male-line granddaughter of Queen Victoria, broke the record in 1977, aged over 97 years old. 19 July 1822 – 28 June 1843: Her Royal Highness Princess Augusta of Cambridge 28 June 1843 – 6 September 1860: Her Royal Highness The Hereditary Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 6 September 1860 – 30 May 1904: Her Royal Highness The Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 30 May 1904 – 5 December 1916: Her Royal Highness The Dowager Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-StrelitzAs a male-line granddaughter of the British monarch, she was a princess of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. As a male-line granddaughter of a King of Hanover, she bore the titles of Princess of Hanover and Duchess of Brunswick.
Princess Augusta of Cambridge | House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz