The Hanriot H.38 was a French twin-engined sesquiplane flying boat built in the mid-1920s. Though the sole prototype was fitted with two defensive machine gun posts; the H.38 was described at the time as a utility aircraft.. The upper wing of the H.38 was mounted high above the water, with the smaller lower wing attached to the upper hull. Both wings had low aspect ratio and were rectangular in plan, with constant thickness; each was built around two steel spars and they were braced together with pairs of parallel steel interplane struts. There were three sets of these on each side, one pair outwards from the lower wing, another from the same points inwards to the engine mountings on the upper wing and another between the engines and the lower wing root; the H.38 was powered by two 130 kW Hispano-Suiza 8Ab water-cooled V8 engines with front-mounted radiators, placed as close together as their propellers diameters allowed in order to minimise asymmetric thrust in the event of an engine failure.
Its hull was wooden, with a concave section, single step bottom curved sides and a flat top. The underside was triple surfaced and the sides double. Stability on the water was provided by a pair of floats under the lower wings beneath the interplane strut mountings, separated by about 4.7 m. The hull contained three open crew positions. Two of them, one in the extreme nose and the other midway between the trailing edge and the tail, housed machine gunners; the cockpit, under the leading edge of the upper wing, had two side-by-side seats, equipped with dual controls. The hull underside sloped upward aft to the tail, where a low fin served as a step on which to mount a rectangular tailplane braced on each side with struts to the lower side of the hull, it carried balanced elevators. The rhomboidal, generous rudder was balanced; the exact date of the first flight of the Hanriot H.38 is not known but it had flown many times before mid-March 1926. It continued to fly for another ten months until, after alighting on the Marne at Bezons, it was caught by the current and lost after hitting the pier of a bridge.
Neither Marcel Haegelen, Hanriot's chief test pilot, nor the flight engineer Quéro were injured. Data from Les Ailes, March 1926General characteristics Crew: Three/four Length: 10.75 m Upper wingspan: 14 m Lower wingspan: 7.75 m Height: 3.50 m Wing area: 50 m2 Empty weight: 1,555 kg Gross weight: 2,377 kg Fuel capacity: 322 kg fuel + oil Powerplant: 2 × Hispano-Suiza 8Ab water-cooled V8, 130 kW each Propellers: 2-bladedPerformance Maximum speed: 160 km/h at ground level Service ceiling: 4,600 m
The Hanriot H.43 was a military utility aircraft produced in France in the late 1920s and early 1930s, used by the Aéronautique Militaire as a trainer. While Hanriot had spent most of the 1920s manufacturing further and further developments of the HD.14 that had flown in 1920, the H.43 was an new design. It was a conventional single-bay biplane with staggered wings of unequal span and a fuselage of fabric-covered metal tube. Accommodation for the pilot and passenger was in tandem, open cockpits and the main units of the fixed, tailskid undercarriage were linked by a cross-axle. Two prototypes in 1927 were followed by the LH.431 in 1928, a much-modified version that dispensed with the sweepback used on both the upper and lower wings of the H.43, had a new tail fin and added metal covering to the sides of the fuselage. This was ordered into production by the Aéronautique Militaire; these were different again from the LH.431 prototype, having divided main undercarriage units, wings of greater area, redesigned interplane struts.
From 1927 to 1933, the Army would purchase nearly 150 examples for a variety of support roles including training, observation, as an air ambulance. At the Fall of France in 1940, 75 of these aircraft remained in service. H.43 variants were operated by civil flying schools in France, as well as 12 examples purchased for the military of Peru H.43 - prototype with Salmson CM.9 engine H.430 - version with Salmson 9Ab engine H.431.01 - development of H.430 with revised wings and fuselage and Lorraine 7Ma engine LH.431 - production version with divided main undercarriage units and Lorraine 7Mc engine LH.432 - gunnery training version with machine gun on ring mount in rear cockpit LH.433 - revised LH.431 with modified landing gear and tail fin, Lorraine 7Me engine LH.434 - H.436 - dedicated trainer version based on LH.433 with Salmson 9Ab engine LH.437 - air ambulance version based on LH.433 LH.437ter - air ambulance version with Salmson engine. H.438 - export version of LH.433 for Peru H.439 - civil trainer version, some with tailwheel in place of tailskid.
FranceFrench Air Force PeruPeruvian Air Force SpainSpanish Republican Air Force, Hanriot LH.437/239 Data from Jane's all the World's Aircraft 1928General characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 7.24 m Wingspan: 10.6 m Height: 4.2 m Wing area: 53.5 m2 Empty weight: 842 kg Gross weight: 1,420 kg Powerplant: 1 × Salmson CM.9 9-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine, 170 kW Propellers: 2-bladed fixed pitch propellerPerformance Maximum speed: 185 km/h 180 km/h at 2,000 m 173 km/h at 4,000 m 166 km/h at 5,000 m Range: 450 km Endurance: 3 hours Service ceiling: 6,000 m Time to altitude: 2,000 m in 8 minutes 36 seconds4,000 m in 22 minutes 12 seconds 5,000 m in 38 minutesWing loading: 50.3 kg/m2 Power/mass: 0.1236 kW/kg Related lists List of Interwar military aircraft List of aircraft of the Spanish Republican Air Force Taylor, Michael J. H.. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. P. 470. World Aircraft Information Files. London: Bright Star Publishing. Pp. File 896 Sheet 10
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
The Hanriot HD.14 was a military trainer aircraft produced in large numbers in France during the 1920s. It was a two-bay biplane with unstaggered wings of equal span; the pilot and instructor sat in tandem, open cockpits, the fuselage was braced to the lower wing with short struts. The main units of the fixed tailskid undercarriage were divided, each unit carrying two wheels, early production examples had anti-noseover skids projecting forwards as well. In 1922, production shifted to a much improved version, known as the HD.14ter or HD.14/23. This featured a smaller wing area, revised tail fin and cabane struts, fuselage cross-section; the landing gear track was narrowed in order to facilitate the aircraft's loading onto the standard army trailer of the day. Prolific, it was licence-produced by Mitsubishi in Japan, where another 145 were built, by the CWL and Samolot in Poland, where 125 and 120 were built. HD.14 - Original production version. Known as the HD.14 EP2. HD.14ter - Improved version of 1922.
Known as the HD.14/23. HD.14S - Air ambulance version HD.141 - Remanufactured ex-Army HD.14s for French aeroclub use H.410 - A 1928 development with Lorraine 5-cyl radial and revised undercarriage. H.411 - development of the HD.410 LH.412 - development of the HD.410 H.28 - Polish designation of license-produced modified HD.14/23 Ki 1 - Japanese Army designation of the Hanriot HD.14 BelgiumBelgian Air Force FranceAéronautique Militaire JapanImperial Japanese Army Air Force EstoniaEstonian Air Force PolandPolish Air Force Soviet UnionSoviet Air Force BulgariaBulgarian Air Force Mexico Spain General characteristics Crew: Two and instructor Length: 7.26 m Wingspan: 10.87 m Height: 3.00 m Wing area: 34.5 m2 Gross weight: 810 kg Powerplant: 1 × Le Rhône 9, 60 kW Performance Maximum speed: 110 km/h Range: 180 km Service ceiling: 4,000 m Armament Related lists List of Interwar military aircraft Taylor, Michael J. H.. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. P. 470. World Aircraft Information Files.
London: Bright Star Publishing. Pp. File 896 Sheet 11. Morgała, Andrzej. Samoloty wojskowe w Polsce 1924-1939. Warsaw: Bellona. ISBN 83-11-09319-9
In aeronautics, bracing comprises additional structural members which stiffen the functional airframe to give it rigidity and strength under load. Bracing may be applied both internally and externally, may take the form of strut, which act in compression or tension as the need arises, and/or wires, which act only in tension. In general, bracing allows a stronger, lighter structure than one, unbraced, but external bracing in particular adds drag which slows down the aircraft and raises more design issues than internal bracing. Another disadvantage of bracing wires is that they require routine checking and adjustment, or rigging when located internally. During the early years of aviation, bracing was a universal feature of all forms of aeroplane, including the monoplanes and biplanes which were equally common. Today, bracing in the form of lift struts is still used for some light commercial designs where a high wing and light weight are more important than ultimate performance. Bracing works by creating a triangulated truss structure which resists twisting.
By comparison, an unbraced cantilever structure bends unless it carries a lot of heavy reinforcement. Making the structure deeper allows it to be much lighter and stiffer. To reduce weight and air resistance, the structure may be made hollow, with bracing connecting the main parts of the airframe. For example, a high-wing monoplane may be given a diagonal lifting strut running from the bottom of the fuselage to a position far out towards the wingtip; this increases the effective depth of the wing root to the height of the fuselage, making it much stiffer for little increase in weight. The ends of bracing struts are joined to the main internal structural components such as a wing spar or a fuselage bulkhead, bracing wires are attached close by. Bracing may be used to resist all the various forces which occur in an airframe, including lift, weight and twisting or torsion. A strut is a bracing component stiff enough to resist these forces whether they place it under compression or tension. A wire is a bracing component able only to resist tension, going slack under compression, is nearly always used in conjunction with struts.
A square frame made of solid bars tends to bend at the corners. Bracing it with an extra diagonal bar would be heavy. A wire would stop it collapsing only one way. To hold it rigid, two cross-bracing wires are needed; this method of cross-bracing can be seen on early biplanes, where the wings and interplane struts form a rectangle, cross-braced by wires. Another way of arranging a rigid structure is to make the cross pieces solid enough to act in compression and to connect their ends with an outer diamond acting in tension; this method was once common on monoplanes, where the wing and a central cabane or a pylon form the cross members while wire bracing forms the outer diamond. Most found on biplane and other multiplane aircraft, wire bracing was common on early monoplanes. Unlike struts, bracing wires always act in tension The thickness and profile of a wire affect the drag it causes at higher speeds. Wires may be made of multi-stranded cable, a single strand of piano wire, or aerofoil sectioned steel.
Bracing wires divide into flying wires which hold the wings down when flying and landing wires which hold the wings up when they are not generating lift. Thinner incidence wires are sometimes run diagonally between fore and aft interplane struts to stop the wing twisting and changing its angle of incidence to the fuselage. In some pioneer aircraft, wing bracing wires were run diagonally fore and aft to prevent distortion under side loads such as when turning. Besides the basic loads imposed by lift and gravity, bracing wires must carry powerful inertial loads generated during manoeuvres, such as the increased load on the landing wires at the moment of touchdown. Bracing wires must be rigged to maintain the correct length and tension. In flight the wires tend to stretch under load and on landing some may become slack. Regular rigging checks are required and any necessary adjustments made before every flight. Rigging adjustments may be used to set and maintain wing dihedral and angle of incidence with the help of a clinometer and plumb-bob.
Individual wires are fitted with turnbuckles or threaded end fittings so that they can be adjusted. Once set, the adjuster is locked in place. Internal bracing was most significant during the early days of aeronautics when airframes were frames, at best covered in doped fabric which had no strength of its own. Wire cross-bracing was extensively used to stiffen such airframes, both in the fabric-covered wings and in the fuselage, left bare. Routine rigging of the wires was needed to maintain structural stiffness against bending and torsion. A particular problem for internal wires is access in the cramped interior of the fuselage. Providing sufficient internal bracing would make a design too heavy, so in order to make the airframe both light and strong the bracing is fitted externally; this was common in early aircraft due to the limited engine power available and the need for light weight in order to fly at all. As engine powers rose through the 1920s and 30s, much heavier airframes became practicable and most designers abandoned external bracing in order to allow for increased speed.
Nearly all biplane aircraft have their upper and lower planes connected by interplane struts, with the upper wing running across above the fuselage and connected to it by shorter cabane struts. These struts divide the wings into bays which are brace
Aéroplanes Hanriot et Cie. or simply'Hanriot' was a French aircraft manufacturer with roots going back to the beginning of aviation. Founded by René Hanriot in 1910 as The Monoplans Hanriot Company Ltd. the company survived in different forms until 1916 when it established itself with the Hanriot-Dupont fighters and observation aircraft. The company lasted through several takeovers and structural changes until in 1936 it merged with Farman to become the Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Centre.'Central Air Works' consortium. Hanriot aeroplanes included pre-war monoplanes with boat-like fuselages, the HD.1 and 2 World War I biplane fighters, the HD.14 trainer, the H.220 series of twin-engined heavy fighters that evolved in the SNCAC 600 fighter just before World War II. The company's main bases of operations were Bétheny Boulogne-Billancourt, Carrières-sur-Seine and Bourges. René Hanriot, a builder and racer of motor boats and a race car driver for the Darracq motor company, built his first aircraft in 1907, although it did not fly until late 1909.
It was a monoplane with a wire-braced wooden fuselage resembling the Blériot XI but was immediately superseded by a series of similar monoplanes, which were exhibited at the Brussels Salon d'Automobiles, d'Aeronautique, du Cycles et dus Sports in January 1910. These featured a slender wooden monocoque fuselage and were powered by a 20 hp Darracq and a 40 hp Gyp. and a handful were built. Together with Darracq racing colleague Louis Wagner, Hanriot started a flying school at Bétheny near Reims, where the Hanriot factory was located. Unusually, Hanriot tested new design features using a flying model powered by a 2 kW Duthiel-Chalmers. In 1910 Hanriot and his staff pilots made regular appearances at air shows in England. Hanriot's 15-year-old son Marcel became the youngest holder of a pilot's certificate, joined his father's pilots as a competition flyer. René Hanriot withdrew from competition flying himself and concentrated on constructing aircraft. Hanriot's 1911 military two-seater was passed over at the French military trials, among other reasons because its fuselage was so slender that the crew were unshielded.
It was obsolete and never had a serious chance against contemporary Nieuport, Morane-Saulnier and Deperdussin types. Nieuport's former chief engineer Alfred Pagny designed the 1912 Hanriot, the Nieuport influence was visible, but it failed to gain any orders at the 1912 military trials and attempts to sell them were unsuccessful. Faced with bankruptcy, René Hanriot sold his assets to Louis Alfred Ponnier, who reorganized the company as the Société de Construction de Machines pour la Navigation Aérienne, headed by Pagny. In 1913, Marcel Hanriot, now 18, was called up for military service; the Ponnier factory continued for several years to develop the monoplane racer, one of, placed second in the 1913 Gordon Bennett Trophy competition. Following the outbreak of World War I, Marcel Hanriot, still in military service, flew French air force bombers; the German advance stalled with the CMNA/Ponnier factories in Rheims behind German lines, but René Hanriot founded a new factory, Aéroplanes Hanriot et Cie, in Levallois.
Starting as a subcontractor building airplane components, the company progressed to licence-build aircraft from other manufacturers. In 1915, Marcel Hanriot, after being wounded in a night-flying raid, was released from military service and joined his father's factory. Around the same time, Hanriot hired the young engineer Emile Dupont and in 1916, the Dupont-designed fighter HD.1 was produced. Although being passed over by the French air force in favor of the more powerful SPAD VII design, the HD.1 was ordered by the Belgian and Italian air force. Heavy demand resulted in a new factory being opened in Boulogne-Billancourt. Licences to build the HD.1 were sold to Macchi in Italy. Hanriot employed 2000 workers in his Boulogne-Billancourt factory alone. After the war, Hanriot continued as a manufacturer of fighters and all-purpose aircraft, building on the HD.1 / HD.2 series but bringing out new biplane and monoplane designs. In 1924, having outgrown its Boulogne-Billancourt works, the company moved to Carrières-sur-Seine René Hanriot died on 7 November 1925.
His heirs and his two brothers-in-law, entrusted daily operations of the factories to Outhenin Chalandre director of a paper mill. In 1930 the Hanriot company became part of the Lorraine-Dietrich company under the name Lorraine-Hanriot; the merger lasted three years, until in 1933 the two companies separated and Marcel Hanriot stepped once again forward to lead his family business. Under his management, the company embarked on an ambitious project to design and build state-of-the-art metal military aircraft like the H.220 heavy fighter. However its main successes would be with the liaison/training monoplane H.180/H.182 and the twin-engined H.232/H.232 trainer In 1936 the company was included in Pierre Cot's nationalisation programme, Merging with Farman to become the Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Centre in 1937. Unlike Maurice Farman, who left the new company in protest, Marcel Hanriot stayed on as one of the directors; the pre-war aircraft designed by René Hanriot went by Roman Numerals, the 1907 monoplane being the'Type I'.
However the planes were known by a description featuring the year of built and some characteristic such as'monoplane', one- or two-seater and horsepower. Thus Hanriot's first airplane was the'1907 monoplane', the type IV was the'1911 military two-seater' and the Hanriot VIII was known as the'Hanriot 100 ch' (100 Hp Hanrio
A tailplane known as a horizontal stabiliser, is a small lifting surface located on the tail behind the main lifting surfaces of a fixed-wing aircraft as well as other non-fixed-wing aircraft such as helicopters and gyroplanes. Not all fixed-wing aircraft have tailplanes. Canards and flying wing aircraft have no separate tailplane, while in V-tail aircraft the vertical stabilizer and the tail-plane and elevator are combined to form two diagonal surfaces in a V layout; the function of the tailplane is to provide control. In particular, the tailplane helps adjust for changes in position of the center of pressure or center of gravity caused by changes in speed and attitude, fuel consumption, or dropping cargo or payload; the tailplane comprises the tail-mounted fixed horizontal movable elevator. Besides its planform, it is characterised by: Number of tailplanes - from 0 to 3 Location of tailplane - mounted high, mid or low on the fuselage, fin or tail booms. Fixed movable elevator surfaces, or a single combined stabilator or flying tail.
Some locations have been given special names: Cruciform: mid-mounted on the fin T-tail: high-mounted on the fin A wing with a conventional aerofoil profile makes a negative contribution to longitudinal stability. This means that any disturbance which raises the nose produces a nose-up pitching moment which tends to raise the nose further. With the same disturbance, the presence of a tailplane produces a restoring nose-down pitching moment, which may counteract the natural instability of the wing and make the aircraft longitudinally stable; the longitudinal stability of an aircraft may change when it is flown "hands-off". In addition to giving a restoring force a tailplane gives damping; this is caused by the relative wind seen by the tail as the aircraft rotates around the center of gravity. For example, when the aircraft is oscillating, but is momentarily aligned with the overall vehicle's motion, the tailplane still sees a relative wind, opposing the oscillation. Depending on the aircraft design and flight regime, its tailplane may create positive lift or negative lift.
It is sometimes assumed that on a stable aircraft this will always be a net down force, but this is untrue. On some pioneer designs, such as the Bleriot XI, the center of gravity was between the neutral point and the tailplane, which provided positive lift; however this arrangement can be unstable and these designs had severe handling issues. The requirements for stability were not understood until shortly before World War I - the era within which the British Bristol Scout light biplane was designed for civilian use, with an airfoiled lifting tail throughout its production run into the early World War I years and British military service from 1914-1916 — when it was realised that moving the center of gravity further forwards allowed the use of a non-lifting tailplane in which the lift is nominally neither positive nor negative but zero, which leads to more stable behaviour. Examples of aircraft from World War I and onwards into the interwar years that had positive lift tailplanes include, the Sopwith Camel, Charles Lindbergh's Spirit of St. Louis, the Gee Bee Model R Racer - all aircraft with a reputation for being difficult to fly, the easier-to-fly Fleet Finch two-seat Canadian trainer biplane, itself possessing a flat-bottom airfoiled tailplane unit not unlike the earlier Bristol Scout.
But with care a lifting tailplane can be made stable. An example is provided by the Bachem Ba 349 Natter VTOL rocket-powered interceptor, which had a lifting tail and was both stable and controllable in flight. In many modern conventional aircraft, the center of gravity is placed ahead of the neutral point; the wing lift exerts a pitch-down moment around the centre of gravity, which must be balanced by a pitch-up moment from the tailplane. A disadvantage is. Using a computer to control the elevator allows aerodynamically unstable aircraft to be flown in the same manner. Aircraft such as the F-16 are flown with artificial stability; the advantage of this is a significant reduction in drag caused by the tailplane, improved maneuverability. At transonic speeds, an aircraft can experience a shift rearwards in the center of pressure due to the buildup and movement of shockwaves; this causes. Significant trim force may be needed to maintain equilibrium, this is most provided using the whole tailplane in the form of an all-flying tailplane or stabilator.
A tailplane has some means allowing the pilot to control the amount of lift produced by the tailplane. This in turn causes a nose-up or nose-down pitching moment on the aircraft, used to control the aircraft in pitch. Elevator A conventional tailplane has a hinged aft surface called an elevator, Stabilator or all-moving tail In transonic flight shock waves generated by the front of the tailplane render any elevator unusable. An all-moving tail was developed by the British for the Miles M.52, but first saw actual transonic flight on the Bell X-1. This saved the program from a time-consuming rebuild of the aircraft. Transonic and supersonic aircraft now have all-moving tailplanes to counterac