The radial engine is a reciprocating type internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinders "radiate" outward from a central crankcase like the spokes of a wheel. It resembles a stylized star when viewed from the front, is called a "star engine" in some languages; the radial configuration was used for aircraft engines before gas turbine engines became predominant. Since the axes of the cylinders are coplanar, the connecting rods cannot all be directly attached to the crankshaft unless mechanically complex forked connecting rods are used, none of which have been successful. Instead, the pistons are connected to the crankshaft with a master-and-articulating-rod assembly. One piston, the uppermost one in the animation, has a master rod with a direct attachment to the crankshaft; the remaining pistons pin their connecting rods' attachments to rings around the edge of the master rod. Extra "rows" of radial cylinders can be added in order to increase the capacity of the engine without adding to its diameter.
Four-stroke radials have an odd number of cylinders per row, so that a consistent every-other-piston firing order can be maintained, providing smooth operation. For example, on a five-cylinder engine the firing order is 1, 3, 5, 2, 4, back to cylinder 1. Moreover, this always leaves a one-piston gap between the piston on its combustion stroke and the piston on compression; the active stroke directly helps compress the next cylinder to fire. If an number of cylinders were used, an timed firing cycle would not be feasible; the prototype radial Zoche aero-diesels have an number of cylinders, either four or eight. The radial engine uses fewer cam lobes than other types; as with most four-strokes, the crankshaft takes two revolutions to complete the four strokes of each piston. The camshaft ring is geared to spin slower and in the opposite direction to the crankshaft; the cam lobes exhaust. For example, four cam lobes serve all five cylinders, whereas 10 would be required for a typical inline engine with the same number of cylinders and valves.
Most radial engines use overhead poppet valves driven by pushrods and lifters on a cam plate, concentric with the crankshaft, with a few smaller radials, like the Kinner B-5 and Russian Shvetsov M-11, using individual camshafts within the crankcase for each cylinder. A few engines use sleeve valves such as the 14-cylinder Bristol Hercules and the 18-cylinder Bristol Centaurus, which are quieter and smoother running but require much tighter manufacturing tolerances. C. M. Manly constructed a water-cooled five-cylinder radial engine in 1901, a conversion of one of Stephen Balzer's rotary engines, for Langley's Aerodrome aircraft. Manly's engine produced 52 hp at 950 rpm. In 1903–1904 Jacob Ellehammer used his experience constructing motorcycles to build the world's first air-cooled radial engine, a three-cylinder engine which he used as the basis for a more powerful five-cylinder model in 1907; this was made a number of short free-flight hops. Another early radial engine was the three-cylinder Anzani built as a W3 "fan" configuration, one of which powered Louis Blériot's Blériot XI across the English Channel.
Before 1914, Alessandro Anzani had developed radial engines ranging from 3 cylinders — early enough to have been used on a few French-built examples of the famous Blériot XI from the original Blériot factory — to a massive 20-cylinder engine of 200 hp, with its cylinders arranged in four rows of five cylinders apiece. Most radial engines are air-cooled, but one of the most successful of the early radial engines was the Salmson 9Z series of nine-cylinder water-cooled radial engines that were produced in large numbers during the First World War. Georges Canton and Pierre Unné patented the original engine design in 1909, offering it to the Salmson company. From 1909 to 1919 the radial engine was overshadowed by its close relative, the rotary engine, which differed from the so-called "stationary" radial in that the crankcase and cylinders revolved with the propeller, it was similar in concept to the radial, the main difference being that the propeller was bolted to the engine, the crankshaft to the airframe.
The problem of the cooling of the cylinders, a major factor with the early "stationary" radials, was alleviated by the engine generating its own cooling airflow. In World War I many French and other Allied aircraft flew with Gnome, Le Rhône, Bentley rotary engines, the ultimate examples of which reached 250 hp although none of those over 160 hp were successful. By 1917 rotary engine development was lagging behind new inline and V-type engines, which by 1918 were producing as much as 400 hp, were powering all of the new French and British combat aircraft. Most German aircraft of the time used water-cooled inline 6-cylinder engines. Motorenfabrik Oberursel made licensed copies of the Gnome and Le Rhône rotary powerplants, Siemens-Halske built their own designs, including the Siemens-Halske Sh. III eleven-cylinder rotary engine, unusual for the period in being geared through a bevel geartrain in the rear end of the crankcase without the crankshaft being mounted to the aircraft's airframe, so that the engine's internal working components (fully in
The Hanriot H.43 was a military utility aircraft produced in France in the late 1920s and early 1930s, used by the Aéronautique Militaire as a trainer. While Hanriot had spent most of the 1920s manufacturing further and further developments of the HD.14 that had flown in 1920, the H.43 was an new design. It was a conventional single-bay biplane with staggered wings of unequal span and a fuselage of fabric-covered metal tube. Accommodation for the pilot and passenger was in tandem, open cockpits and the main units of the fixed, tailskid undercarriage were linked by a cross-axle. Two prototypes in 1927 were followed by the LH.431 in 1928, a much-modified version that dispensed with the sweepback used on both the upper and lower wings of the H.43, had a new tail fin and added metal covering to the sides of the fuselage. This was ordered into production by the Aéronautique Militaire; these were different again from the LH.431 prototype, having divided main undercarriage units, wings of greater area, redesigned interplane struts.
From 1927 to 1933, the Army would purchase nearly 150 examples for a variety of support roles including training, observation, as an air ambulance. At the Fall of France in 1940, 75 of these aircraft remained in service. H.43 variants were operated by civil flying schools in France, as well as 12 examples purchased for the military of Peru H.43 - prototype with Salmson CM.9 engine H.430 - version with Salmson 9Ab engine H.431.01 - development of H.430 with revised wings and fuselage and Lorraine 7Ma engine LH.431 - production version with divided main undercarriage units and Lorraine 7Mc engine LH.432 - gunnery training version with machine gun on ring mount in rear cockpit LH.433 - revised LH.431 with modified landing gear and tail fin, Lorraine 7Me engine LH.434 - H.436 - dedicated trainer version based on LH.433 with Salmson 9Ab engine LH.437 - air ambulance version based on LH.433 LH.437ter - air ambulance version with Salmson engine. H.438 - export version of LH.433 for Peru H.439 - civil trainer version, some with tailwheel in place of tailskid.
FranceFrench Air Force PeruPeruvian Air Force SpainSpanish Republican Air Force, Hanriot LH.437/239 Data from Jane's all the World's Aircraft 1928General characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 7.24 m Wingspan: 10.6 m Height: 4.2 m Wing area: 53.5 m2 Empty weight: 842 kg Gross weight: 1,420 kg Powerplant: 1 × Salmson CM.9 9-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine, 170 kW Propellers: 2-bladed fixed pitch propellerPerformance Maximum speed: 185 km/h 180 km/h at 2,000 m 173 km/h at 4,000 m 166 km/h at 5,000 m Range: 450 km Endurance: 3 hours Service ceiling: 6,000 m Time to altitude: 2,000 m in 8 minutes 36 seconds4,000 m in 22 minutes 12 seconds 5,000 m in 38 minutesWing loading: 50.3 kg/m2 Power/mass: 0.1236 kW/kg Related lists List of Interwar military aircraft List of aircraft of the Spanish Republican Air Force Taylor, Michael J. H.. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. P. 470. World Aircraft Information Files. London: Bright Star Publishing. Pp. File 896 Sheet 10
The Hanriot H.25 was a French, single-engined, six passenger airliner built in 1926. Only one was flown; the Hanriot H.25 was a braced, high wing monoplane. It had an all-metal structure, covered everywhere with fabric, its wing was built in three parts, a central section fixed to the upper fuselage longerons and a pair of outer panels which were braced on each side by two sets of parallel paired, interconnected struts which ran from two well-separated positions on the wing spars to meet on the undercarriage structure. The wing was rectangular in plan apart from angled tops and had constant thickness. Narrow-chord ailerons filled well over half the trailing edge, it was powered by eighteen cylinder Salmson 18 Cm. This was one of the last, the most powerful, of Salmson's water-cooled radial engines, with two in-line rows of nine cylinders, it was enclosed in a rounded cowling with caps over the cylinder-heads. Fuel was held in the wing centre-section and two Lamblin radiators were mounted on the undercarriage legs.
Behind the engine the fuselage was rectangular in section, defined by light-metal, U-section longerons and cross-frames. The open cockpit was with small side-windows for a better view downwards. Behind the cockpit the cabin seated each with their own window. Entry was via a port-side door and there was a disposable emergency ceiling hatch to allow passengers to escape by parachute; the horizontal tail was mounted on top of the fuselage, braced from the lower fuselage longerons on each side with a pair of parallel struts. Its plan was similar to the wing and the elevators were split, with a cut-out for the deep, broad rudder; the tailplane angle of incidence could be trimmed in flight. The low area fin was broad but unusually low; the H.28 had conventional, tailskid landing gear. Its mainwheels, half enclosed by individual semi-circular fairings, were on a single axle and rubber cord shock absorbers enclosed within a streamlined fairing mounted on the lower fuselage longerons by N-form struts and reinforced by the wing bracing struts.
The undercarriage track was 3 m. The date of the H.28's first flight is not known but by mid-May 1926 its development programme was underway at Villacoublay. No more independent reports on the type appear in the French journals and there is no evidence of a second example. Data from Les Ailes, May 1926General characteristics Crew: one Capacity: six passengers Length: 12.50 m Wingspan: 17.0 m Height: 3.80 m Wing area: 51 m2 Empty weight: 1,700 kg Gross weight: 2,600 kg Fuel capacity: Fuel and oil 300 kg Powerplant: 1 × Salmson 18 Cm water-cooled, two row inline radial, 370 kW Propellers: 2-bladedPerformance Maximum speed: 195 km/h at ground level Service ceiling: 4,000 m
Darne machine gun
The Darne machine gun is a machine gun of French origin. The French gun-making company Darne, which became famous for its innovative shotguns, entered the world of military weapons in 1915, when it was contracted by French government to manufacture Lewis machine guns. In 1916 this same company announced development of its own machine gun of indigenous design; this belt-fed weapon was designed for rapid manufacturing techniques, without any unnecessary refinements typical for most contemporary small arms. External finish and appearance of the Darne machine gun was crude, but worked well and its price was much lower than of any contemporary weapon of compatible combat characteristics; the French Army tested Darne machine guns during 1917/1918, but the Great War ended before production contracts could have been signed. Despite that fact, during the 1920s and 1930s Darne company managed to refine an aircraft variant of the machine gun to the point of its adoption by French and some other air forces for the role of an observers gun.
However, there were many more variants of the Darne machine gun, although most others were less successful. For example, in the 1920s and 1930s Darne offered a number of lightweight belt-fed machine guns for infantry or vehicle use. All these machine guns were made to the same concept of least expensive finish, unlike its aircraft variants found no buyers during the inter-war period, it was replaced by the MAC 1934 for Air Force use, although the French Navy continued to use them into World War II. Small numbers were exported to Brazil, Serbia and Lithuania, captured French Darnes were used by German occupation forces for coastal defense; the initial guns were made by Darne in France but it appears that production was outsourced to Spain, where it could be done more cheaply. The Darne machine gun is firing from open bolt in full automatic only. Breech is locked by tilting the rear part of the bolt up into the mortise cut in the roof of receiver; the Darne machine gun has an unusual belt feed between the gas piston and barrel, using the two-stage cartridge feed system.
The weapon has provisions to attach a belt box directly below the receiver to improve handling characteristics of the gun. Earlier versions of the Darne were chambered for the 8mm Lebel cartridge, but the weapon was updated to the new 7.5mm French military cartridge. Some export guns were made in 8mm Mauser, various other cartridges. Infantry versions of the Darne machine gun were fitted with a pistol grip and rifle-type trigger below receiver, a wooden buttstock. Alternate variants featured skeletonized pistol grip made of metal and a top-folding shoulder stock made of metal. A folding bipod or a compact lightweight tripod was used to mount the Darne machine guns in ground roles; the aircraft variant equipped French aircraft until 1935 when it was replaced by the MAC 1934, except in naval aircraft. Criticized for its lack of reliability in the aircraft role, as other similar rifle calibers, the 7.5 mm bullets proved to be too light for air combat in World War II. Brazil France Germany - Designation: 6.5 or 8 mm leMG106 Italy Lithuania Serbia Spain List of machine guns List of secondary and special-issue World War II infantry weapons List of aircraft of the French Air Force during World War II
The Hanriot HD.14 was a military trainer aircraft produced in large numbers in France during the 1920s. It was a two-bay biplane with unstaggered wings of equal span; the pilot and instructor sat in tandem, open cockpits, the fuselage was braced to the lower wing with short struts. The main units of the fixed tailskid undercarriage were divided, each unit carrying two wheels, early production examples had anti-noseover skids projecting forwards as well. In 1922, production shifted to a much improved version, known as the HD.14ter or HD.14/23. This featured a smaller wing area, revised tail fin and cabane struts, fuselage cross-section; the landing gear track was narrowed in order to facilitate the aircraft's loading onto the standard army trailer of the day. Prolific, it was licence-produced by Mitsubishi in Japan, where another 145 were built, by the CWL and Samolot in Poland, where 125 and 120 were built. HD.14 - Original production version. Known as the HD.14 EP2. HD.14ter - Improved version of 1922.
Known as the HD.14/23. HD.14S - Air ambulance version HD.141 - Remanufactured ex-Army HD.14s for French aeroclub use H.410 - A 1928 development with Lorraine 5-cyl radial and revised undercarriage. H.411 - development of the HD.410 LH.412 - development of the HD.410 H.28 - Polish designation of license-produced modified HD.14/23 Ki 1 - Japanese Army designation of the Hanriot HD.14 BelgiumBelgian Air Force FranceAéronautique Militaire JapanImperial Japanese Army Air Force EstoniaEstonian Air Force PolandPolish Air Force Soviet UnionSoviet Air Force BulgariaBulgarian Air Force Mexico Spain General characteristics Crew: Two and instructor Length: 7.26 m Wingspan: 10.87 m Height: 3.00 m Wing area: 34.5 m2 Gross weight: 810 kg Powerplant: 1 × Le Rhône 9, 60 kW Performance Maximum speed: 110 km/h Range: 180 km Service ceiling: 4,000 m Armament Related lists List of Interwar military aircraft Taylor, Michael J. H.. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. P. 470. World Aircraft Information Files.
London: Bright Star Publishing. Pp. File 896 Sheet 11. Morgała, Andrzej. Samoloty wojskowe w Polsce 1924-1939. Warsaw: Bellona. ISBN 83-11-09319-9
Aéroplanes Hanriot et Cie. or simply'Hanriot' was a French aircraft manufacturer with roots going back to the beginning of aviation. Founded by René Hanriot in 1910 as The Monoplans Hanriot Company Ltd. the company survived in different forms until 1916 when it established itself with the Hanriot-Dupont fighters and observation aircraft. The company lasted through several takeovers and structural changes until in 1936 it merged with Farman to become the Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Centre.'Central Air Works' consortium. Hanriot aeroplanes included pre-war monoplanes with boat-like fuselages, the HD.1 and 2 World War I biplane fighters, the HD.14 trainer, the H.220 series of twin-engined heavy fighters that evolved in the SNCAC 600 fighter just before World War II. The company's main bases of operations were Bétheny Boulogne-Billancourt, Carrières-sur-Seine and Bourges. René Hanriot, a builder and racer of motor boats and a race car driver for the Darracq motor company, built his first aircraft in 1907, although it did not fly until late 1909.
It was a monoplane with a wire-braced wooden fuselage resembling the Blériot XI but was immediately superseded by a series of similar monoplanes, which were exhibited at the Brussels Salon d'Automobiles, d'Aeronautique, du Cycles et dus Sports in January 1910. These featured a slender wooden monocoque fuselage and were powered by a 20 hp Darracq and a 40 hp Gyp. and a handful were built. Together with Darracq racing colleague Louis Wagner, Hanriot started a flying school at Bétheny near Reims, where the Hanriot factory was located. Unusually, Hanriot tested new design features using a flying model powered by a 2 kW Duthiel-Chalmers. In 1910 Hanriot and his staff pilots made regular appearances at air shows in England. Hanriot's 15-year-old son Marcel became the youngest holder of a pilot's certificate, joined his father's pilots as a competition flyer. René Hanriot withdrew from competition flying himself and concentrated on constructing aircraft. Hanriot's 1911 military two-seater was passed over at the French military trials, among other reasons because its fuselage was so slender that the crew were unshielded.
It was obsolete and never had a serious chance against contemporary Nieuport, Morane-Saulnier and Deperdussin types. Nieuport's former chief engineer Alfred Pagny designed the 1912 Hanriot, the Nieuport influence was visible, but it failed to gain any orders at the 1912 military trials and attempts to sell them were unsuccessful. Faced with bankruptcy, René Hanriot sold his assets to Louis Alfred Ponnier, who reorganized the company as the Société de Construction de Machines pour la Navigation Aérienne, headed by Pagny. In 1913, Marcel Hanriot, now 18, was called up for military service; the Ponnier factory continued for several years to develop the monoplane racer, one of, placed second in the 1913 Gordon Bennett Trophy competition. Following the outbreak of World War I, Marcel Hanriot, still in military service, flew French air force bombers; the German advance stalled with the CMNA/Ponnier factories in Rheims behind German lines, but René Hanriot founded a new factory, Aéroplanes Hanriot et Cie, in Levallois.
Starting as a subcontractor building airplane components, the company progressed to licence-build aircraft from other manufacturers. In 1915, Marcel Hanriot, after being wounded in a night-flying raid, was released from military service and joined his father's factory. Around the same time, Hanriot hired the young engineer Emile Dupont and in 1916, the Dupont-designed fighter HD.1 was produced. Although being passed over by the French air force in favor of the more powerful SPAD VII design, the HD.1 was ordered by the Belgian and Italian air force. Heavy demand resulted in a new factory being opened in Boulogne-Billancourt. Licences to build the HD.1 were sold to Macchi in Italy. Hanriot employed 2000 workers in his Boulogne-Billancourt factory alone. After the war, Hanriot continued as a manufacturer of fighters and all-purpose aircraft, building on the HD.1 / HD.2 series but bringing out new biplane and monoplane designs. In 1924, having outgrown its Boulogne-Billancourt works, the company moved to Carrières-sur-Seine René Hanriot died on 7 November 1925.
His heirs and his two brothers-in-law, entrusted daily operations of the factories to Outhenin Chalandre director of a paper mill. In 1930 the Hanriot company became part of the Lorraine-Dietrich company under the name Lorraine-Hanriot; the merger lasted three years, until in 1933 the two companies separated and Marcel Hanriot stepped once again forward to lead his family business. Under his management, the company embarked on an ambitious project to design and build state-of-the-art metal military aircraft like the H.220 heavy fighter. However its main successes would be with the liaison/training monoplane H.180/H.182 and the twin-engined H.232/H.232 trainer In 1936 the company was included in Pierre Cot's nationalisation programme, Merging with Farman to become the Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Centre in 1937. Unlike Maurice Farman, who left the new company in protest, Marcel Hanriot stayed on as one of the directors; the pre-war aircraft designed by René Hanriot went by Roman Numerals, the 1907 monoplane being the'Type I'.
However the planes were known by a description featuring the year of built and some characteristic such as'monoplane', one- or two-seater and horsepower. Thus Hanriot's first airplane was the'1907 monoplane', the type IV was the'1911 military two-seater' and the Hanriot VIII was known as the'Hanriot 100 ch' (100 Hp Hanrio
The Hanriot HD.22 was a racer aircraft built by Hanriot in the early 1920s. The HD.22 was a high-wing monoplane intended for the Coupe Deutsch de la Meurthe. It had an all-metal fuselage. Data from General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 5.93 m Wingspan: 6.38 m Height: 2.20 m Wing area: 7.50 m2 Gross weight: 800 kg Powerplant: 1 × Hispano-Suiza 8Fb V-8 water-cooled piston engine, 220 kW Propellers: 2-bladed fixed-pitch propellerPerformance Maximum speed: 133 km/h at sea level. It is not certain if these performance figures relate to the MS.180 or the MS.181. Cruise speed: 360 km/h